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A HANDBOOK 



OF THE 



SWAHILI LANGUAGE, 



AS SPOKEN AT 



ZANZIBAR. 



EDITED FOR THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION TO 
CENTRAL AFRICA 

BY 

The late EDWARD STEERE, LL.D., 

MISSIONARY BISHOP FOR CENTRAL AFRICA. 



THIRD EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED BY 

A. C. MADAN, M.A, 

SBNIOR STUDBNT AND FORMERLY TUTOR OF CH. CH. OXFORD. 



LONDON: 
SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, 

NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, CHARING CROSS^ W.C ; 

43, QUEEN VICTORIA STREET, E.C. ; 
36, ST. GEORGE'S PEU^CE, HYDE PARK CORNER, S.W. 

BRIGHTON I 135, NORTH street. 
1884. 

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LONDON: 

PBINTBD BT WILLIAM CLOWES AND BONS^ UMITED» 

STAMVOSD STBSIT AND OHABINO CB08S. 




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PEEFACE TO THE FIEST EDITION. 



There is probably no African language so widely known 
88 the Swahili. It is understood along the coasts of 
Madagascar and Arabia, it is spoken by the Seedees in 
India, and is the trade language of a very large part of 
Central or Intertropical Africa. Zanzibar traders pene- 
trate sometimes even to the western side of the conti- 
nent, and they are in the constant habit of traversing 
more than half of it with their supplies of Indian and 
European goods. Throughout this immense district 
any one really familiar with the Swahili language will 
generally be able to find some one who can understand 
him, and serve as an interpreter. 

This consideration makes it a point of the greatest 
importance to our Central African Mission that Swahili 
should be thoroughly examined and well learnt. For 
if the members of the Mission can go forth from Zan- 
zibar, or, still better, can leave England already well 
acquainted with this language, and provided with 
books and translations adapted to their wants, they 
will carry with them a key that can unlock the secrets 
of an immense variety of strange dialects, whose very 
names are as yet unknown to us. For they will not 

a 2 

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iv PREFACE. 

only be able at once to communicate with new tribes, 
but in mastering this really simple and far from 
difficult language they will have leamt how to set 
about learning and writing all others of the same class, 
since they agree with Swahili in all the chief respects 
in which it differs from our European tongues. 

The work, then, which is here begun is not to be 
regarded as though its utility were confined to the 
i^ands and the narrow strip of coast of which this 
language is the vernacular, but much rather as the 
broad foundation on which our labours in the far inte- 
rior must for many years be built up. As there is no 
way by which those inner lands are so ordinarily or can 
be so easily reached as from Zanzibar and the coast 
dependent on it, so neither is there any way by which 
we can make ourselves so readily intelligible, or by 
which the Gospel can be preached so soon or so well as 
by means of the language of Zanzibar and its dependen- 
cies, to which this work is intended as an introduction 
— a language which, through its Arabic relations, has 
a hold on revealed religion, and even on European 
thought, while, through its negro structure, it is 
exactly fitted to serve as an interpreter of that re- 
ligion and those thoughts to men who have not yet 
even heard of their existence. 

When Bishop Tozer arrived in Zanzibar at the end of 
August 1864, the only guides we had to the languc^ 
were the grammar and vocabulary of Dr. Krapf, and his 
translation of part of the Book of Common Prayer. 
During Bishop Tozer's visit to Mombas in November, 
he made a copy of a revised vocabulary belonging to 



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PREFACE. V 

the Kev. J. Eebmann. However, although one cannot 
estimate too highly the diligence and linguistic ability 
displayed by Dr. Krapf and the patient sagacity of Mr. 
Bebmann, we soon lotind that, owing partly to the fact 
of their collections having been made in the dialect of 
Momjbas, and still more to the confused and inexact 
style of spelling adopted tinfortunately by both, their 
works were of scarcely any use to a mere beginner. 

I soon after procured copies of the manuscript voca- 
bularies collected by Mr. Witt and Mr. Schultz, then 
representing the firm of 0*Swald and Co. in Zanzibar, 
and with such help as I could procure from any quarter, 
I began in July 1865 to print the first pages of my col- 
lections for a "Handbook of Swahili as Spoken in 
Zanzibar." When I had proceeded as far as page 33, 1 
made the acquaintance of Hamis wa Tani and of his 
son Mohammed, both of them well acquainted with 
English and French, and of pure Swahili extraction. 
To the disinterested kindness of Mohammed, who, 
•while confined to his house by sickness, allowed me to 
spend every Saturday morning in questioniug him 
about his language, I owe all that is best in my know- 
ledge of African tongues. With his help and revision I 
completed the list of substantives, and found my way 
through the intricacies of the adjectives and pronouns. 
Of how much importance an accurate guide in these 
matters would be may be seen from the " Table of 
Concords," first printed in Zanzibar, in a form sug- 
gested by Bishop Tozer, and now reprinted as part 
of this volume. 

Mohammed's sickness increasing about the time that 



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vi FBEFACE. 

I had begun to print the conjugation of the verb, I was 
unable to continue my visits, and completed the " Col- 
lections " from Dr. Krapf, with the help of the voca- 
bulary collected by the late Baron von der Decken 
and Dr. Kersten, and of that collected by the Eev. 
Thomaa Wakefield of the United Methodist Free 
Churches' Mission, both of which I was kindly allowed 
to copy. 

After Mohammed's partial recovery I continued my 
visits to him, and went through the verbs, making first 
a list of useful English verbs from a dictionary, and 
entering all the words contained in the collections of 
which I had copies. I thus checked and supplemented 
what others had already done, and obtained a tolerably 
complete insight into that branch of the vocabulary. 
Before I could get much beyond this, Mohammed was 
BO far recovered as to be able to sail for Bombay. I 
have always much pleasure in acknowledging how 
much I owe to him. 

Meanwhile I had begun my collection of short tales 
in SwahiU, the first of which were printed in Zanzibar 
with an interlinear version, under the title of " Speci- 
mens of Swahili," in March 1866, and reprinted in 
an early number of " Mission Life." I also began to 
use my Swahili to a practical purpose by making the 
collections for a handbook of the Shambala language, 
the first draft of which was completed in May 1866, 
These collections were made with a view to the mission 
since commenced in that country by the Eev. C. A. 
Alington; they were revised by the help of another 
teacher, and printed in Zanzibar in the year 1867. 



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PBEFACE. vii 

Finding the Swahili tales most valuable as well to 
myself as to those who were studying with me, I pro- 
ceeded to print a further collection, with the title 
" Hadiihi za Kiunguja" in Swahili only. For the tales 
then printed I was mainly indebted to Hamis waKayi, 
a very intelligent young SwcJiili, who always compre- 
hended better what a foreigner wanted to know, and 
explained more clearly what was difficult, than any one 
else I met with while in Zanzibar. 

At the same period I had begun and carried on from 
time to time the investigation of the Yao or Achowa 
language* OA© peculiarly interesting to us, as that of 
nearly all the released slaves under Bishop Mackenzie's 
charge, and as having now supplanted the Mang'anja 
in the cotintry where our Mission was originally settled. 
From this study I first gained a definite notion of the 
wonderful effect the letter n has in African languages, 
and so came to understand the origin of several appa- 
rent irregularities in Swahili. 

I had begun even before Mohammed bin Khamis left 
Zanzibar to make some essays in translation, the best of 
which are embodied in a pamphlet printed in Zanzibar, 
with the title " Translations in Swahili : " it was com- 
pleted in January 1867. 

I was then getting help from many quarters, and on 
explaining to some of our native friends our wish to 
make a complete translation of the Bible into their 
language, one of them. Sheikh *Abd al 'Aziz, kindly 
volunteered to translate for me the Arabic Psalter into 
the best and purest Swahili. I found, before long, that 
not only did his numerous avocations prevent any rapid 



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viii PEEFACK 

pfogress, but tliat his language was too learned to stiit 
exactly our purpose in making the version ; it did not 
therefore proceed further than the Sixteenth Psalm. I 
printed these as at once a memorial of his kindness 
and a specimen of what one of the most learned men 
in Zanzibar considers the most classical form of his 
language. 

I cannot but mention at the same time the name of 
Sheikh Mohammed bin AH, a man of the greatest 
research, to whose kindness I was indebted for a copy, 
made by his own hand, of some very famous Swahlli 
poetry, with an interlinear Arabic version ; he also 
revised for me a paraphrase of it in modem language, 
for which I was chiefly indebted (as for much other 
help) to Hassan bin Yusuf, whose interest in our doc- 
trines and teachings has always been most marked. 
The verses and translation are both printed in the 
" Swahili Tales." 

At the end of 1867 I printed a translation of Bishop 
Forbes' little primary catechism, chosen as being the 
shortest and clearest I could find to begin upon. 
Though very imperfect, I am glad to think that it 
has been fotind of use. 

When I had completed the Yao collections, I went on 
to the Nyamwezi language, as being that of the largest 
and most central tribe with which there is constant and 
tolerably safe communication. 

' In November 1867 I lost, by the sadly sudden deaths 
of the Eev. G. E. Drayton and his wife, most useful 
helpers, who were beginning to be able to give me sub- 
stantial assistance. Their places were, however, well 



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PREFACE, ix 

supplied by the Eev. W. and Mrs. Lea, who anived 
opportunely just before the time of our bereavement. 
I was then engorged in preparing the translations of 
St. Matthew's Gospel and of the Psalms, as well as in 
beginning to put in order the materials for the present 
work. To Mr. Lea I was indebted, amongst other 
things, for the first version of the 119th Psalm, and to 
Mrs. Lea for the arrangement of the Swahili-English 
Vocabulary. The last thing I printed in Zanzibar was 
a translation of the Easter and Advent Hymns, and of 
Adeste Fideles, which I had the pleasure of hearing 
the girls of the Mission Orphanage sing most sweetly 
to the old tunes just before I left. 

I ought also to mention that, having been often under 
great obligations to the French Eomanist Mission, I 
had the pleasure of printing for them a Catechism in 
French and Swahili, which was indirectly valuable to 
me as showing how the great truths we have in 
common were rendered by a perfectly independent 
student of the language. I know not how sufficiently 
to regret that the excellent compiler, P^re Etienne 
Baur, should have been content to use the jargon (for 
it is nothing better) commonly employed by Indians 
and Europeans, and should have adopted an ortho- 
graphy adapted only to a French pronunciation. 

Only .three weeks before leaving I had the advan- 
tage of consulting two large manuscript dictionaries 
compiled by Dr. Krapf, and brought to Zanzibar by 
the Eev. E. L. Pennell. I was able to examine about 
half the Swahili-English volume, with the assistance 
of Hamis wa Kayi, enough to enrich materifilly my 



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X PREFACE. 

previous collections, and to show how far even now 
I fall short of my first predecessor in the work of 
examining and elucidating the languages of Eastern 
Africa. There remains for some future time or other 
hand the examination of the rest of Dr. Krapf's 
dictionary, as well as the collation of what will no 
doubt deserve to be the standard Swahili lexicon, on 
which the Eev. John Eebmann has been for nearly a 
quarter of a century labouring unweariedly. Even 
then there will remain many dialectic variations, and 
many old and poetical words and inflections, so that 
for many years one who loves such studies might find 
employment in this one language. 

Since my arrival in England, at the end of November 
1868, 1 have been able to superintend the printing of 
the Gospel of St. Matthew in Swahili, liberally under* 
taken by the Bible Society, of translations of the 
Church Catechism and of their Scriptural Beading 
Lessons out of the Old Testament, kindly undertaken 
by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 
For the Central African Mission I have carried through 
the press this work and the collection of Swahili 
Stories with an English version, published by Messrs. 
Bell and Sons, of which those previously printed at 
Zanzibar form a small part, and besides these a number 
of small pamphlets, including translations of the Books 
of Buth and Jonah, and some slight specimens of the 
Gindo, Zaramo, and Ngazidja languages. There remcdn 
the Psalms, which the Bible Society has promised to 
print for us, and the collections in the Yao and Nyam- 
wezi languages, all which I should like to get through 



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' PREFACE, xi 

the press in the course of this year. I wish there were 
a chance of the Eev. John Kebmann's Swahili version 
of St. Luke's Gospel, of which I Jiave seen a large part, 
being printed at the same time. 

This handbook is arranged on the principle of sup- 
plying with each portion of it such rules as are re- 
quired for the practical use of that portion. In the 
first, part, after some introductory observations. Sub- 
stantives, Adjectives, Pronouns, and Verbs have each 
a separate section, containing first the rules which 
govern their inflection and employment, and then an 
alphabetical list of the Swahili equivalents of our 
English words belonging to each part of speech. For 
the mere finding of words one general alp^iabet would 
perhaps have been more convenient ; but as the object 
of this work is not merely to tell what the Swahili 
words are, but also how to employ them correctly, it 
seems better so to group them as to bring the rules of 
grammar and the words which they control into as 
close a connection with one another as possible. The 
Editor has done what most readers would have had to 
do— sort out first the word and then the grammatical 
rules which must be observed in using it. The minor 
parts of speech are indexed together to avoid a midti- 
plicity of alphabets, except the Interjections, which 
cannot be said to have exact equivalents in any other 
language. The part ends with a section on the forma- 
tion of words, which may be of use where the other 
alphabets fail to give a satisfactory rendering, and 
may also be useful as a guide in turning Swahili into 
English, in the case of the many words which igno- 



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xii PREFACE. 

ranee or some oversight in preparing the second part 
may have caused to be omitted. The rules and hints 
prefixed to the second part are intended to enable any 
one who sees or hears a Swahili word to ascertain the 
material part of it, so as to be able to use the dictionary 
which follows. It is evident that there must be great 
difficulties at first in either ujsing or arranging an 
alphabetical list of words which may begin with, in 
some cases, nine or ten different letters, according to 
the grammatical position they hold in each case. 
However, the difficulty is greater in appearance than 
in practice. 

The Appendices contain some curious or useful 
matter which could not well find a place in the body 
of the work. The first contains a specimen of a curious 
kind of enigmatical way of writing and speaking called 
Kinyume. The second gives a specimen of the forms 
used in letter- writing, both in prose and verse. The 
third is part of a Swahili tale, with all the prefixes 
separated and the grammatical forms explained, in- 
tended as a guide and introduction to the art of 
reading, and through that of writing the language. 
The fourth Appendix consists of a small collection of 
phrases, some of them such as are wanted in ordinary 
conversation, some of them xiseful in illustrating the 
idiom or peculiar constructions used by natives. This 
collection might have been very much increased had 
it not been carefully confined to phrases actually met 
with in conversation with persons reputed to speak 
correctly. 



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PREFACE, xiii 

The name of the language — Swahili — ^is beyond all 
doubt a modified form of the Arabic Sawdhil, the plural 
of Sdhil, a coast. The natives themselves jestingly 
derive it from Sawa hila, which a Zanzibar interpreter 
would explain as " All same cheat." 

LitOe Steeping, May 1870. 



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ADVERTISEMENT TO SECOND EDITION. 



The' First Edition having "^been at the last sold out 
with unexpected rapidity, I have not been able to add 
so much as I should have wished to this. The chief 
novelty is the omission of what I called the second 
class of Substantives, which proved to be only the most 
Qcmimon instance of the general rule, that Substantives 
of any and every form denoting animate beings are 
constructed with Adjectives and Pronouns in the forms 
proper to the first class. Some words have been added 
to the Vocabularies and a few mistakes corrected. 

During the last four years the work of translation 
and collection has been going steadily forward, Swahili 
preaching has been going on, and some Elementary 
School-books printed in Zanzibar for our vernacular 
schools. The great work of evangelizing Africa seems 
to grow in magnitude the more one understands what 
is required for it ; but our hopes still grow with the 
growth of our knowledge. 

Edwakd Steere. 

London, January 1875. 



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ADVERTISEMENT TO THIRD EDITION. 



This Edition may be taken to represent substantially 
the final form which the Handbook assumed in the 
hands of its compiler, the late Bishop Steere. No 
estimate can be attempted here of his services to 
philology in general, and the student of African 
languages in particular, still less of their bearing. on 
the spread of Christianity in Central Africa. What- 
ever the relative purity of the dialects of Mombasa and 
Zanzibar, and however great the debt Bishop Steere 
undoubtedly owed to his distinguished predecessor in 
their study, Dr. Krapf, the broad fact remains that 
Bishop Steere took the language as he found it spoken 
in the capital city of the East Coast, reduced its rules 
to so lucid and popular a form as not only to make it 
accessible, but easy to all students, and finally made a 
great advance towards stereotyping its forms and ex- 
tending its use by embodying it in copious writings 
and translations. 

Some of the last hours of his life were apparently 
spent in preparing this Handbook for a new edition. 
Those who were familiar with the many cares and 
anxieties then pressing on him, will not be surprised 
that there were signs of haste and pressure in his 

h 



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xviii PREFACE. 

revision. With Part I., however, he seems to have 
been satisfied. The corrections of the text were few 
and unimportant, and though the Lists of Words might 
have been largely added to, he seems to have preferred 
leaving them as they were, in view of the strictly 
practical purpose of the whole book. 

With Part II. (the Swahili-English Vocabulary, &c.) 
the case is rather different. With the aid of various 
members of the Mission, the Bishop had made some- 
what large collections in order to expand and complete 
it. Probably from the pressure of work before alluded 
to, he had only prepared a selection of them for this 
Edition. It has been thought better, however, to in- 
corporate all the words found in his notes and added 
with his approval. But it must be remembered that 
the Bishop never regarded Part 11. as ranking as a 
Dictionary, even in embryo, but rather as a tolerably 
full list of words to serve as a useful companion to 
Part I. Even with this reservation, there remain 
many traces of imperfection in arrangement, spelling, 
and interpretation of words, which would doubtless 
have been removed if he had been allowed time to pass 
the whole list under revision finally. 

This final revision no one is in a position adequately 
to supply. Minor corrections and additions have been 
cautiously and sparingly made. One Appendix (No. V.), 
likely to subserve the practical aim of the whole, has 
been added, with the Yen. Archdeacon Hodgson's ap- 
proval. There still remain among the Bishop's notes 
some miscellaneous specimens of Swahili verses, pro- 
verbs, riddles, &c., which might have formed another. 



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PREFACE, xix 

It is thought best, however, to reserve them, and leave 
the whole book, as far as possible, as the Bishop left it. 
Subsequent editors may find something to add. They 
probably will not find much to alter. 

A. C. M. 

P.S. — Dr. Krapf s great Dictionary of the Swahili 
Language, in its printed form, was in the Bishop's 
hands too short a time to allow of his making any use 
of it for this Edition of the Handbook. 

Zanzibar J Christmas^ 1882. 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PABT L 



PAOB 

Introduction .. .. •• .. .. •• •• 1 

The Alphabet 8 

SubfitantiYes : — 

Grammatical mles •• •• •• •• •• 16 

List of Sabstantives .. .. .. .. .. 24 

Adjectives : — 

Grammatical rules .. .. .. .. .. 83 

Irregular Adjectives .. .. .. .. .. 86 

Comparison of Adjectives .. .. .. .. 87 

Numerals 89 

List of Adjectives 94 

Pronouns : — 

Personal Pronouns .. .. 102 

Possessive Pronouns 109 

Beflective Pronouns 112 

Demonstrative Pronouns 113 

Relative Pronouns 117 

Interrogatives, &c. 122 

Verbs : — 

Conjugation .. .. .. .. .. .. 125 

Irregular Verbs .. , 149 

Auxiliary Verbs .. .. .. .. .. .. 155 

Derivative Verbs 157 

List of Verbs 165 



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TABLE OF COKTENTK 



AdverLs, Prepositions, and Conjunctions 
List of Adverbs, &c. 

Interjections 

Formation of Words 

Table of Noun Prefixes in nine languages 

Table of the Preposition -a in four languages . 



PAGK 

20J> 
212 
221 
22G 
234 
235 



PART n. 

Preliminary Observations . . . . . . . . . . 239 

Swabili-English Vocabulary 245 

Appendices : — 

I. Specimen of Kinyimie 425 

II. Specimens of Swahili Correspondence . . . . 427 

in. Part of a Swahili Tale, with the Prefixes marked 

and explained . . . . . . . . . . 431 

IV. Useful and Idiomatic Phrases . . . . . . 443 

V. On Money, Weights and Measures in Zanzibar . . 455 



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SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



PAET L 

The Swahili language is spoken by the mixed race 
of Arabs and Negroes who inhabit the Eastern Coast 
of Africa, especially in that part which lies between 
Lamoo and the neighbouring towns on the north, and 
Cape Delgado on the south. 

It is classified by Dr. Bleek as one of the Zangian 
genus of the middle branch of the Bantu languages. 
That is to say, it belongs to one of the subdivisions of 
that great family of Negjro languages, which carries on 
the work of grammatical inflexion by means of changes 
at the beginning of the word, similar to that whereby 
in Kafir, umuntu^ a man, becomes in the plural ahantu, 
people. AH these languages divide their nouns into a 
number of classes, which are distinguished by their 
first syllable, and bring their adjectives, pronouns, and 
verbs into relation with substantives by the use of 
corresponding changes in their first syllables. None 
of these classes denote sex in any way. Dr. Bleek, in 
his comparative grammar of South African languages, 
enumerates eighteen prefixes which are found in one 
or other of the languages of this family ; but it must 



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2 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

be remembered that he reckons by the form. of the 
prefix only, so that the Bingnlar and plural forms of 
most words count as two, while the same form will 
sometimes answer to two or more forms in the other 
number. Dr. Bleek's arrangement is the most conve- 
nient for his purpose, which is the comparison of the 
formatives used in diflerent languages ; but I have not 
followed it in this work, because I think that for practical 
purposes such a classification should be used as will 
enable the learner who sees or hears the noun in the 
singular at once to put it into the plural. Prefixes 
may be counted up separately ; but in practice we have 
to do with nouns, not with prefixes, and a noun cannot 
be put into a diflferent class when it becomes plural 
or singular without great risk of confusion. Thus, in 
Fredoux* Sechuana grammar, 4 and 6 are the plurals 
of 3, 10 and 6 are the plurcds of 11, and 6 alone is the 
plural of 5 and 14. Can this be a clear arrangement ? 

I have very Uttle doubt that Dr. Bleek is right in 
regarding these classes as substantially the same with 
the genders in most of the European languages, which 
are even now only sexrdenoting to a veiy limited 
extent. There is a distinction in Swahili as to words 
which denote living beings, called by Dr. Krapf, not 
very happily, a masculine gender, though it has no 
relation to sex, but to life only. 

It is very puzzling to a beginner, accustonded to 
• languages which change at the end, to find the be- 
ginnings of words 60 very uncertain. Thus he hears 
that ngema means good ; but when he begins to apply 



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introduction: 3 

his knowledge he finds that natives use for the English 
word good, not only ngemaj but mwema, wemay memaj 
njemay jema, jpeTna, chemaj vyema, and kwema. Again, 
yangu means myy but he will hear also, wanguj zangUj 
changuy vyangUy langUy pangu, JcwangUy and mwangu. It is 
necessary therefore to get at the very first a firm hold 
of the fact that in Swahili it is the end, and not the be- 
ginning of a word, which is its substantial and unchang- 
ing part. The beginning of the word when taken to 
pieces denotes its number, time, and agreements. 

The " Table of Concords " prefixed to the section on 
Adjectives, shows at one view the variables of the 
language ; and when that has been mastered, the diffi- 
culties for an English student will be over. The 
various forms- will be explained, and the nicer distinc- 
tions mentioned in the grammatical parts of the book. 
In the preliminary observations prefixed to the second 
part will be found an account of all the changes which 
may occur at the end of a word, changes which in 
practice are very soon mastered, relating as they chiefly 
do to a few points in the conjugation of the verb. 

There is a broken kind of Swahili in use among 
foreigners, Indian as well as European, which serves 
for very many purposes, though it is of course utterly 
useless when one has to speak with exactness, or on 
subjects not immediately connected with the ordinary 
affairs of life and commerce. Its rules may be briefly 
laid down as follows : — If you are in doubt about how 
to make a plural, prefix wia, or use nyingiy t.e. many. 
In conjugating the verb, always put the subject 

B 2 



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Goog 



sk 



4 8WAEJLI HANDBOOK. 

before and the object after it, for ihe present tense 
prefix ncL-^ for the past m<i-j for the future /«-• For no 
or not^ use hahuna. It is wonderful how intelligible 
you can make yourself by these few rules ; but it is 
just as wonderful what absurd broken stuff can be 
made to do duty for English. 

Let any one, however, who really wishes to speak 
the language get the Table of Concords well into his 
head, by any means he finds best for the purpose, and 
he will have no need to resort to broken and incorrect 
ways of talking. 

Swahili, like all languages of the same family, is 
very rich in Verbs, and poor in Adjectives and Prepo- 
sitions. There is nothing corresponding to the English 
Article, the word when standing alone implying the 
indefinite article, while the definite article can in many 
cases be expressed by the use and arrangement of the 
Pronouns, but still must often be left unexpressed. 
Though the Verb is etymologically the most important 
part of speech, it is the Substantive which determines 
the form of all the variable syllables. The Substan- 
tive will therefore be first considered, and next the 
Adjective, which very closely resembles it. The Pro- 
notms will come next,ias it is by their help that the 
Verb is conjugated, then the Verb itself, and after that 
the minor parts of speech. Adverbs, Prepositions, Con- 
junctions, and, last of all, the Interjections. A sketch 
of the grammar of each part of speech, which aims at 
being sufficient for ordinary and practical purposes, is 
first given, and after that a list of words belonging to 



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INTRODUOTIOK 5 

that part of speech, thus forming a combined grammar 
and English-Swahili dictionary. The second part con- 
sists of a Swahili-English vocabulary, and so completes 
the work. 

The Swahili language has been hitherto but little 
written by those who speak it, and they know and use 
only the purely Arabic alphabet. There are copies of 
religious and secular verses, and possibly other works, 
composed in the old or poetical dialect, which is not 
now, and I believe never was, thoroughly understood 
by the mass of the people. The modem dialect is used 
in letters ; but they have always a string of Arabic 
compliments at the beginning, and Arabic words and 
phrases freely interspersed throughout. 

Any one who tries to read a letter or a poem written 
in Arabic characters, will at once see why it is impos- 
sible to adopt them as the standard Swahili alphabet. 
It is absolutely necessary to have a good idea of what 
you are to read before you can read at all. The reason 
is that Swahili has five vowels, Arabic only three, and 
of Swahili consonants the Arabic supplies no means of 
writing cA, ^, p, or r, nor can consecutive consonants be 
written without shocking Arabic notions of propriety. 
Thus the Swahili are driven to write the ha for p and 
for m5 as well as for h ; the ghain for ^, ng, and ng\ as 
well as for gh ; the fa for v and mw, as well as for /; 
the ya for ny as well as for y ; the akin for ch as well as 
for sh ; and to omit altogether the n before d^ j, y, and z. 
Initial vowels and consecutive vowels are only to be 
expressed by hemzas or 'aim. In the first piece of 



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6 SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

written Swahili I ever possessed (the Story of the Ox 
and the Ass) the words ng'ombe and jpunda w^re written 
ghuhe and huda* It will be easily seen how imperfect 
^ and ambiguous a means of writing Swahili the Arabic 
character must be. An instance occurred while I was 
in Zanzibar of a letter written from Kilwa with the 
account of a fight, in which it was said that one of 
the principal men, ameJcufa, had died, or amevuka, had 
got away, and which it was no one could certainly 
tell ; the last two consonants were fa and ga/, wiih 
three dots over them. If two of the dots belonged 
to the first letter, the man was dead ; if two belonged 
to the next letter, he was alive : but the dots were 
so equally placed that no one could tell how to divide 
them. If the Arabic had possessed a v, there could 
have been no mistake. It would no doubt be possible 
to express Swahili sounds by using letters with addi- 
tional dots and affixing arbitrary sounds to the letters 
of prolongation, as is done in Persian and Hindi, but 
the result would puzzle a genuine Swahili and could 
never be quite satisfactory in any respect. 

There seems to be no difficulty in writing Swahili 
in Eoman characters, there being no sound which does 
not so nearly occur in some European language that 
the proper way of writing it can readily be fixed upon, 
and illustrated by an example. When this is the case 
there is no need to look for anything further. I think 
those who try to settle the alphabets of new languages 
are too apt to forget how essential simplicity is to a 
really good alphabet. If the Eoman alphabet can be 



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INTRODUCTION. 7 

made to distinguish all the sounds used in that lan- 
guage, it does all for it that it does for any. To at- 
tempt to distinguish the sounds used in that language, 
from the sounds used in another, or to mark all the 
varieties of tone whicji occur in speaking, is always 
useless and embarrassing, and not one man in a thou- 
sand has sufficient accuracy of ear to do it properly. 
It is practically easier to learn to attach a new 
sound to a known letter, than to learn a new sound 
and a new letter too, especially when the new letter 
has to be printed and written, and the learner is en- 
tangled in a maze of italics and letters with a point 
below and a point above, or a line through them, or 
some Greek letter which has not the sound one gives it . 
in: Greek, or some new invention which will fit well 
neither into printing nor writing, and looks at its ease 
neither as a capital nor a small letter. It generally 
happens that the sounds of a language, though not 
identical with those of another, correspond with them 
sufficiently to make the corresponding letters appro- 
priate symbols. Thus an English and a French t are 
not identical; but which nation would or ought to 
submit always to put a dot somewhere about its t to 
show that it is not the < which it never will want to 
use, and never did, and could not pronounce, if it met 
with it ? Or, to take a stronger instance, ought Ger- 
mans, Englishmen, and Spaniards always to cross the 
tails of their /s, or print them in italics, or deform their 
books with new symbols, merely because they do not 
pronounce their /e as Frenchmen do theirs? 



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8WAEILI BANDBOOK. 



THE ALPHABET. 

The Vowels are to be pronounced as in Italian, the 
Consonants as in English. 

A = a in father, 

B = 6 in hare, 

Ch= 0^ in cherry. Italian o before i or e. 

D :=: (2 in (2o. D occurs very frequently in the Mombas dialect 

where j is used in that of Zanzibar. 
E = ai in chair, 
F = fin fine, German v, 
Q = gia gate, never soft as in genius, 
H = ^ in hat, 
I = 66 in feet, 
J = j in joy. Sometimes more like dy or di in cordial, French 

diy German djy Italian gi, 
E = ^ in kalendar, 

L = {in long, L and r are generally treated as the same letter. 
M = m in man, 
N = n in 7U>. 

O = o in hoy, more like au than the common English o, 
P = jp in Tpaini, 
B = r in raise. An EngUsh, not a Scotch, Irish, German, or 

French r. See L, 
S 3 8 in sun, German ss. It Is never pronounced like a 2; or 

the English s in arise, 8 and sh are commonly used for 

one another indiscriminately. 
T = < in ten, T frequently occurs in the dialect of Mombas 

where c^ is used in that of Zanzibar. 



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' TEE ALPHABET. 9 

U = 00 in tool, 

V = r in very, German vj. 

W = ti; in win. French ou. It is merely a u pronounced as a 
consonant. 

Y = y in yonder. German /. It is merely an % pronounced as a 

consonant. Y is frequently used in the Lamoo dialect 
where J occurs in that of Zanzibar. 
Z = z in zany. German s. Z frequently occurs in the dialect of 
Lamoo where v is used in that of Zanzibar. 

There ar^ several sounds introduced from the Arabic 
which do not occur in purely African words. 

Gh = the Arabic ghain; it is a guttural g^ resembling 
the Dutch g. It may be obtained by pro- 
nouncing a g (as nearly as it can be done) 
with the mouth wide open. Most Europeans 
imagine, the first time they hear it, . that 
there is an r sound after the g, but this is a 
mistake. 

Kh = the Arabic hha ; it is a very rough form of the 
German cA, the Spanish /, or the Scotch ch in 
loch. It resembles the sound made in trying 
to raise something in the throatw It may 
always be replaced in Swahili by a simple h, 
but neeer by a h. 

Th = the four Arabic letters tha^ thai, thod, and thah. 
The first of these is the English th in think, 
the second that in they. The third and fourth 
are thicker varieties of the second sound. In 
Swahili they may all be replaced by a z. No 
, attempt is ever made to distinguish the last 

three letters; but as the first is generally 



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TO 8WAHJLI HANDBOOK. 

marked in pronunciation, it is in the first, 
part of this handbook marked by printing 
the th in italics wherever it is to be pro- 
nonnced as in the English word think. The 
sound of the English th in that occurs in 
some Swahili as a dialectic variation for z. 
In vulgar Swahili z is not merely put for 
the Arabic th, but th is also put for the 
Arabic z, as wathiri for waziri, a vizir. 

There are several compound consonantal sounds 
which require notice. 

Ch, a very common sound, representing what is 
sometimes a t and sometimes ki — ^in other 
dialects. C is not required for any other 
sound, as it can be always represented by h 
when hard, and by 8 when soft. It would 
probably be an improvement always to write 
the ch sound by a simple c, 

Gn, see ng'. 

Kw represents the sound of qu in queer, 

M frequently stands for mu, in which cases it is pro- 
nounced with a half-suppressed u spund 
before it, and is even capable of bearing the 
accent of the word, as in mtu, a person, where 
the stress of voice is on the w, which has a 
dull nasal semivowel sound, not quite um. 
Where m occurs before any consonant except 
h or w, it must have this semivo^v^el sound. 



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TEE ALPHABET. * 11 

M, standing for i»w, lia3 generally its semi- 
vowel sound before u. Before a or e it 
becomes wiw, and before o it frequently loses 
the u altogether, and is pronounced as a 
simple w. ' . 

N has frequently a nasal semivowel sound, a half- 
suppressed i being suggested by it. N has 
always this semivowel sound where it is 
immediately followed by ch, /, hy w, w, or «. 

Ny has the sound of the Spanish «, the French and 
Italian gn^ the Portuguese nh, and the English 
ni in companion^ only a little thicker and 
more nasaL 

Ng' is a peculiar African sound, much resembling 
the -ng which occurs at the end of many 
English words. If we could divide longing 
thus, lo-ngingy without at all altering the 
pronunciation, it would come very near 
the African sound, which is never a final, 
because all Swahili syllables must end in a 
vowel. Some prefer to write this sound gfn-, 
as it resembles the sound given by Germans 
and others to those letters when they occur 
as initial letters in Greek. This sound must 
be distinguished from the common sound of 
ng-, in which the g distinctly passes on to 
the following vowel, as in the English word 
engage; in ng'- both sounds are heard, but 
neither passes on to the vowel. 

Sh is the Arabic shin, the English eh, the French cJt^ 



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12 ' 8WAHILI HANDBOOK: 

the German sch. Sh and 8 are commonly 
treated as identical. 

P, T, K, and possibly some other letters, have occa- 
sionally an explosive or aspirated sound, 
such as an Irishman will often give them. 
This explosive sound makes no change in 
^he letter, but is an addition to it, probably 
always marking a suppressed n. Thus upepo 
is a wind, with both |>'s smooth as in English ; 
but the plural, which should regularly be 
npe^, is p'epo, with a strong explosive sound 
attached to the first letter. This explosive 
sound may be marked by an apostrophe ; it 
is, however, very seldom necessary to the 
sense of a word, and is noticeably smoothed 
down or omitted by the more refined and 
Arabized Swahili. 

There are other niceties of pronunciation which a 
fine ear may distinguish; but as they are 
by no means essential, and are seldom noticed 
by the natives themselves, it is not worth 
while here to examine them particularly. 

As a rule, the vowels are all pronounced distinctly, 
and do not form diphthongs. When, however, a for- 
mative particle ending in -a is placed before a word 
beginning with e- or «-, the two letters coalesce into a 
long e sound. It is not, however, even in such a case 
as this, always incorrect to pronounce the two vowels 
distinctly, though it is not usually done. The instances 



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THE ALPHABET. 13 

of and rules for this union of sound will be found 
-wrliere the several prefixes which give occasion to it 
are dealt with. 

When two vowels come together at the end of a 
word, they are often to the ear one syllable, and have 
the sound of a diphthong ; they are really, however, 
two syllables of which the former bears the accent. 
This is at once apparent in the Merima dialect, in 
which an Z is put between the vowels. Thus hifaa^ to 
be of use, which sounds as if written ibu/a, is in the 
Merima dialect hifala. The shifting of the accent 
sometimes shows that the vowels are really separate. 
Thus a common fruit tree is called mzambarau^ in which 
word the last two vowels apparently unite into a 
sound like that in the English word how ; but when -ni 
is added, making Mzambarauni^ at the zambardu tree^ 
the name of one of the quarters of Zanzibar — the u is 
quite separated from the a, and the last two syllables 
are pronounced like the English --oony. 

It may be assumed in all cases in which two vowels 
come together that an I has been omitted between 
them, and will appear in some modification of the word 
or in its derivatives. 

The shifting of the accent above referred to takes 
place in obedience to the universal rule in Swahili, 
that the main accent of the word is always put upon 
the last syllable but one, a rule which often changes 
the sound of a word so materially as to baffle a beginner 
in his endeavour to seize and retain it. The syllable 
-ni is the chief disturber of accents ; and words which 



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14 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

end in it may be always suspected of being plural 
imperatives if they are verbs, or of being in what is 
known as the locative case if they are nouns. There 
are only a very few words which end in -ni in their 
simple forms. 

. The formation or division of syllables is so closely 
connected with the powers of the letters, that this will 
be a proper place to mention it. The rule is that all 
Swahili syllables end in a vowel, and that the vowel 
must be preceded only by a single consonant, or by 
one preceded by n or m, or followed by w or y. 

There are a few half-assimilated Arabic words in 
, which double consonants occur ; but there is a strong 
tendency in all such cases to drop one of the consonants 
and attach the other to the vowel which follows them. 
W can be placed after all the other consonants, 
simple and compound, except perhaps P 
and V. 
Y can follow F, N, and V. 

These two letters are used in the formation of Verbs, 
-tr-' being the sign of the passive, and -y- being used to 
give a transitive meaning. In several cases -fy- stands 
for -jpy- ; -py- occurs in one word only, *mpyay new. 
N can be placed before D, G, J, Y, and Z. 
M can be placed before B, and perhaps Ch and V. 
M in these instances represents an n- used as a sub- 
,ntival and adjectival prefix. Used in this way, « 
Pore h becomes m ; before I or r it changes the Z or r 
)0 d, making nd- instead of nZ- or wr- ; before w it 
mges into m, and the to becomes h, making mh- 



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TEE ALPHABET. 15 

instead of nw-. It is curious that w can be made to 
follow n without any change, but liiat n cannot be put 
before w. Before h, jp, and t, the n is dropped, and 
they become h\ jp', ajid ( ; before the other letters ch^ 
/, h, w, n, and «, it is merely dropped. 

The resulting syllables are not always easy of pro- 
nunciation to a European, as, for instance, nywa in hu" 
nywa, to drink, nor is it very easy to pronounce ngu or 
nda ; but to a native such sounds present no difficulty, 
whilst he can scarcely pronounce such a word as black. 

Instances of the division of syllables will be found 
in the specimen of Kinyume^ which forms Appendix I. 
Kinyume is made by taking the last syllable from the 
end of a word and putting it at the beginning, so that 
each instance is a specimen of the native idea as to 
what letters belong to the final syllable. Some Swahili 
are very ready at understanding and speaking this 
enigmatical dialect. 

At the head of each letter in the second part will 
be found some observations on its use and pronun- 
ciation. 



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16 . 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 

Swahili nonns have two numbers, singular and plural, 
which are distinguished by their initial letters. Upon 
the forms of the Substantives depend the forms of all 
Adjectives, Pronouns, and Verbs governing or governed 
by them. It is, therefore, necessary to divide^ them 
into so many classes as there are different forms either 
of Substantives or of dependent words, in order to be 
able to lay down rules for the correct formation of 
sentences. For this purpose Swahili Substantives may 
be conveniently divided into eight classes. 

I. Those beginning with Jtf"-, 'Jlf-, Mu-j or Mw-, in 
the feingular, and which denote living beings. They 
make their plural by changing M- &c. into Wa-. 

Mtu, a man ; watu, people. 

The singular prefix represents in all its forms the 
syllable Mu-, which is itself very rarely heard. Before 
a consonant it is almost always pronounced as a semi- 
vowel w, with the u sound before rather than after it. 
Before a and e the u becomes a consonant, and the 
prefix appears as mw-. Before o and u the u is very 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 17 

frequently dropped, and the m alone is heard. The 

prefix is treated as a distinct syllable when followed 

by a consonant, bnt very rarely so when followed by 

a voweL 

Mchatoif a wizard ; wcuihawi, wizards. 

Mju9i, a lizard ; wajusif lizards. 

Mtoanaj a son; tcaana, sons. 

Mwogoy or moga, a coward; vjcuoga, cowards. 

Muumishit or mumiBkiy a cupper; waumishi, cuppers. 

When the plural prefix wa- is placed before a word 
beginning with a-, the two a's run together, and are 
seldom distinguishable by the ear alone. When tra- is 
placed before a word beginning vnik e- or t-, the -a 
flows into the other vowel and produces a long e sound. 

Mvsenzi, a companion ; wenzi, companions. 
Mwivi, a thief; vjeoi, thieves. 

II. Substantives beginning with itf"-, 'itf-, Jtfu-, or 
ilftt?-, which do not denote living or animate beings. 
They make their plural by changing M- &c. into Mi-. ^ 
Mtif a tree ; mitt, trees. 

The same observations apply to the singular prefix 

in this class as in Class I. 

Mfupa, a bone ; mifupay bones. 
MwantOy a beginning; mianzo, beginnings. 
Mwembe, a mango tree ; miemhey mango trees. 
Mtoibay a thorn ; miiba, or miba, thorns. 
MotOy a fire ; miotOy fires. 

The names of trees belong to this class. 

m. Those which do not change to form the plural. 
Nyumhay a house ; nyumhay houses. 



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18 BWAEILI EANBSOOK. 

The simple description of noims of this class is that 
they begin with n, followed by some other consonant. 
It is probable that ^e- is the ground form of the prefix 
of this class, since it always appears as ny- before a 
vowel. The singular powers and antipathies of the 
letter n- very much affect the distinctness of this class 
of nouns. As n must be dropped before ch, /, A, Jc, j?, «, 
or t, nouns beginning with those letters may belong to 
this class;* and as n becomes m before h, v, and «?, 
nouns beginning with mb or mv may belong to it. There 
is a further complication in Swahili, arising from the 
fact that foreign words, except only foreign names of 
persons and offices, whatever their first letters, are 
correctly placed in this class. The popular instinct, 
however, refuses this rule, and in the vulgar dialect 
classes foreign words according to their initial letters, 
regarding the first syllable as a mere prefix, and treat- 
ing it accordingly (see also p. 20). In some cases words 
are handled in this way even in polite Swahili ; thus the 
Arabic Kitdbu^ a book, is very often made plural by 
treating the hi- as a prefix, and saying Vitabu, for books. 

Kamba, a rope ; hambd, ropes. 
Mbegu, a seed ; vnibegny seeds. 
Nyumbay a house ; nyumnixji^ houses. 
Meza, a table ; meza, tables. 
Bundukiy a gun ; hundukiy guns. 
Ndiziy a banana ; ndiziy bananas 
NJia, a road ; njioy roads. 



* There is nothing to show whether nouns beginning with these 
letters belong to this class or to the fifth ; but it is always safest in 
cases of doubt to treat them as belonging to this class, unless some 
special largeness ia intended to be intimated concerning them. 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 19 

IV. Those which begin with Ki- before a consonant 
or Ch- before a vowel. They form their plnral by- 
changing Ki' into Vi' and Ch- into Fy-. 

Kitu, a thing; vitu, things. 
ChombOy a vessel ; vyomboy vessels. 

Substantives are made diminutives by being brought 
into this class. 

MlimOf a mountain ; KUima^ a hill, 
£w6ta, a box ; kibtoeta, a little box. 

If the word stripped of all prefixes is a monosyllable, 
ji' must first be prefixed. 

Mtif a tree ; kijUi, a shrub. 

Mwiko, a spoon ; kijika, a little spoon. 

Words beginning with Ki- may be turned into 
diminutives by inserting -ji- after the prefix. 

Kitwdy a head ; kijitvja, a little head. 

Ktboko, a hippopdamus; kijiboko, a little hippopotamus. 

In regard to animals, the use of the diminutive has 
a depreciating efifect. 

Mbutif a goat ; hibtuitj a poor little goat. 

V. Those which make their plural by prefixing ma-, 

KathOj a chest; makoiha, chests. 

Nouns are generally brought into this class by re- 
jecting all prefix in the singular. If, however, the 
word itself begins with a vowel, j- is prefixed ; if it be 
a monosyllable, ji- is prefixed. The j- or ji- is regularly 

c 2 



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20 SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 

omitted in tlie pinral, but may be retained to avoid 
ambiguity, where the regular word would have re- 
sembled one formed from another root. 

Jambo, an affair ; mamho, affairs. 

JichOf an eye ; macho, eyes. 

Jombo, a large vessel ; majombOf large vessels. 

If the word begin with t- or e-, the -a of the plural 
prefix coalesces with it and forms a long -6-; this 
distinguishes dissyllables with J- prefixed from mono- 
syllables with ji- ^prefixed. 

' Jino, a tooth ; meno (not fnano), teeth. 

Foreign names of persons and offices belong to this 
class. 

Wazirif a vizir; mawaziri, vizirs. 

In the vulgar dialect of Zanzibar all foreign words 
which have a first syllable that cannot be treated as a 
prefix, are made to belong to this class, and mo- is 
prefixed to form the plural (see p. 18). 

Anything which is to be marked as peculiarly large 
or important is so described by bringing the word into 
this class. 

MJuko, a bag ; fuko, a very large bag. 

Mtu, a man ; jitu, a very large man. 

Nyumba^ a house ; jumba, a large house. 

If a word is already in this class, it may be described 
as larger by prefixing /»-. 

Matanga, sails ; majitanga, great sails. 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 21 

Majij water, Mafutaj oil, and other nouns in that 
form are treated as plurals of this class. 

VL Those which begin with U- in the singular. 
They make their plural by changing U- into Ny- before 
a vowel, or JV- before a consonant. 

Uimho, a pong; nyinibo, songs. 

Ud4vu, a hair of tiie beard ; ndevu, hairs of the beard. 

This class is not a large one ; but the formation of 
its plural is full of apparent irregularities produced by 
the letter n. 

1. All nouns of this class, which are in the singular 
dissyllables only, retain the t*- in the plural, and are 
treated as beginning with a vowel. 

ZTjfa, a crack ; nyufa, cracks. 
Ubo, a face ; nyuso^ faces. 

2. Words in which the U- is followed by d, g,j\ or 2, 
take N' in place of U-. 

3. Words in which the U- is followed by I or r, take 
JV-, but change the Z or r into d, 

Ulimif a tongue ; ndimi, tongues. 

4. Words in which the U- is followed by 6, v, or «?, 

take «-, but change it into m-, and their first letter is 

always h. 

Ubauy a plank ; mbau^ planks. 

TJwingUy a heaven ; wbingu^ the heavens. 

5. Words in which the U- is followed by jfc, j>, or <, 



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22 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

drop the CT-, and give an explosive sound to the first 

letter. 

Upepo, a wind ; jo'epo, winds. 

6. Words in which the U- is followed by chy /, hy n, 
or «, merely drop the U-. 

UfunguOf a key ; funguo^ keys. 

Nouns of this class are so few in Swahili that it is 
scarcely worth while to notice these distinctions ; they 
are, however, important as explaining what would 
otherwise seem anomalies, and represent influences 
which have a much larger field in other African 
languages. 

Abstract nouns genenJly belong to this class. 

VII. The one word Mahaliy place or places, which 
requires special forms in all adjectives and pronouns. 

VIII. The Infinitives of Verbs used as Substantives. 
All Infinitives may be so used, and answer to the 
English Verbal Substantives in -ing. 

Kufoy to die = dying. 
Kwiba, to steal = stealing. 

All Substantives of both numbers may be put into 
what may be called the locative case by adding -m. 
This case has three great varieties of meaning, which 
are marked by differences in all dependent pronouns. 

1. In, within, to or from within. 

2. At, by, near. 

8. To, from, at (of places tea off). 



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f 

SUBSTANTIVES. 23 

Nyumbani mwangu, in my house. 
Nyumbani pangu, near my house. 
Nyumbani hwangu^ to my house. 

Mtoni, by the river. 

Njianif on the road. 

Vyomboni, in the vessels. 

Kitwani, on the head. 

Mbinguni, in heaven. 

Kuangukani, in falling. 

The possessive case is expressed by the use of the 
Preposition -a, which see. The objectiye or accusative 
is the same as the subjective or nominative. 

In the following list of Substantives the plural form 
is given in all cases in which, if commonly used, it is 
not the same as the singular. 



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24 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



LIST OF SUBSTANTIVES. 



The letters in parentheses denote the several dialects : (A.) Kiamn, that of 
Lamoo ; (M.) Kim vita, that of Mombas ; (Mer.) Eimerima, that of the main- 
land Opposite Zanzibar ; (N.) Kingozi, the poetical dialect ; (Ar.) Arabic. 



A tbhat-is-dtf a thing the name of 
which you do not "know or can- 
not recaU, dude, pi. madude. 

Svfih-orone, a person whose name is 
not knoum or is immaterial, 
fullani. 



Abasement, unenyekeo. 
Abhorrence, machukio. 
Ability, uwezo. 
Abridgment, muhtasari. 
Abscess, tumbasl, nasur. 
Abundance, wingi, ungi (M.)* man- 

thawa. 
Abyssinian, Habeshia, pi, Maha- 

beshia. 
Acceptance, ukubalL 
Accident, tuMo, pi, matukio. 
Accounts, hesabu. 

Account booky daftari. 
Accusation, matuvumu. 
AccuMUion (before a judge), mshta- 

ka, ph miishtaka. 
Ache, maumivu, uchungn. 
Action, kitendo, pi, vitendo, amali. 
Addition {in arithmetic), jumla. 



Address (of a letter), anwani. 
Adornment, kipambo, pi, vipambo, 

pambo, pi. mapambo. 
Adultery, zani, uzini, iizinzi. 
Advantage (profit), fiayida. 
Adversity, mateso, ahidda. 
Advice, shauri, pi. mashauri. 
Adze, shoka la bapa, sezo. 
Affair, jambo. 

Affairs, mambo, shughuli, uli- 
mwengu. 
Affection, mapenzi, mapendo. 

MtUtial affection, mapendano. 
Affliction, teso, pi. mateso. 
Age, umri. 

Old a>ge, uzee. 

Extreme old age, ukongwe. 

Equal in age, hirimu moja. 

Former ages, zamsmi za kale. 
Agent, wakili, pi. mawakili. 
Agreement, maagano, makatibu, 

mwafaka, mapatano, sharti. 
Aim, Bhabaha. 
Air, hawa, hewa, npepo. 

For change of air, kubadili hawa. 
Almond, lozi, pi. malozL 
Alms, sadaka.' 



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BUBSTANTTVES. 



25 



Aloes, subiri, shibiri. 

Aloes wood, uudi. 

Altar, mathbah, mathabahu. 

Alum, sbabbu. 

Ambergris, ambari. 

Amulet, talasimu, ph matalasimn. 

Amusement, mazumgumzo, mao- 

. ngezi. 
Ancestors, babu, wazee. 
Anchor, nanga, baura. 
Ande (see Anklets), kiwiko cha 

mguu, ito la guu (A.)* 
Angel, malaika. 
Anger, haeira, gbathabu. 
Angle, pembe. 
Angoxa, Ngoje. 
Animal, nyama. 

The young of a domestic animal, 
ndama. 

A young she^nimal that has not 
yet home, mtamba, j^Z. mitamba. 

Native animals. See under their 
several names : — 

Bnkn, a very large hind of rat* 

Toi, a kind of wild goat, 

Buga (?). 

Ndezi (?). 

Njiri (?). 
Anklets (see Ancle), mtali, pi. mitali, 

furungu, pi, mafumngiL 
Answer, majibu, jawabu. 
Antelopes, See Gazette, 

Bara, Sdeobagus arundinaceus, 

Dondoro, Dyker's antelope, 

Koru, waier buck. 

Kuguiii, ha^irtebeest, 

Hpofu, pi, Wapofu, eland. 

Nyumbo, wHdeheesU 

Parahara. 

Kulungu. 
Antimony, wanja wa manga. 
^n(«,chungii,tmigu (M.)»8ifiimizi (?). 



Siafd, a large broum kind. 

Maji a moto, a yellow kind which 

lives in -trees. 
White ants, mchwa. 
Ants in their flying sta^e, knmbi- 

kumbi. 
Anthitt, kisugulu, pi, visugulo. 
Anus, mkunda, fapa. 
AnvH, fuawe. 
Ape, nyani. 

AposUe, mtume, pi, qiitiime. 
Appearamce, umbo, pi, mamubo. 
Arab, Mwarabu, pi, Waarabu. 
Arab from Sheher, Mshihiri, pL 

Washihiri. 
Arab from the Persian Gulf, Mahe- 
mali, pi, Wafihemali, Tende 
balua. 
Arabia, Arabuni, Manga. 
Arabic, Kiarabu. 
Arbitrator, mpataniahi. 
Arch, tao, pi, matao. 
Areca nut, popoo. See Betel, 
Arithmetic, hesabu. 
Addition, jmnla. 
Subtraction, bakL 
Multiplication, tbaruba. 
Division, mkasama. 
Proportion, or division of profits. 
Arm, mkono, pi. mikono. [uirari. 

Under the arm, kwapam. 
Armpit, kwapa, pi, makwapa. 
Perspiration of the armpit, 
kikwapa. 
Arrangements, madaraka. 
Arrival, kifiko, kikomo. 
Arrogance, ghururi. 
Arrow, mshale, pi, miahale, ohembe, 

pL vyembe (N.). 
Arroioroot, uwanga, kanji. 
Artery, vein or nerve, mahipa, pi, 
mishipa. 



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8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Artifice^ Idtimbi, pi. TitimbL 
Atcfiiptions of praise^ tasbiih. 
Aihei^ jifu, pi, majifii, ivu, pL 

maiyn (M.). 
Jss, punda. 
Assafoetida, mynje. 
Assembly, jamaa, jmnaa, makntano, 

makusanyiko. 
Place of assembly, makusanyiko. 
Asthma, pumu. 

Agtonishment, inataajabn, msangao. 
Astrologer, mnajimu, pL wanajimii. 
Astronomy, falaki, filak. 
Attachm&nt, wambiso. 
Auction, mnada, pi, minada. 
Audixmeer, dalali. 
Aunt, sbangazi, pi, maahangazL 
Authority, ngavu, mamlaka, hu- 

kumu. 
Avarice, cboyo, bakhHi, tamaa. 
Awl, uma, pL nyuma, 
AvminQt cbandsJua. 
Axe, shoka, pL masboka. 

B. 
Baby, mtoto mobanga, kitoto 

kicbanga, malaikiw 
Back, maungo, mgongo. 
Back of the head and neck, ki- 

Bbogo. 
Backbone, nti wa maunga 
BadnefiSf ubaya, uovu. 
Bag, mfuko, pi, mifuko, fuko, pi, 
mafuko, kifuko, pi. vifiika 
Mkoba, pi, mikobtt, a scrip, 
Eibogosbi, ph yibpgosbi, a smdU 
bag made of skin. 
Matting bags, 
Eikapu or Gbikapn, pi, Tik^>u. 
Eapu, pi. makapn, very large, 
Kanda, pi, makanda, long and 
narrow, broadest at the bottom. 



Jiinia, used for riee, drc^ gunia. 
Kigunni, used for dates, sugar, 

Ac, 
Kifumbo, pi, vifambo, very large, 
used for cloves. 
Baggage, vyombo. 
£aiZ, lazima. 

Bait, cbambo, pi. Tyambo. 
Baking place for pottery, (kc, joko. 
Balances, mizani 
Baldness, upaa. 
A shaved pUioe on the head, kipaa, 
pi. vipaa. 
BaXl, tufe. 
IndicMTubber baU, mpiia, pL 

mipira. 
Any smaU round thing, donge, pi. 
madonge. 
Bdtlast, farumi. 
Bamboo, 'mwanzi, pL miwanzi 
Bananas, ndizi. 
Banana tree, mgomba, pi. mi- 

gomba. 
BuncMets of fruit, tana, pi. 

matana. 
The fruit stalk, mkungo, pL mi- 
kungiu 
Band (stripe), ntepe, pi. tepe. 
Band (of soldiers, dse,), kikoei, pL 

yikofiL 
Bandage, utambaa, pL ta mb aa. 
Bangles, See Anklets, 
Bank (of earth, eand, dse,), fimgu, 
pi. mafungo. 
Bank of a river, kanda 
The opposite bank, ng'ambo. 
Baobab.. See Calabash. 
Barber, kinyozi, pL vinyozL 
Bargain, mwafaka, maafikaoo. 
Bargaining, ubazazi. 
Bark of a tree, gmne (hard), ganda 
(soft). 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



27 



Barley, shairi (Ar.). 

Barque (a ^ip), morikebu ya mill- 

ngote miwili na hubs. 
Barrel, pipa, pi. mapipa. 
Basipf bakuli, pi mabakuli. 
A small basin, kibaba. 
A brass basin, taaa, pi matasa. 
See Bowl, 
Basket. See Bag, 
Chikapu, pi vikapu. 
Pakacha, pi mapakaoha, made 
of eocoa-nut Uams plaited to- 



Dobani, a very iaXl narrow basket 
made of slips of wood stipple- 
mented by ooooornut leaves. 
Tunga, a round open basket. 
Ungo, pi maiingo, or uteo, pi 
teo (M.), a round flat basket 
used for sifting. 
Kiteo, pit. yiteo, a very smcM one. 
Kunguto, pi. makunguto, a 

basket used as a colander. 
Jamanda, j}2. majamanda, a round 
basket of thick work, with a 
raised lid. • 
Bat^ popo. 

Batchelor, msljana (?). 
Baih, birika, chakogea. 
Bath room, choo, pi yjoo. See 

Privy. 
Public baihs, hamamL 
BatUe, mapigano. 
Battlements, menomeno. 
Bay, ghubba. 
Beach, pwani, mpwa (M.). 
Beads, ushanga, pi sbanga. 
Kondavi, pi makondavi, a large 

kind worn by women, 
(rosary), tasbiih. 
Beak, mdomo wa ndege. 
A parrots beak, mbango. 



Beam, mti, pi. miti, boriti, mhimili, 

pi mibimilL 
Beans, kuunde. 
Ghooko, a very smdU green kind. 
Fiwe, grow on a elinibing plant 

with a white flower. 
Baazi, grow on a bush something 
like a laburnum. 
Beard, ndeyu, madeTU. 

One hair of the beard, ndevn. 
The imperial, the tuft of hair on 
the lower lip, kinwa mchozi, 
kionda mtuzi (M.)* 
Beast, nyama. 
Beauty, uzuri. 

A beauty, kizuri, pi. yusuxi, baiba. 
Bed (for planting sweet potatoes^ 

tuta, pi matuta. 
Bedding, matandiko. 
Bedstead, kitanda, pi. vitanda. 
The legs, tendegu, pi matendegu. 
The side pieces, mfiuubati, pi 

mifombati. 
Th^ end pieces, Mtakizo, pL vita- 

Mzo. 
The head, mchago. 
The space underneath, myimgu 
kitanda. 
.Bte, nynki 
Beehive (a hoUow piece of wood), 

mzinga, pi. mizinga. 
Beggar, mwombaji, pi. waombaji 
Begging, maomTi 
Beginning, mwanzo, pi mianzo. 
Start in speaking or doing, fell, 
pi mafeli. 
Behaviour, mwenendo. 

Good behaviour, kutenda yema. 
lU behaviour, kutenda vibaya. 
BeU, kengele. 
Njuga, a smaU beU worn as an 
ornament, a dog beU. 



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28 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



BeUowing^ kiyiimi, vumi. 

BeUowSf mifuo, mivukuto. 

BeUy, matumbo. 

Bend, pindo. 
The arm stiffened in a hentformy 
kigosho cha mkono. 

Bembatooka hay, Mjan^a. 

Beiel leaft tambuu. It is chewed 
with arena nut, lime, and to- 
bacco folded up in it, and gives 
its name to the whole. 

Beverage, kinywaji, pi. vinywaji. 

Bhang, bangi. 

Biceps muscle, tafa ya mkono. 

Bier, jeneza, jenaiza. 

Bifurcation, panda. 

Bile, nyongo. 

Biliousness, safora (Ar.), mamngu 

Bm, See Beak, 

(account), hesabn, barua. 

BiU of sale, ankra. 

{cho]f^), mundu, pi. miundu; 
upamba, pi. pamba. 
Bird, ndege, nyuni (M.). 

Young of birds, kiuda, pi. ma- 
kinda. 

Birds of the air, ndege za anga. 

Bird of ill omen, korofi, mkorofi. 
Native birds. 

Pngi, a very smaU kind of dove. 

Korongo, crane. 

Mbango, a bird with a hooked 
beak. 

Ninga, a green dove. 

Zawaridi, a Java sparrow. 

Mbaynwayu, a swallow. 

Bundi, an owl. 

Luanga — ^pungu — tendawala (?). 
Birth, uzazi, uvyazi, kizazi, kivyazi. 
Biscuit, biskwiti . ' 

A very thin kind, kaki 



Bishop, askafu .( Ar.). 

A chess bishop, khami. 
Bit (a horse* s), lijamu. 
Bitterness, uchungn, nkali 
Blabber of secrets, payo, pi. mapayo. 
Blacksmith, mfaa chuma, pi. wafoa 

chuma, mhunzi (Mer.)f pi- 

wahunzi. 
Blackwood, sesemi. 
Bladder, kibofu, pH. vibofn. 
Blade, kengea. 
Blade of grass, uchipnka, pi, chi- 

puka. 
Blame, matuvumu. 
Blanket, bushuti 
Blemish, ila, kipungno. 
Blessing, baraka, mbaraka, pL mi- 

baraka. 
Blindness, npofa (Joss of sighty 

chongo (loss of one eye). 
Blinders (used for camels when 

grinding in mills), jamanda (of 

basket work), kidoto (of cloth). 
Blister, lengelenge, pi. malenge- 



A vesicular eruption of the skin. 
Block. See Pulley. [uwatL 

A block to dry skuU caps upon, 
faroma. 
Blood, damn. 

Blood-vessel, mshipa, pi. misbipo. 
Blotch, waa, pi. mawaa. 
Blowing and bellowing noise (often 

made vjith a drum), ynmi 
Blue vitriol, mrututu. 
Board, uban, pi. mbau. 

Piece of board, kiban, pi. vibau. 
Boat, mashna. 
Body, mwili, pi. miili. 

The human trunk, kiwiliwili 

A dead body, mayiti. 

The body of soldiers, Ac, jamii. 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



29 



Bail, jipn, pi majipu. 

Bomb, kombora. 

Bombay, Mombee. 

Bone, mfapa, pi. mifupa, ftipa, pi, 

mafupa (very targe). 
Book, chuo, pi. vyuo, kitabu, pi. 
Titabu. 
A eaered hook, mfiahafu, pL misa- 

hafd. 
An <iccount book, daftari. 
Booty, mateka, nyara. 
Border (boundary), mpaka, pL mi- 
paka. 
An edging woven on to a piece of 
eU}th,iaxea&. 
Bother, uthia, higa. 
BotUe, ohupa, pi. maohupa, tupa 
(M.X 2>2. matupa. 
A long-neeked bottle for sprinkling 

acente, mrashi, pi. mirashL 
A Utile bottle, a phial, kitupa, pi. 
vitupa. 
Bottom, ohini. 
Bough, kitawi, pi yitawi 
Boundary, mpaka, pi mipaka. 
Bow, upindi, pi pindi, uta, pi 

mata, or oyuta. 
Bowl (wooden), fua. See BaHn. 
Bowsprit, mlingote wa maji 
Box, bweta, pi mabweta, ndusi, 
kisanduku, pH yisanduku. 
SniaU, kibweta, pi Tibweta. 
Large, kasba, pi makaaha, san- 

duka. 
8maU metal box, kijaluba, pi 

Tijalnba. 
8maU, long-shaped metal box, often 
used to keep betel in, kijamanda, 
pi yijamanda. 
Small paper box, kibumba, pi 
Tibomba. 
Boy, kijana, pi. vijana. 



Braceiet, kekee (flat). 

Eikukn, pi yikukn (round). 

Kingaja, pi Tingaja (of beads). 

iBa,Ji&giii(omamented with points). 

Timbi. 
Braid, kigwe, pi yigwe. 
Brains, bongo, mabongo. 
Bran, chaohu, makapL 

Husks of rice, komyL 
Branch, tawi, pi. matawi, ntanzn, 

pi tanzn. 
Brand (a piece of wood partly burnt), 

kinga, pi. yinga. 
Brass, shaba, nuhis (Ar.). 
Brass wire, mazoka (?). 
Bravery, ushujaa, u^^biti 
Brawler, mgomvi, pi. wagomvL 
Bread (loaf or cake), mkate. 
Breadth, upana. 
Break. See Crack, Notch. 
Breakfast, chakula oha sribni, 
kifungua kanwa, cha'msha 
kanwa. 
Breaking wind (upward), kiungolia, 
pi viungulia. 

(downward), ^sJoAfSk, pi majamba» 
masbuzL 
Breast, kifua, kidari, mtima. 

Breasts, maziwa, sing. ziwa. 
Breaih, pumzi, nafusi, roho. 
Bribe, rushwa. 
Bride, bibi harnsi. 
Bridegroom, bwana hanun. 
Bridle, hatamu (halter, reins, Ac), 

lijamu (bit). 
Brink, ukingo, mzingo. 
Brook, kijito, pi vijito. 
Broom, ufagio, pi fagio. 
Brother, ndugu, ndugu mume, 
kaka (Kihadimn). 

Fluster brother, ndugu kunjonya. 

Brother-in-law, shemegi 



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30 



SWAHILI HANDBaOK. 



HtisbancPe brother, mwamua. 
Wife'e brother, wifi. 
Brmm, IdJ^omo cha uso, kipaji. 
Brtdse, vilia la duBii^ alama ya 

pigo. 
Brush (see Broom), burushi. 
Brushwood, koko, makoko. 
BuhbU, povu, pi. mapoYU« 
Bucket, ndoo. 
Buckler, ngao. 
Buffalo, nyati. 
Bug, kunguni. 

Building, jengo, pi. majengo. 
Building materiala, majengo. 
Firm and good buUding, mtomo. 
BuU, fahali,j92. mafahali, ng'ombe 

mume or ndume. 
BuUet, poopoo, risasi ya bunduki. 
Bullock, maksai. 

Bundi, tawi, ph matawi, kitawi, pi, 
yitawi, kichala, pi. vlohala. 
The bunch is mid to be of the 
tree and not of the fruit, 
Tawi la mtende, a bunch of dates, 
Kiohala cha mzabibu, a bunch of 
grapes. See Bananas, 
Bundle, peto, pi. mapeto, mzigo, pi. 
mizigo. 
In a cloth, bindo, forushi, ki- 

furushL 
Of straw, mwenge, pi. mieDge. 
Of sticks, titi, pi. matitL 
Buoy, chilezo, pi. vilezo, mlezo, pi, 

milezo. 
Burden, mzigo, pi. mizigo. 
Burial'pUice, maziahi, maziko. , 
Burier (i.e. a special friend), mzishi, 

pi. wazishl. 
Bush, kijiti, j?Z. vijiti. 

Bushes, koko, pi. makoko. 
Business, shughuli, kazi. 
Urgent business, amara. 



A complicated Imsiness, yiB& 

vingi. 
His business, amri yake. 
J have no business, &c., sina amri, 

Butter, siagi. 

Clarified butter (ghee), samlL 

Buttermilk, mtindi. 

Butterfly, kipepeo, pi. vipepeo. 

Buttocks, tako, pi. matako. 

Button, kifimgo, pi. vifungo. 
Button loop, kitanzi, pi. yitanzi 
Button by which the wooden clogs 
are held en, misuruake, pi. mi- 
simiake. 

Buyer, mnunazi, pH. wanunuzi. 

0. 

Cabin (side), kipenu. 

Cable, amara. 

Caffre com, mtama. 

Cage, Mzimbi, pi. yizimbi, ttmdu, 

pi. matuDdu. 
Cake, mkate, pi. mikate. 
Cake of mtama meal, mkate wa 

mofu. 
Cake of tobacco, mkate wa tn- 

mbako. 
Bmnmida, ph mabmnunda, a sort 

of dumpling or soft cake. 
Eitumbua, pi. vitumbua, a oaks 

made like a fritter. 
Ladu, a round bdU n^^tds of 

semsem seed, spice, and sugar. 
Einyunya, pi. vinyunya, a little 
cake made to try the quality of 
the flour. 
Calabash, buyu, pi. mabnyn. 
Inner part of the calabash fruit, 

ubuyu. 
Calabash used to draw water, 
kibnyo, vibuyu. 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



aL 



Calabash tree or haobah, mbuyu, 
pi. mibuyu. 

A pumpkin shell used to hold 
liquida, dundu, pi. madundu. 
Calamity y masaibu, msiba,p2. misiba. 
Calico. See Cloth. 

Fine, bafta. 
Cd^, ndama, ndama wa ng'ombe. 
Call (calling), mwito, pi. miito. 

(o cry), ukelele, ukemi. 

Kikorombwe, a signal cry. * 
Cahn, shwali. 
Calumba root, kaomwa. 
Camel, ngamia. 
Camelopard, twiga. 
Camphor, karafomayiti, kafim. 
Candle, tawafa, meshmaa. 
Candlestick, kinara, pi. vinara. 
Cannabis Indica, bangi. 
Cannon, mzinga, pi. mizinga. 
Canoe, galawa (with outriggers)^ 
mtumbwi, jjL mitumbwi (with' 
jovt outriggers), hori, pi. mahori 
(^ith raised head and stem). 
Canter, mgbad (of a horse), 

Tkelth (of an ass). 
Cap, kofia. 

A cap block, faroma. 

A gun-^iap, fataki. 
Capcusity, kadri. 
Cape (headland), rasi. 
Captain, nakhotha, naoza, kapitani. 
Caravan, msafara, pi. misafara. 

(Jaravan porter, mpagazi, pi. wa- 
pagazi. 
Carcase, mzoga, pi. mizoga. 
Cards (playing), karata. 
Cardamoms, iliki. 
Care, tnnza, pi. matuDzar 

(ca;ution), hathari. 
Cargo, shehena. 
(Jarpenter, sermala, pi. maaennala. 



Carpet, zulia. 
Carriage, gari, pi. magari. 
A gun carriage, gurudumo la 
mzinga. 
Cartridge, kiass cha bundukL 
Carving, naksh, nakishi. 
Case or paper box, kibamba, pi. 

yibumba. 
Cashew nut, koroeho, pi. makorosha 
Imm^ure nut, dunge. 
Cashew apple, bibo, pi. mabibo, 

kanju (M.), pi. makanju. 
Cashew nut tree, mbibo, pi. mibibo, 
mkanju (M.), pi. mikanju. 
Cask, pipa, pi. mapipa. 
Casket, kijamanda, pi. yijamanda. 
Cassava, muhogo. 
Apiece of the dried root,)top&, pi. 



Casde, gereza, ngome. 

A chess castle, fil (Ar. elephant). 
Castor oil, mafata ya mbarika, 

mafata ya nyonyo (?), mafuta 

ya mbono (?). 
Castor oU plant, mbarika, pi. HOr 

barika, mbono (?), pi. mibono. 
Cat, paka. 
Catamite, hani^, hawa, hawara, 

^hoga (A.). 
Chtile, ng'ombe, nyama. 

Cattle fold, zizi, pi. mazizi. 
Caudle made on the occasion of a 

birth, of rice, sugar, and spicct 

and given to visitors, fuka. 
Caulking, khalfati. 
Ca-ase, sababn, kisa, asili, maana. 
Cautery and the marks of it, pisho, 
Caution, hathari. \^pl. mapisho. 
Cave, paango, pi. mapaango. 
Censer, a small vessel to bum incense 

in, ohetezo, pi. vyetezo, mkebe, 

pi: mikebe. 



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32 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Centipede^ taando. 
Certainty f yakini, kite. 
Chaff, kapi, pi makapL 
(of rice), kmnvi. 

(Iran and cnUhed grains), wisbwa. 
Chain, mkufii, pL mikufu, mnyo- 

loro, pi. minyororo, sileBile, 
Door chain, riza. 
Chair, kiti, pi vit^ 
Chalk, chaki 

Chameleon, kinyonga, pi. vinyonga, 
Chance, nasibu. Qumbwi (?). 

Chandelier, tburea. 
Change or changing, genzi* pi. 

mageuzi. 
Chapter, sura, bab. 
Character, sifa. 
Characters, berofn. 
Charcoal, makaa ya^'mitl 
Charm (talisman), talasimn, ph ma- 

talasimu. 
Chatter, npuzL 
Chatterer, mpnzi, pi. wapuzL 
CheaJt, ayari, mjanja, pt wajanja. 

A great cheat, patiala. 
Chech (the part over the eheek'bone), 

kitefate, pi. Titefnte. 
(The part over the teeth), cbafu, 

pi. macbafa, tavu (A.), pi- 
Cheese, jibinL [matavu. 

(Jhess, Bataranji. 
Chest {of men), kifua, pi. vifua. 
(of animals or men), kidari 
(a large ho3^, kasba, pi. makaaba, 

eanduku. 
(Jhieken, faranga, pi. mafaranga, 

kifaraDga, pL yifaranga. 
Chief, mfalme, pi. wafaUne, jumbe, 

pi. majumbe, miinyL 
Chieftainship, ujmnbe. 
Child, mtoto, pL watoto, kltoto, pi. 

Yitoto, mwana, pi, waana. 



A child vjhich cuts its upper teeth 

first, and is therefore considered 

unlucky, kigego, pi. vigego. 
Childhood, utoto. 
Chimney, dobaan. 
Chin, kidevu, pL videvii, kievu 

(A.), pi. vieyu. 
Ornament hanging from Oie veil 

below the chin, jeba, pL ma^ 

jebu. 
Chisel, patasi, obemben. 
Juba, a mortice chisel. 
Uma, a small chiseL 
Choice, biari, biyari, ikbtiari, na- 

tbari. 
Your choice, npendavyo (ob you 

like). 
Cholera, tanni, wabba, kipindn- 

pinda. 
Church, kanisa, pi. makaniaa. 
Cinders, makaa. 
Cinnabar, zangefari. 
OinnavMm, mdalasiDL 
Cipher (figwre of nought), siftini. 

zifiuri. 
Circle of a man's affairs, &e., uli- 

mwenga wake. 
droumdwrn, tobara, kmnbi 

(Mer.)(?). 
Circumference, kivimba, mdngo. 
Circumtiances, mambo. 

A circumstance, jambo. 
Cistern, birika. 

Citron, balimgi, pi. mabalimgi. 
Civet, zabadi. 
Civet cat, fungo, ngawa (a larger 

animal than the fungo). 
Civilization, UDgwana. 
Civilized people, wangwana. 
Clamp for turning lime, tanuu. 
Clap of thunder, radi 
Claret, divai. 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



33 



Class for study ^ darasa. 
Claw^ ukucha, pZ. kucha. 

(of a crab), gando, pi, magando. 
Clay (?), udongo; 
Clearness, weupe. 
Clerk, karani. 
Clergyman, padre or padiri, pi. ma- 

padlri, khatibu. 
Cleverness, hekima. 
Climate, tabia. 
Clock, SQ&. 

What 0* clock is it f Saa ngapi ? 
According to the native reckon- 
ing, noon and midnight are at 
the sixth hour, saa a sita; six 
o'clock is saa a fftenashara. 
JUlod, pumba, pi. mapumba. 
Cl4)th {woollen), joho. 
{Cotton), nguo. 

(American slieeting), amerikano. 
(Blue calico), kaniki. 
Cloth of gold, zari. 
A hin cloth of about tioo yards, 

slmka, doti. 
A loin cloth with a coloured border, 

kikoi, pi. vikoi. 
A turban cloth, kitambi, pi. vi- 

tambi. 
A woman's doth, kisuto, pi. vi- 

suto. 
A doth twisted into a kind of rope 
used as a girdle, and to make 
the turbans worn by the Hindis, 
iikumbuu, pi. kumbuu. 
Clothes, nguo, miguo, mavazi, mavao. 
Cloud, wiugu, pi. mawingu. 
Bain cloud, ghubari, ^2. maghu- 

bari. 
Broken scattered clouds, mavu- 
' ndevunde. 
Cloves, garofuu, karofuu. 
Fruit-stalks, kikonyo,pZ. vikonyo. 



Club, riingu. 

Coals, makaa. 

Coast, pwani. 

Poat, joho (a long open coat of 

broaddoth worn by the Arabs). 
Cob of Indian com, gunzi, pi, ma- 

giinzi. 
Cock, y)goo,pl. majogoo, jogoi, jimbi. 
A young cockerd, not yet able to 

croio, pora. 
A cock's comb, upanga. 
A cock's wattles, ndefu. 
Cockles, kombe za pwani (?). 
Cockroach, mende, makalalao (Ma- 

lagazy). 
Cocoa-nut, nazi. 

Cocoa-nut tree, mnazi, pi. minazi. 
Heart of the groioing shoot, used as 

salad, &c., kichilema, shaha. 
Cloth-like envelope of young leaves^ 

kUifu. 
Leaf, kuti, pi. makuti. 
Midrib of leaf, uchukuti, pi. 

chukuti. 
Leaflets, nkuti, pi. kuti. 
Leaf plaited for making fences, 

makuti ya kumba. 
Half leaf plaited together, makuti 

ya pande. 
Leaflets made up for thatching, 

makuti ya viungo. 
Part of a leaf plaited into a 
basket, "pakaeha, pi. mapakacha. 
Woody flower sheath, karara. 
Bunch of nuts, tawi la mnazi. 
Flower and first forming of nuts, 

upunga, pi. punga. 

Small nuts, kidaka, pi. vidaka. 

Half -grown nut, kitale, pi. vitale. 

Full-grown nut before the nutty 

part is formed,, dafu, pi. 

madafu. In this stage the shell 



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34 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



is perfectly full of the milk or 

Juice (maji), and the ntUs are 

often gathered for drinking. 
Half -ripe nut, when the nutty part 

is formed and the milk begins to 

wabble in the sHieiUj koroma, pi. 

makoroma. 
Ripe nut, oazi 
A nut which has grown full of a 

white spongy substance without 

any hollow or milk, joya, pi, 

majoya. 
A nut which has dried in the sheU 

so as to rattle in it without 

being spoilt, mbata. 
The fibrous case of the nut, cocoa-. 

nut fibre, makumbi. 
Cocoa-nut fibre thoroughly cleaned, 

usTimba. 
A stick stuck in the ground to rip 

off the fibre, kifuo, pi, vifuo. 
The sheU, kifuu, pi vifuu, ki- 

fafu (M.). 
Instrument for scraping the fresh 

nut for cooking, mbuzi ya ku- 

kunia nazi. * 
Oily juice squeezed out of the 

scraped cocoa-nut, tui. 
A small bag to squeeze out the tui 

in, kifmnbu, pi. vifumbu. 
The scraped nut after the tui has 

been pressed out, chicha. 
Copra,ihe nut dried and ready to be 

pressed in the oil nUU, nazi kavu. 
Coeoa-ntd oU, mafiita ya nazi. 
Ckiffee, kahawa, (plant) mbuni 
Coffee berries, buni. 
Coffee pot, mdila, pi, midila. 
Coin (a coin), sawifu. See Dollar, 

Rupee, &c. 
Colander {in basket work), kunguto, 

pi, makuDguto. 



Cold, baridi. 
Baridi and upepo are often used 
to mean wind or cold indiffer^ 



Cold in the head, mafaa. 
J have a cold in the head, eiwezi 
kamasL 
Collar-bone, mtalinga,^2. mitulinga. 
Colour, rangi. 
Colours are generally described by 
reference to some known sub- 
stance : rangi ya kahawa, coffee 
colour, brovm ; rangi ya majani, 
leaf colour, green; rangi ya 
makuti, colour of the dry cocoa- 
nut leaves, grey, 
fJomb, kitana, pi. yitana, shanou, 
pi. mashanuu (a large wooden 
comb). 
A cock's comb, npanga. » 

Comfort, faraja. 
Comforter, mfariji, pi. wafariji: 
Coming {arrival), kifiko, pi. vifiko. 
{Mode of coming), majilio. 
Coming doion or out from, mshuko, 
pi, mishuko. 
Command, amri. 

Commander, jemadari, pi. majema- 
dari, mkuu wa asikari. 
Second in command, akida. 
Commission, agizo, pi. maagizo. 
Comoro Islands, Masiwa. 
Great Comoro, Ngazidja. 
Comoro men, Wangazidja. 
Johanna, Anzwaui. 
Mayotte, Maotwe. 
MohUla, Moalli. 
Companion, mwenzi, pi. wenzi. 
Company, jamaa. 
Compass (manner's), dira. 
Completeness, uzima, ukamilifu, 
utimilifu. 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



35 



Compliments, salaamu. 
Composition (of a toord), rakibyueo. 
Composition for a murder, money 

paid to save ones life^ dia. 
Concealment, maficho. 
Conclusion, mwisho, hatima. 
Concubine, suria, pi, maauria. 

Bom of a concubine, suriyama. 
Condition (state), hali, jawabu. 
(A thing necessarily implied\ 

kanuni. 
Confidence, matumaini. 
Confidential servant, m8iii,|)2.wa6iri. 
Conscienoe, thamiri, moyo. 
CJonspiracy, mapatano, mwa&ka. 
Constipation, kufunga choo. 
Constitution, tabia. 
Contentment, xasi^bL 
Continent, merima. 
Continuance, maisha. 
Contract, maagano, shartL 
Conversation, mazumgumzo, mao- 

ngezi, iisemi. 
Convert, mwoDgofu, pi, waongofu. 
Cook, mpishi, pi. wapiahi. 
Cooked grain, especially rice, wall. 
Cooking pot {metal), Bufmria, pi. 

masuforia, Msufaria, pi. yisu- 

faria. 
(earthen), nynngu, chung^ pi. 

vyungu. mkungu, pi. mikungu. 
(a pot to cook meat in with fat, to 

braze meat in), kaango, pi. ma- 

kaango, ukaango, kikaango, pi. 

vikaango. 
A pot lid, mkungawa kufanikia. 
Three stones to set a pot on over 

the fire, mafiga, sing, figa, 

mafya, sing, jifya. ^ 

Cross pieces put in to keep Vie 

meat from touching the bottom of 

the pot and burning, nyalio. 



Codie, bamali, pL mahamali. 
Copal, sandamsi. 
Copper, shaba, suforia. 
Coral (red), marijani ya fethaluka 
(marijani alone does not alujays 
mean the true red coral). 
Fresh coral for building, cut from 
below high-water mark, matu- 
mbawi 
Cord, ugwe, ukambaa (M.), pi- 

kambaa, kigwe, pi vigwe. 
Cork, kizibo, pi. vizibo. 
Com, nafaka (formerly used as 
money), 
Mnhindi, Indian com. 
Mtama, millet (the most common 

grain). 
Mwere, very smaU grains growing 
in an upright head something 
like the flower of the bidrush, 
Wimbi. 
Kimanga. 
Corner, pembe. 

(Jomer of a cloth, tamyua, uta- 
mvua. 
Corpse, mzoga, pL mizoga, mayiti. 
Corpulence, irnene. 
Corruption, uovu, kioza. 
Cosmetics. 
Dalia, a yellow composition, 
Yasi, a yellow powder from India. 
Liwa, a fragrant wood from 

Madagascar, 
Kipaji 
Cotton, pamba. 
Couch, kitanda, pi, vitanda. 
Cough, klkohozi. ' 

Council, baraza, diwani. 
Councillor, diwani, pi. madiwani. 
Counsel, shauri. 
Countenance, uso, pi. nyuso. 
Country, inchi, nti (M.). The names 

D 2 



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36 



SWAHILI ^HANDBOOK. 



of countries are made, from the 
name of 'the people by means of 
the prefix U-. 
Uuyika, the country of the Wa- 

nyika. 
Ugala, the country of the Wagala. 
UzuDgu, the country of the Wa- 

zungu, Europe. 
In the country f mashamba. 
A country dialect, lugha ya ki- 
mashamba. 
Courage, ushujaa, u^^abit, moyo. 
Course (of a ship), mdjira. 
Courtesy, jamala, adabu. 
Courtyard (enclosure), ua, pi. nyua, 
uanda or uanja. 
Court within a house, behewa,kati. 
. Cousin, injukuu, pi. wajukuu. 
Covenant, maagano, sharti. 
Cover (a lid), kifuiiiko. 
A dish cover made of straw and 
often profusely ornamentedi 
kawa. 
A hook cover, jalada. 
Covetousness, tamaa, bakbili. 
Cow, iig*ombe mke, pi, ng*ombe 

wake. 
Coward, mwoga, pi, waoga. 
Cowardice, uoga. 
Cowry, kauri, kete. 
Crab, kaa. 

Crack, Ufa, pi. nyufa. 
Cramp, kiharusi. 

A cramp, gango, pi, magango. 
Crayfish, kamba. 
Cream, siugi. 
Creed, imani. 
Greeks hori. 

Crest, shungi (used also for a way 
of dressing the hair in ttoo large 
masses). 
Crew, buharia. 



Crime, taksiri. 

Crocodile, mamba, mbulu (?). 

Crook, kota. 

Crookedness, kombo. 

A crooked thing,kikombo. 
Cross, msalaba, pi. misalabcL 
Cross roads, njia panda. 
Crossing place, kivuko, pi. vivuko. 
Crow, kunguru. 

Crowbar, mtaiinbo, pi. mitaimbo. 
Crowd, kundi, pi. makundi, ma- 
kutauo, matangamano, umaati. 
Crown, taji. 

Crown of the head, upaa, utosi. 
Crumbs, vidogo, sing, kidogo. 
Crutch for oars, kilete, pi. vilete. 
Cry, kilio, pi. vilio, ukelele, pi. 
kelele, ukemi. 

(for help), yowe. 

( of joy), boihoi, kigelegele. 
Cucumber, tango, pi. mataiigo. 
Ciibit (from tlie tip of the middle 
finger to the point of the elbow), 
tbiraa, mkono, pi, mikouo. 

(from the point of the elbow to the 
knuckles when the fist is dosed), 
tbiraa konde. 
Cultivation, kilimo. 
Cultivator, mkulima, pi, wakulima. 
Cunning, cberevu, werevu. 
Cup, kikombe, pi. vikombo. 
Cupboard, saiiduku. 
Cupper, mumishi, pi. waumishi. 
Cupping horn, chuku. 
Curiosity (rarity,, kioja, pi. vioja, 

hedaya, tunu. 
Curlew, sululu, kipila. 
Current, nikondo wa maji. 
Curry, mchuzi, mtuzi (M.). 

A small seed used in making it,, 
bizari. 

An a^id thing put into itf kiungo. 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



37 



Curse^ laana, pi. malaona^ 
Curtain, pazia, pi. mapazia. 
Curve, kizingo. 
Cushion, mto, pi. mito. 
A large cushion, tokia, pi. ma- 

takia. 
Custard apple, topetope, mstofele, 

konokono, matomoko. 
Custom, desturi, mathehebu, ada. 
Custom-house, fortha. 
Customs* duties, ashur. 
Cut, a short cut, njia ya kukata. 
Cutting (hreahing off), kato, ph 

makato. 
Cuttle-fish, pweza. 
Arms of the cuttle-fish, mnyiriri, 

pi. minyiriri. 
Cutvoater of a dhow, hanamu. 
Cypher. See Cipher. 
Cymbals, matoazi, sing, toazi. 



Dof/ger, jambia (the curved dagger 
generally worn), 

Damascus, Sham. 

Dance, mchezo, pi. mlchezo. 
Names of dances, gungu, msapata, 
banzua, kitanga cha pepo, 
soma. 

Dandy, malidadi. 
Mtongozi, pi, watongozi, a man 
who dresses himself up to attract 
women. 

Danger, hatari, khofu, kicho. 

Darkness, kiza, giza (these are only 
two ways of pronouncing the 
same word, hut the first is some" 
times treated as though tlie ki- 
were a p^refix and it belonged to 
the fourth class, while the second 
is tak$n as belonging to the fifth ; 
it is probably, however, most 



correct to refer them both to the 
fourth). 
Dark saying, fumbo, pL mafumbo, 

maneiio ya fumba. 
Darling, kipendi, pi. vipendi. 
Dat^, tende. 

Date-tree, mtende, pi. mitende. 
Daughter, blnti, mtoto mke, mwana, 
kijana. 
Daughter'in'law, mkwe, pi. wa- 
kwe. 
Dawn, alfajiri, kucha. 
Day (of twenty^four hours, reckoned 
from sunset to sunset), siku. 
(time of daylight), mchana, mtana 

(M.). 
All day, mohana kutwa. 
Day labourer, kibarua, pi. vibarua 
(so called from the ticket given 
to workpeople, which they give 
up a^ain when paid). 
Daylight, mohana, mtana (M.). 
Dazzle, kiwi. 
Deal (wood), snnobari. 
Death, kufa (dying), mauti, ufu, 

mafu. "* 

Debt, deni. 
Deceit, hila, madanganya, udanga- 

nifu, hadaa» uwongo. 
Deck, sitaha, dari.* 
Deep voaier, kilindi, pi. vilindi. 

Great depths, lindo, pi. malindo. 
Defect, upungufu, ila, kombo, ki- 

punguo, pi. vipunguo. 
Deficiency, kipunguo, upuDgnfu. 
Defilement^ ujusi. 
Deliverance, wokovu. 
Demand in marriage, poso, pi. 

maposo. 
Dependant, mfuasi, pi, wafuaai. 
Depth, kwenda, ohini, uketo. 
Derision, mzaha, thihaka. 



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38 



8WAHIL1 HANDBOOK, 



Design, kusudi, pi. ina.kii8adi, nia. 
Descent, mshuko, pi. tnishuko. 
Desert, wangwa, jangwa, pi. ma- 

jangwa. 
Desolatum, ukiwa. 
Destruction, kuharibika, kupotea. 
Destructij^eness, uharibivu, tii)otevxi. 
Detachment (of soldiers, <kc.), kikoei, 

pi. vikosi. 
Device, hila, shauri, p2. mashanri. 
Devil, shetani, pi. mashetani 
Devotee, mtaowa, pL wataowsk 
Dew, umande. 

DJhow (native craft), chombo, pi. 
vyombo; when very large, jomho, 
pi. majombo. 

Kinds of dhows : — 

Dau, pi. madau, a srnaU open 
vessel sharp ai the 8t€m,wiih a square 
matting sail. They belong to the 
original inhabitants of Zanzibar, 
and are chiefly employed in bringing 
firewood to the town. 

Mtepe, pi. mitepe, a large open 
vessel sharp at the stem, with a large 
square matting^ sail ; the prow is 
made to resemble a cameTs head, and 
is ornaments wiih painting a/nd 
little streamers. The planks are 
^ewn together. There is ahjoays a 
white pennon at the masthead. These 
vessels belong chiefly to Lanioo, and 
the country near it. 

Betela, the common dhow of Zan- 
zibar : it has a square stem, with a 
low poop and a head much like those 
of European boats, 

Bagala, pi. mabigala, large dhows 
with very high square stems and tall 
poops, and long projecting prows. 
The Indian dhows are mostfy of this 
class ; they have very often a «malZ 



second masi^ rising from the poop 
(mlingote wa kalmi). 

Ghangi, they resemble the Bd- 
galas except in not being so high in 
the poop or so long irC the prow. 

Batili, a low vessel with a long 
projecting prow^ a sharp stem, and 
high rudder-head. They have often 
a flying poop and a second mast. 
They belong to the piratical Arabs 
from the Persian (hilf. 

Bedeni, a dhow with a sharp stem 
and high rudder-head, and a per- 
pendictdar cutwater ; there is often a 
piece of board attached to it, making 
a kind of head ; when this is absent 
the vessel is an Awesia. Bedens 
may easily be distinguished among 
other dhows by their masts being 
upright ; in aU other dhows the masts 
incline forward. They belong to the 
coast cf Arabia, especially that on the 
Indian Ocean. 

Dhow sail, dunmi. 

Prow, gubeti. 

Poop, shetri. 

Quarter galleries, makanadili 

Joists of deck, darumeti. 

Chunamfor bottom, deheni. 

Place fox stowing things likely to 
be soon wanted, feuli. 
Dialect, maneno, lugha. 

Dialects and languages are usuaJiy 
expressed by prefixing ki- to the 
nams of the place or p&tple. 

Kiunguja {for Maneno ya Kiu- 
Dguja), the dialect of Zanzibar 
(Ungnja). 

Kimvita, the dialect of Mombas 
(Mvita). 

Eiamu, the dialed of Lamoo 
(Amn). 



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SUBSTANTIVHS. 



39 



Kigunya, the ^Udsct of Sitoi^ ^e. 
Kiarabu, Arabic. 
Kigala, the GaUa langwige. 
Ejinaehamba, a couniry didket, 
ElsheDzi, the taik of some uneiml- 

ited naUon. 
KiuDgwana, a civilized language. 
KizuDgu, the languages spoken by 
Euuropeam. 
Diamond^ almasi. » 

Viarrhosoy tumbo la kuenenda, 
2>»e^ maakuli. 
Difference, tofautl, sivimoja. 
Difficulty, shidda, ugumu, mashaka. 
Dinner (nUd^day), chakula eba 

xndiaDa. 
Direction (bidding), fundisho, pi. 
mafundisho, agizo, pi, ma^giso. 
Dirt, faka. 

Disease, marathi, uweli, ugODJwa. 
Disfigurement, lemaa. 
Disgrace, aibu, ari, fetheha. 
Disgust, macbukio. 
Dish, sabani, kombe, pi. makombe, 
mkunga wa kulia, buugu, 
kitonga, pL vitunga (the first 
is the usual word for European 
dishes). 
An earthen disk to bake cakes on, 
waya. 
Disorder (confusion), faja See 

Diseas^. 
Display, wonyesha 
Disposal, amri 

To put at Ms disposal, kumwamria. 
Dispute, mashlndano, tofautl 
Disquiet, fathaa. 
Dissipation, asheiati, wasberati, 

usberati. 
Distortion (by disease), lemaa. 
Distress, sbidda, tbulli, utbia, msiba, 



District of a town, mta, pi. mita. 
For the districts of Zanzibar see 
Part IL, p. 330. 
Disturbance (riot), fitina. 

(trouble), kero. 
Ditch, baudaki, sbimo, pi. masbimo. 
Divine service, ibada ya Muun^u. 
Division (arithmetical), mkasama. 
Divorce, talaka. 
Dock for ships, godi. 
Doctrine, elimu, ilm, matbbab. 
Document, kbatL 
Dog, inbwa. 

Very large, jibwa, pi. majibwa. 
Bize, a wHd hunting dog. 
Mbwa wa koko, the houseless dogs 
outside Zanzibar. 
Dolly mtoto wa bandia» 
Dollar, reale, rea. 
Spanish Pillar doUar, reale ya 

mizinga. 
Black dollars, reale ya Sbam. 
American 20-doUar piece, reale ya 

tbababu. 
French silver 5'franc piece, reale 

ya ki&ansa. 
For the parts of a doUar see in the 
section on Adjectives under 
Numerals— fractions, p. 98. 
Dome, zege. 

Dominion, mamlaka, bukumu. 
Donkey, punda. 
Donkey from the mainUmd, kio- 
ngwe, pi. viongwe. 
Do(yr, iulango,|)2. milango (vulgarly t 
mwango, pi. miango). 
Leaf of door, ubaa, pi. mbau. 
Centre piece, mfaa. 
Door-keeper, mgoja mlango. 
Door chaiih, riza. 

Doorframe, top and bottom pieces, 
kizingiti, pi. vizlngicl. 



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40 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Side pieces, mwimo, miimo. 

OfUer heading, npapi. 
Dotage, mapiswa. 
Doubt, shaksk, pi. mashaka, tashifi- 

shi, waswas. 
D<we, hua. See Pigeon & Birds, 
Dowry, paid hy the husband to the 

wif^s friends, mahari. 
Dragon-fly, kering*ende. 
Dragon*s blood, maziwa (or macho), 

ya watu wawili. 
Dream, ndoto. 
Dregs, chembe. 
Dress, nguo, mavazi, mavao, uvao. 

Slaves and very poor men wear 
generaUy an ngiio only, that is, a 
loin cloth of white or blue calico. 
Women wear a kisuto, or long doth 
of blue, or printed, or coloured calico 
wrapped tightly round the body 
immediately under the arms, and on 
the head an ukaya, a piece of Hue 
calico toith two long ends ; it hxis a 
string pacing under the chin, to which 
a silver ornament, jebu, is attached. 

Well-dressed men wear a loin cloth 
with a coloured border, kikoi, a long 
shirt-like garment in white calico, 
kaDzu, a shawl, amazu, twisted 
round the waist, a loaiBtcoai, kisibao, 
and- a long loose coat, joho. On their 
heads i^iey wear a red or white skuU- 
capt kofia, and tvnsted round it a 
turban, kilemba. Their' feet qre 
slipped into sandals, viatu. 

Women wear trousers, somali, a 
kanzu of coloured mMerials and a 
kofia (cap) adorned with gold and 
spangles, or more commonly a silk 
handkerchief, dusamali, folded and 
fastened on the head so as to hide the 
liair. They also wear sometimes a 



kifiibao (embroidered waistcoat), and 
nearly always a mask, barakoa. 
When they go out they throw over all 
a large square of black sUk, lebwani. 
On their feet tftey carry wooden clogs 
held by a button (msurnake) grasped 
between the toes. 
Dressing of calico, dondo. 
DriU, keke. The iron is called 

kekee ; the wood it is fixed in, 

msukaQO ; the handle in which it 

turns, jivu ; and the bow, uta. 
Drink, kinwa (or kinywa), pi. vinwa, 

kinwaji, pi. vinwaji. 
Drinker, mnywa, pi. wanywfik 
Dripping (fat cooked out of meat), 

uto wa nyama. 
Drop, tone, pi. matone, kitone, pL 

vitone. 
Droppings (dung), mavi 
Dropsy, istiska. 

Drowsiness, leppe, leppe za nzingizi. 
Drum, ngoma. 
Chapuo, a srnaU drum. 
Kumbwaya, a drum upon feet, 
Msondo, a very tall drum, beaten 

on special occasions. 
The skin of a drum, or anything 

stretched like it very tightly, ki- 

wambo, pi. viwambo. 
Drunkard, mlevi, pi. -walevi. 
Duck, bata, pi. mabata. 
Duryan, fiDessi la kizungn. 
Dust, Yumbi, pL (much dust) ma* 

vumbL 
Dust and sand on a road, tifutifd. 
Duties. See Customs, 
Duties of one's position, kiwango, 

pi. viwango. 
Dioarf, kibeti, pi. vibetL 
Dwelling, makao, makazi, makaoi. 
Dye, rangi. [masikaui 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



41 



Mkasiri, a tree lohose hark is used 
to dye fishing-nets and lines 
hlcush, 
Ungamo, a yellow dye used to dye 
matting. 
Dysentery, tombo la kuhara damn. 

E. 
Eagerness {excessive haste), pupa. 
Eagle (?) koho, firkomba, tai, pu- 
nigu, kipaDga (all these words 
seem to denote some large bird of 
prey). 
Ear, sikio, pi, masikio. 
Hole pierced in the lower lobe of 

the ear, ndewe. 
Ear ornaments, a large round 
ornament in the lowgr lobe, 
jassi, pi. majassl. 
Ornaments in the upper part of 
the ear, if dangling, kipuli, pi. 
vipuli ; if shaped like a stud, 
kipini, pi. vipini. 
Ear-ring, pete ya masikio. 
Ear of com, suke, pi. masnke. 
See Buntih, Cob. 
Earnest money, arabuni, stakabathi. 
Earth, inclii, udongo. 

The earth, inchi, ulimwengu, 
Ease, raha. [dunia. 

After pain, faraja. 
Ea>8t wind, matlaa. 
Eaves, mchilizi, pi. michilizi. 
Eavesdropper, ^\x)idz\ (or duzi), pi. 
madukizi. 



, mpmgo. 
Echo, mwangwi. 
Edge (of a precipice), iikingo. 
(Of a piece of cloth), pindo, pi. 
mapindo. 
• Edging woven into a piece of doth, 
taraza. 



Ejfort, juhadi, bidii. 

Effusion {of blood), vilio (la damn), 

- pi. mavilio. 
^99^ yayi» pl- mayayi. 
White of egg^ ute wa yayi. 
Yolk of an egg, kiini cha yayi. 
Eggshell, ganda la yayi. 
Empty eggshell, kaka. 
Egypt, Misri, Masri, Mdssara. 
Elbow, kisigino, pi. visigino, kivi, 

pi. vivi. 
Elder, mzee, pi. wazee, sheki, pi. 

masheki. 
Elegance, jamala. 
Elephant, tembo, ndovu. 
Elephantiasis (leprosy), jethamu. 

(JBarbadoes leg), teende. 
Embarrassment, matata, uthia, ma- 



Embroidery, almaria. 
(stitching), darizi. 
(piping), kigwe, pi. vigwe. 
Embroilment, matata. 
Emetic, tapislio, pi. matapisho; dawa 

la kutapika. 
Employment, kazi, utamwa. 
Emulation, bidii. 
Encampment {of a caravan), kituo, 

pi. vituo. 
Enclosure, uanja, ua, pi. nyua. 
Enclosure m>ade by a fence of 
cocoa-nut leaves, ua wa ma- 
kuti. 
Enclosure made by a fence of 

mtaTna stalks, ua wa mabua. 
Enclosure with (^ stone fence, 
kitalu, pi. vitalu. 
End, mwisho, pi. miisbo (finishing), 
hatima, kikomo, pi, vikomo 
(leaving off), 
of a journey, lddko,pl, vifiko. 
of a piece of cloth, mialamu. 



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42 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



End or corners of a turban ehthy <fe<J., 

tamyna, kishungi, pL vishungi. 
Enemy, adui, pi. ad ui or maadui. 
Engagement^ shnghuli, ntumwa. 
Enigmay Mtendawili, pt vitenda- 

wili 
Enmity, wadoi, adawa, khunima. 
EntftLiUy matnmbo. 
Entrance^ kuingia, pakaingUia, 

mlango. 
Envy, hasidi, kijicho, kijito (M.). 
Epdepsyy kifafa. 
Equal {in age% hirimu, marika. 
Equivalent, badala. 
Error, kosa, makosa. 
Eructation, klungulia,|)Z. yitmgnlia. 
Escape, wokovu, kuokoka. 

(other course), buddi. 
Esteem, mapendo, maafikano. 
Estimate, maafikano. 
Eternity, milele. 
Eunuch, tawashi, maksai 
Euphorbia^ mtupa, pi. mitapa. 
Europe, Ulaya, Wilaya^ U2un«ru. 
European {or any one wearing a 

European dress), Mzttngu, pi. 

Wazungu. 
Efte, Hawa. 
Evening, jioni. 
Event {startling), sham. 
Evil, novu. 

Exaltation, ntxikntn, athama. 
Example, mfano, pi. mifano. 
Excrement, mavi. 
Expense, gharama. 
EaUingui^ier, mzima (o person), pi, 

wazima, kizima (a thing), pi. 

vizima. 
Eye, jicho, pi maoho, jito (M.), pi. 

mato. 
Loss of an eye, chongo. 
Eyebrow, nynahi, nshi (A.). 



Eyelash or Eyelid, kope. 
A stye in the eye, ohochei 



eye, ohochea. 

F. 

Fahle, ngano. 
Face, uso, pi nyoso. 
Fasces, mayL 
Faggot, tita, j^Z. matita. 
Faiih, imani 
FcUl, maangnko. 
Fals^iood, uwongo. 
Familiarity, mazoezo. 
Family, jamaa, ndugu. 
Famine, njaa, ndaa (M.)« 
Fan, upepeo pL pepeo, pepeo, pi, 
mapepeo, kipepeo, pi, vipepeo. 
Fare, nardi 
Fast, fuQga. 

Fasting month, Bamathani 
Fat, shahama, mafuta. 
A piece of faty kipande kilicho- 

nona. 
Fal cooked out of meat, uto wa 
nyama. 
Fate, ajali. 
Father, baba. 

In speaking of one*» oton father U 

is polite to call him bwatia. 
Stepfalher, baba wa kambo. 
Father-in-law, mkwe. pi. wakwe. 
Fathom, pima, pi. mapima. 
Fatigue, utufu, idegevu. 
Falling, kinono, pi, vinono. 
FauU, hatiya, kosa, pi makosa. 
Favour, upendeleo. 
A favour, fathili. 
Favourite, kipendi, pi, Tipendi, 

mpenzi, pi wapenzi. 
Fear, khofti, noga, kitisbo, pi, 

vitisho, kioho, pi, vicho. 
Feast, karamu. 
Feast day, siku kuu. 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



43 



FecUher, nnyoa, pi. nyoa, nyoa (or 
nyoya), pi, manyoya. 
A wing feathery abawa,|)Z. mbawa. 

Feeder, mlishi, pi. walishi. 

FelXow-^ervanty mjoli, pi. wajoli 

Fencey ua, pi. nyna. 
Stone fence, kitalu,|?Z. vitalu. 

Fenugreek, watu. 

Ferry, kivuko, pi. vivnko. 

Fetters, pingu. 

Fever, homa. 
Swelling of the glands of the groin 

foUoioed hy fever, mtoki. 
Dengue fever, kidinga popo. 

Field, koonde, pi. makoonde, mgu- 
nda (Yao). 

Field labourer, mkulima, pi. waku- 
lima. 

Fierceness, ukali. 

Fig, tini. 

Fig-tree, mtini, pi. mitini. 

Fight, mapigano. 

Figure of speech, mfano wa maneno. 

FUagree work, temsi. 

File, tapa. 

FiUei, utepe, pi. tepe. 

FiUh, uchavu, janaba. 

Fin, pezi, pH. mapezi. 

Fine for a murder, dia. 

Fineness, nzori. 

Finger, kidole, pi. vidole, kidole cha 
mkoDO, ohanda (}IL.),pl. vyanda. 

Fire, moto, pi. mioto. 
Pieces of wood to get fire hy twist- 
ing, upekecho. 
Firevaood, koni, one piece, nknni. 
A half -burnt piece of firewood, 

kinga, pi, yinga. 
The act of pushing the wood further 
into the fhe, or an instrument for 
doing «o,kichocheo,kitoteo (M,)« 

Fireptaoe^ jiko, pi, meko, meko, 



pi. mieko, hence "kitchen, jikoni, 

mekoni. 
Three stones to set a pot over the 

fire upon, jifya, pi. mafya, figa, 

pi. mafiga. Jifya w tft« vjord 

most used in the town, figa that 

used in the country. 
Firefly, kimurimuri, pi. yimurimiiri, 

kimetimeti, pi. vimetimetL 
Firmament, anga (?). 
Firmness, asimeme, iU^biti» (in 

building) mtomo. 
Fish, samaki. 
Dagaa, very small, smaU fry. 
Njombo, barred,* with black Ofnd 



Taa, a very large flat fish. 

Pono, a fish said to be nearly 

always asleep. 
Other kinds, Ohafi, Changu, 
Ohewa, Kungu, Mchumbulura, 
Mkizo, Mwewe, Mzia, Nguni, 
Nguvfl, Psuizi, Pungu. The 
varieties of fish are exceedingly 
numerous, 
Cbinusi, a kind of fish or evU 
spirit never seen, but which is 
supposed to seize men and held 
them under water until they are 
drowned. 
Fish-trap, dema, lema, cma. 
Fish poison from a species of 
Euphorbia, ntupa. 
Fisherman, mvuTi, pi. wavnvi. 
Fist, konde, pi. makonde. 
FiU, kifafa. 
Flag, bandera. 
Flat (of a sword, Ac), bapa. 
Flatterer, msifu, pi. wasifu, msifu- 
mno. 
Self-flatterer, rawajisifuni. 
Flattery, kasifa. 



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44 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Flavour^ luththa, tmnu. 

FlaXf katani, kitani 

Flea, kiroboto, pi viroboto. 

Fhshy nyama. 

Fleshiness^ mnofu. 

Flint gun, bunduki ya gumegume. 

Fhody ghurika. 

Floor, chini. 

Chunammed floor, sakufu. 
Upper floor or roof, dari. 
Flower, ua, pi. maua. 
Flite, Tumbi, pi. {much) mavumbi. 

A flue, dohaan. 
Flute, filimbi, pi. mafilimbi. 
Fly, inzi, pi. mainzi. 
Foam, povu. 

Fog, umande, kangu, shemali. 
Fold {of cloth), upindo. 

CatHe-fold, zizi, pL mazizi. 
Foliage, majani. 

FoUmoeY, mfuasi, pi. wafoasi, cho- 
kora, ph macliokora (a hanger- 
on). 
Folly, upumbafa. 
Fondness, mahaba. 
Food, ohakula, makuli (Ar.), kande 
(Mer.). 
Food saved from an evening meal 
to he eaten in the morning, wali 
wa mwikuu, bariyo (A.). 
Bokoboko, a dish made of wheat 

and meat 
Bumbwi, rice flour pounded up 

with cocoa-nut. 
Pilao, an Indian piUaw, 
Birinzi. 
Fool, mpiimbafu, pi. wapumbafu. 
Foot, mguu, ph miguu, guu, pi. 
maguu, mjiguu, pi. mijiguu 
(large), kijiguu, pi vijiguu 
(smaU). 
Footprint, uayo, pi nyayo. 



Footing — to make him pay his foot' 
ing, kumshika bakali. 

Forbidden thing, haramu, maruf uku. 

Force, nguvu. 

Ford, kivuko, pi vivuko. 

Forehead, paji la uso. 
Brow, kikomo cba uso. 

Foreigner, mgeni, pi wageni, mja 
na maji, pi waja na maji {from 
over seas). 

Forelock, panja. 

Foreskin, govi mbo. 

Forest, mwitu, lusita. 

Fork, kiuma, pi. viuma. 

Forking of a road, tree, &o., panda. 

Form (outward shape), \xmho,^pl 
maumbo. 

Fort, gereza, ngome, husuni. 

Fortune, bahati, nasibu. 

Fortune'teUerQyy m^ans of diagrams), 
mpiga ramli, pi waptga ramli. 

Foster brother or sister, ndug^ 
kunyonya. 

Foundation, msingi or msinji, pi 
misiDgi. 

Fowls, k'uku. 

Fox, mbweha. 

Fraud, hadaa, madanganya. 

Freedom {from, slavery) huru, {per^ 
mission) ruksa, ruhusa. 

Freight, nauli. 

Friday, Jumaa. 

Friend, TQ£ik\,pl rafiki or marafiki, 
sahibu, pi as'habu, khoga 
{amongst women, and in Zanzi- 
bar only. See Catamite). 

Fright, khofu, woga. 
(a start), kituko. 

Fringe, matamvua. 

Frog, chula, pi vyula. 

Fruit, tunda, pi matunda, zao, pH, 
mazao. 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



45 



Bungu, pi. mabnnga, about the 
size of a medlar, toith a thick 
russet skin. 
Mazu, a kind of banana. 
Zambarau, like a large damson. 
Chokochoko, a red prickly skin, 
a large kernel, and white pulp. 
KunazT, something like a sloe. 
Kitoria, pi. vitofia. — Koma, pi. 
makonua. — Fun, ph mafuu. 
— Mtofaa. 
Fruit which drops prematurely, 

pooza, pi. mapooza. 
Fruit-stalk, (of ehves) kikonyo, 
pi. vikonyo, (of bananas) mku- 
ngu, pi. mikuDgu. 
Frying-pan, (metal) tawa, pi. 
matawa, (earthen) kaango, pi. 
makaango. 
Fugitive, mkimbizi, pi. wakimbizi. 
Fume, nzraa, fukizo. 
Fun, mchezo, mzaba. 
Funeral, kuzikani. 
Furnace (for melting metal), kalibu. 
Furniture, pambo la nyumba, 
vyombo. 

G, 
Gain, fiiyida. 
Gait, mwendo. 
Galago, komba. 
GaJbannm, ubani. 
Gall, safuTH. 

GaUa, Mgala, pi. Wagala. 
Game, ( produce of hunting) mawi- 
ndo, (amusement) mcbezo, ma- 
chezo. 
BsiO, played on a board with thirty- 

two holes in it. 
Maliyandimu, a game in which 
one' holds down his head, some 
other knocks it, and he guesses 
who struck him. 



Tiabu, played by throuHng up 
sticks, &c., and watching their 
fall. 
Dama, played on a board like 

chess. 
Tasa, a game of touch. 
Tinge, a game consisting in follow- 
ing the movements of a leader. 

Garden, bustani, shnmba. 

Gate, mlango, pi. milango. 
Gate of Paradise, kilaogo cha 
jaba. 

Gazelle, paa. 

General, jemadari, pi. majemadari. 

Generation, kizazi, pi. vizazi. 

Generosity, ukarimu. 

Genius, Jini, pi. Majini. 

Gentlem£tn,mngwaiia., pi. wangwana. 

Gentleness, upole. 

Georgian woman, Jorjiya. 

Gettings, pato, pi. mapato. 

Ghee, samli. 

Glwst, kivuli, pi. vivuli. 

Ghoul, zimwi, pi. mazimwi. 

Giddiness, ma sua, mbasua, kizu- 
nguzungu. 

Gift, zawudi (a keepsake), tunu (o 
choice thing), bashishi (Jia,rgess), 
ada (customary gift), kilemba 
(gift on the completion of a work 
or to the bride* s father), wapo. 

Ginger, tangawizi. 

Giraffe, twiga. 

Girder, mhimili, pi. mihimiii. 

Girdle, roshipi, pi. misbipi, masombo 
(of cloth), maazamu (a shaiol), 
kibobwe, pi. vibobwe (a piece 
of cloth tied round the body 
during hard work). 

Girl, kijana, pi. vijana. 
Slave girl, kijakazi, pi, vijakazi 

Girth, kivimba. 



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46 



SWAmil HANDBOOK. 



Gizzard, firigUi. 
Gladness, fiiraha. 
Glance, nathiri. 
Glare, anga. 
Glass, kioo. 

Looking-glass, Idoo, pi, yioo. 

Drinking-glass, bilauri 
Glitter, kimeta. 
Glory, sifa, fakhari, utukufu. 
Glue (or gwm), embwe. 
Glutton, mlafi, pi. walafi. 
Croai, mbuzi. 

A strong he-goat, bebera (Ar.). 
Go-betvjeen, kijumbe, pt vijmnbe. 
GOD, MUUNGU, pi, miungu. 
Ghntre, tezi. 
Gold^ thahabu. 
Goldsmith, mfua thahabu, pi. wafua 

thahabu. 
Good luck, ghauima, jaha. 
Goodness, wema. 

Goods, mali {possessUms), vyombo 

(utensils), bithaa {merchandise). 

Goose, bata la Bukini, pi. mabata 

ya Bukini. 
(Gonorrhoea, kisunono. 
Gourd. See Pumpkin. 
Gout, jongo. 

Goverruyr, wall, liwali, pi. maliwali. 
Government, serkali, daulati. 

An official, mtu wa serkali. 
Grain. See Com. 

Cleaned grain, mchele. 

Cooked grain, wall 

Grains of com, punje, ohembe. 
Grandchild, mjukuu, pi. wajukuu. 

Great-grandchild, kijukuu, pi. 
vijukuu, kitukuu, pi, yitukuu, 
kUembwe, pi. vilembwe. 

GTeat-great-grandchild,kimBgin& . 
pi. viningiua. 
Grandfather, babu. 



Grandmother, bibL 

Great-grandmother, mzaa bibL 
Grammar, sdruf. 
Grapes, zabibu. 
Gratitude, shukraoi. 
Grass, nyasi, majani, nyika. 

grass cut for fodder, ukoJca. 
Grasshopper, paozi, pi. mapaozL 
Grave, kaburi, pi. makaburi. 
In the grave, after death, ahera, 
kuzimu. 
Greatness, ukubwa, ukuu, utukufu. 
Greediness, choyo, roho» tamaa. 
Chrey hairs, mvi. 
Gridiron, uma wa kuokea nyama, 

pi. nyuma za kuokea nyama. 
Grief, sikitiko, kasarani, msiba, 
huzuni, hamu, simanzif 
{for a loss), majonzL 
Crrime (on a pot), masizL 
Grit (small stones), ohangarawi. 
Groom, mchunga, pi. wachunga, 

mtunga (M.), pi. watunga. 
Ground, chiui, inchi. 
Ground nuts, mjugn nyasa, (a hard 

round kind) mjugu mawe. 
Grudging person, hiana. 
Gruel, uji. 

Guard, mlinzi, jpZ. waliuzi. 
Guava, mpera, pi. mapera. 

Guava-tree, mpera, pi. mipera. 
Gu^t, mgeni, pi. wageuL 
Guide, rubani, kiongozi, pZ. yiongozi, 

mkuu genzi. 
Gvdtar, kinanda, pi. yinanda. 
Guinea fowl, kanga. 

(a crested kind), kororo. 
Crum (birdlime, &c.), ulimbo. 
Gum {of the teeth), ufizi, pi. fizi. 
Gum Arabic, haba, sumugh. 
Gum Amini or Copal, sandarusi. 
Gun, bunduki. 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



47 



Flint ^n.bunduki ya gnmegome: 

ixun-harrtly kasiba. 

Nipple^ kifa, pL yifa. 

(rtm-oop, fataki. 

€hin-lock, mtambo, pi. mitambo. 

(cannon^ mzinga, pi. iJHzinga.. 

Gun-carriage, ^orudumo la 
mzinga. 
Gtmpowderf baruti. 
ChU, tumbo, pi. matumbo. 

H. 

H. The guttural Arabic h, ha ngpe. 
The softer Arabic h, he mdawari. 
Habii$y mazoezo, matheheba. 
HaBtnorrhoidB, baw6isir. 
Haft, mpini, pi. mipini, kipini, pi. 

vipini. 
Hair, nyele (or nwel©), sing, unyele. 
(of (he hea^), ndevn, sing, udevu. 
(of the lody, especiaUy of the 

pubes), mavnzi, sing. vnzi. 
(of the eydyrow), nyushi, sing. 

unyashi. 
(of the eyelash), kope, sing, ukope. 
(of tJie hand and arm), malaika, 

sing, laika. 
(of an animal), singa^ 
Straight hair, nyele za singa. 
Woolly hair, nyele za kipillpili. 
Half, nnsu. 
A half orange, cocoa-nut, <fec.,kizio, 
pi. vizio. 
Halyards, henza. 
Bope^ passing through the puUey 
of the halyards, jarari. 
Hammer, nyundo. 
Hand (or arm and hand), mkono, 
pi. mikono. 
Palm of the hand, kitanga cha 
lakono, pL yitanga vya mikono. 
Front of the hand, kofi, pL makofi. 



Inmde of the fingers, kikoft, pi. 
vikofi. 
Handful (that wiU lie on the haofid), 
ukiifi,^kufi. 
(that which will lie on the two 

hands), chopa, pi. machopa. 
(that can he grasped in the hand), 
koDzi, pi. makonzi. 
Handkerchief, leso. 
Pocket handkerchief, leso ya ku- 
futia kamasi. 
Handle (like a knife-handle), mpini, 
pi. mipini, kipini, pi. vipinL 
(projecting like thai of a sauce- 
pan), kono, mkono, pL mikono. 
(bowed like that of a bucket), 
utambo, pi. tambo. 
Handwriting, khati, mwandiko. 
Hanger-on, chokora, pL maobokora. 
Happiness, furaha, fnrabani, raha. 
Harbour, bandari, bundari. 
Hardness, ug^mu. 
Hare. See Babbit. 
Harm, mathara. 
Harness, matandiko. 
Harp, Mnubi, pi. vinubi. 
Harpoon, chnsa, pi. vyusa. 
Harvest, mavuno. 
Haste, haraka, hima. 
Hat, cbapeo. 

Hatchet, kiahoka, pi. vishoka, kitoka 
(M.), pi. vitoka, upamba, pi. 
pamba. 
Hatred, machukio, bootha. 
Hawk, mwewe. 
Hawker, dalali. 

Head, kitwa (or kichwa), pi. 
vitwa. 
A little head, kijitwfi^ pi. vljitwa. 
Head of a ship, omo. 
Head winds, pepo za omo. 
Head cloth worn by women, ukaya 



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48 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



(of blue calico), dueamali (of 

silk). 
Headship, ujumbe. 
Healing things, mapoza. 
Health, uzima, afia, hali {state). 
Heapj fungu, pi. mafungu, 

chungu. 
of stones, boma, pi. maboma. 
of wood and sticks^ biwi, pi. 

mabiwi, kichaka, pi. vichaka. 
of earth, kisugulu, pi visugulu. 
' (a raised bed), tuta, pi. matuta. 
Heart, moyo, pi mioyo, or nyoyo, 

mtima, pi mitima. 
Heat, moto, hari (sweat), harara 

(prickly heat). 
Heaven, mbingu, sing, uwingu, 

samawati (Ar.). 
Heavinsss {weight), uzito. 

(sorrow), hamu. 
Hedge, ua, pi. nyiia. 
Hedge made in the sea for taking 

fish, uzio, pi nyuzio. 
Heel, kifundo (or kisigino) cha 

mguu. 
Heifer, mtamba, pi mitamba. 
Heir, miithi, pi wari^M. 
Help, msaada. 
Hem, upindo. 

Hemp. See Cannabis Indica. 
Hempen rope, kamba ulayiti. 
Hen, k'uku. 
Laying hen, koo, pi makoo. 
Hen, fuU grown, but tltat has not 

yet laid, t'embe. 
Henna, hina. 

Herd, kundi, pi makundi. 
Herdsman, liiohunga, pi waohunga, 

mtunga (M.), pi watunga. 
Hero, shujaa, pi mashujaa, fahali, 

pi mafahali. 
Heroism, ushujaa. 



Hesitation, msangao. 
(in speaking), kubabaika. 

Hickup, kwikwe. , 

Hidden thing, fumbo, pi mafumbo. 

Hide, ngozi. 

Hill, kilima, pi vilima. 
A rocky hiU, jabali, pi. .maja- 
bali. 

Hilt, kipini, pi. vipini. 

Hindrance, kizuizo, kizuio, kizuizK 
It is said that Br. Krapf, being 
on one occasion delayed from 
day to day, in obedience to 
superior orders, said to those 
who delayed him: — Kesho na 
keslio ni madauganya, ao ni 
noakatazanya. " To-morrow 
and to-morrow is deceiving or 
forbidding ;** to which ihey re- 
plied: — Si madanganya wala 
si makatazanya, ni mazuiza- 
nya. " It is not deceiving, and 
it is not forbidding, it is delay- 
ing.'* 

Hinge, patta, bawaba. 

Hip, nyonga (?), tokono (A.). 

Hippopotamus, kiboko, pi viboko, 
tomondo. 

Hire, taja, ijara, ujira. 

History, hadithi. 

Hoarseness, kupwewa na sauti. 

Hoe, jembe {or gembe), pi ma- 
jembe. 

Hoeing-up time, mapalilo. 

Hold (of a ship), ngama. . 

Hole, tundu, pi. matundu. 
(through anything), kipenyo, pi. 

vipenyo. 
(dibbled for seeds or plants), ko- 

rongo, pi makorongo. 
Hole to give light and air, mwa- 
ngaza, pi miangaza. 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



49 



Hole in the lower 'lobe of the ear, 
ndewe. 
Holiness, ntakatifu, matakatifii. 
HoOow (of a tree), myungu. 
HoUoumess, uvnrungu. 
Home, kwangu, kwako, kwake, 
kwetu, kwenu, kwao, a/icording 
to the person whose home it is. 
1 hav6 some at home, iko kwanga. 
Honey, asali ya nyukL 
Honour, heahima, likariina, utu- 

kufa. 
Hoof, ukwato, pi. kwato, kwata. 
Booh (fish-hook), doana. 
(used to steady work vdth), 
kiilabu. 
Hope, matunudni. 
Hordeolum, chokea. 
Horn, pembe, pi., pembe or ma- 
pembe. 
An antelopt^s horn used as a 
trumpet, baragmnu. See 
Musical Ijistruments. 
Horse, farasi, fras. 
Host (a/rmy or multitude), jeshi, pi. 
majesbi 
Host (entertainer), mwenyeji, pi. 
wenyeji 
Hostility, wadui, adawa. 
Hour, saa. 
House, nyninba. 
(large), jumba, pi, majumba. 
(small), kijumba, pi. vijumba. 
Household of slaves, kijoli. 
Hum, mavumi 
Humility, unenyekeo. 
Hump (of an ox), nundu. 

{of a humpback), kigongo. 
Hunger, njaa, ndaa (M.). 
Hundred, mia. 

Two hundred, miteen. 
Hunter, mwinda, pi. wawinda. 



Hurry, haraka. 

Husband, mume, ph wamne. 

Husk, ganda, pi. maganda. 

Husk and bran of rice, kumvi. 

Husk of the cocoa-nut, makmnbi. 
Hut, kibanda, pi. yibands. 
Hyaena, fisi, pisi. 

Spotted hyxna, kingubwa. 
Hydrocele, mshipa, pumbo, kito- 

nga(?) 
Hypocrite, mnafiki, pi. wanafiki. 

I. 

Ibo, Wibo. 

Idiot, hayawani. 

Idleness, uvivu. 

Idolater, kafiri. pi. makafiri. 

Ignorance, ujinga. 

Image, sanamu. 

Imperial. See Beard. 

Imprecation, apizo, pi. maapizo. 

Imprisonment, kifungo. 

Incense, buhuri, ubani, uvumba 

uudi. See Censer. 
Income, pato. 
Independence, upweke. 
Indian (heathen), Banyani, pi Ma 

banyani. 
Indian {Mc^ommedan), Muhindi 

pi. Wahindi. 
Indian rubber, mpira. 
Indian corn, muhiodi. See Maize 
Infection, kuambukiza. 
Infidel, kafiri, pi. makafiri 
Infirmity, uthalfu. 
Information, habari. 
Ingenuity, uyuzi, umabeli. 
Inheritance, urithi. 
Inheritor, mrithi, pi. warif^i. 
Ink, wino. 

Inkstand, kidau cha wino. 
Inlaid work, Djumu. 



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50 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Innovation, mzuzi, pi. mi2tizi. 
Innovator, mzushi, pi. wazushi. 
Insect, mdudu, pZ. wadudu. 

Paange, gadfly. 

Manyiga, hornet. 

Dudu vule, a baring hornet 

Bunzi, pi. mabunzi, a stinging 

fly- 

Vunja jungo, a mantis. 

Boroshoa. a long-shaped Hack 
insect found in dust-heaps. 
Insolence (self-sufficiency), kinaya. 
Instruction, mafundisho. 
Instruments (nautical), vipande vya 

kupimia. 
Insult, tukano, pi. matukano. 
Intellect, akili {generally treated as 

a plural noun of Class III.). 
Intention, nia, kasidi. 
Interpretation, tafsiri. 
Interpreter, mkalimani, pi. wakali- 

mani, posoro. 
Intestines, matumbo. 

STuall intestines, chango. 
Interruption, kizuizo, pi. yizuizu. 
Intoxicating thing, kileo, pi. vileo. 
Intoxication, kileo, kulewa. 
Intruder, kizushi, pi. vizuslii, fisadi 
(one who enters a house without 
lawful purpose). 
Invalid, mgonjwa, pi. wagonjwa. 
Iron, chuma. 

A piece of iron, chuma, pi. vyuma. 
Iron bar, mtaimbo, pi. mitaimbo. 
Island, kis>iwa, pi. visiwa. 
Itch, upele, pele. 
Itching, moyeo. 
Ivory, pembe. 

a large tusk, buri. 

J. 

Jackal, mbwa wa mwitu. 



Jackfruit, fineei, pi. mafiaesL 

Jackfruit tree, mfineei, pi. mi- 
finesi. 
Jar (for carrying water), mtungi, 
pi. mitungi. 

Jar (large), kasikL 
Jasmine, jasmini 
Jaw, taya. 
Jealousy, uwivu. 

Jealous anger, gheiri. 

To toeep for jealousy, kulia ngoa. 
Jewel, johari 
Jin, jini, pi. majini. 
Johanna, Anzwani. 
Joint, kiungo, pi. viuugo. 

(in a cane), fundo, pi. mafondo. 

(piece between two joints in a 
cane), pingili. 
Joist, boriti. 
Joke, ubishi. 
Journey, safari, mwendo. 

Two dayt^ journey, mwendo wa 
siku mbili. 
Joy, furaiia. 

Judge, kathi, pi. makatbi, mwa- 
muzi, pi. waamuzi, mwamua, 
pi. waamua. 
Judgment, hukumu, maamuzi. 
Jug, kopo, pi. makopo. 
Juice, maji. 
Justice, haki. 



Keel, mkukn, utako (Mer.). 
Kernel, kisa, pi. visa. 
Kettle, kanderinya. 
Key, ufunguo, pi. funguo. 
Kick, teke, pi. mateke. 
Kidney, nso, figo (M.). 
Kind, namna, ginsi, edna. 
Kind, sort or style is expressed by 
ki. prefixed to the pUice, thing. 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



51 



or 'people. Eihindi, ihe Indian 
tort, KizuDgu, the European 
sort. 
Yiatu yya Eihindi, shoes like 

those worn by the Indiaiu. 
Viazi vya Kizungu, sweet potatoes 
of the European sort^ ie. potatoes. 
Mavazi ya kifaume, robes of the 
kingly sort, royal robes. 
Kindness, wema. 
Every kindness, killa jambo la 

wema. 
A kindness, fathili. 
Kindred, ndngu, jamaa. 
Utani, the belonging to a kindred 

race. 
Mtani, pi. watani, a person of a 
kindred race. 
King, mfalme, pi. wafalme, malki, 
maliki. 
Chess king, shah. 
Kingdom, ufahne, ufalmne, ufaume, 

milki, mulki. 
Kinsman, ndugu, jamaa. See 

Kindred. 
Kiss, busu. 

Kitchen, jikoni, mekoni 
Kite (bird), mwewe. 

(toy), tiara. 
Knee, gote, pi. magote, ondo, pi. 

maoodo (A.). 
Knife, kisu, pt. visu. 
(large), jisu, pi. majisu. 
Kotama, a curved knife used in 

getting palm wine. 
Shembea, a kind of curved knife. 
Knight (chess), frasi. 
Knot, fundo, pi. mafundo. 
Knowingness, iijuvi, ujazi, werevu. 
Knowledge, maarifa, elimu, hekima. 
Koran, korani, furakanu, msahafu. 
It is divided into thirty juzuu, 



which together make a khitima 
nzima. 

L. 

Labour, kazL 
Labour pains, utungu. 

Lac (100,000), lakkL 

Ladder, ngazi. 

Ladle made out of a cooocH^ut, kata, 
pi. makata (deep, used to dip 
up water with) ; upawa, pi. 
pawa (shallow, used for gravy, 
curry, &c.). 

Lady, bibi, mwana mke wa kiu- 
ngwana. 
Lady of the house, mwana. 
Ladylove, mchumba. 

Lake, ziwa la maji, pi. maziwa. 

Lamoo, Amu. 

Lamp, taa. 

Lampstand, a piece of wood loith 

two flal pieces projecting at 

right angles on which the lamp 

is placed, mwango, pi. miango. 

Lampwick, utambi, pi. tambL 

Land, inchi, nti (M.). 

Landing-place, diko, pL madiko, 
liko, pi. maliko. 

Language, lugha, maneno. The 
language of a place or nation 
is expressed by the use of the 
prefix ki-. Maneno ja Eiu- 
nguja or Kiunguja,^^ language 
of Zanzibar. Kinyamw^zi, the 
langua>ge of the Nyamwezi 
tribe. See Dialect 
FiUhy and insulting language, 
matukano. 

Languor, utepeteva. 

Lantern, fanusi, kandill, pt ma- 
kaudilL 

Lappet, kishungi, pi. yishungi. 

£ 2 



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52 



SWAMILI HANDBOOK, 



Large$8, takarima, bashishi. 

Lathe, keezo. 

Laugh, cheko, pi. maoheko, kioheko, 

pi. vicheko. 
Law, sheria, hukiimu. 
Lead, risasi, rusasi. 

(^for sounding), bildi. 
Leader, kiongozi, pi. viongozi. 
Leaf {of a tiree), jani, pi. majani. 
{of a 60coa-nut tree), kuti, pi. 

makuti. 
Leaf {qf a hooh), ukurasa, pi. 
kurasa. 
Lean-to, ki^nu, pi. vipenu. 
Learning, elimu. 
A man of learning, mwana wa 
chuoni. 
Leather, ngozi, ngovi. 
Leave, ruksa, ruhusa. 

To take leave, kuaga. 
Leaven, ohachu, hamin. 
Lee side, npande wa chini. 
Leech, mmba, pi. miraba, mdudu 

alyonzaye damn. 
Lefthandedness, shoto. 
Leg {or foot), mguu, pi. miguu. 
{of a native bedstead), tendegu, 

pi. matendegu. 
Loss of the use of the legs, kitewe, 
kiwete. 
Leg ring. See Anklet. 
Legend, hadithi. 
Leisure {private time), faragha, 

makini. 
Lemon, limao, pi. malimao. 
Length, urefu. 
Leopard, chui, tui (M.)- 
Leprosy, ukoma, balanga, jethamu, 

matana. 
Letter, waraka, pi. nyaraka, Larua, 
khati. 
Letter {of the alphabet), heiufu. 



Lever, mvukuto, pi. mitnkuto. 
Liar, mwoDgo, pt wawongo. 
Liberality, nkarimu. 
Licentiousness, Washerati. 
Licorice, bus. * 

Lid, kifimiko,|)Z. vifuniko, klbif^ pi. 

vibiu, mkungu wa kufimikia. 
Lie, wongo, uwongo. 
Life, uzima (health), maisha {con- 
tinuance), roho {soul). 
Light, nuru, weupe, mwafigft, pi. 
mianga, anga, pi. maanga 
{glare). 
Lighthole, mwangaza, pi. mia- 

ngaza. 
Lights {of an animal), yavuyavu. 
Lightning, umeme. 
Like {similar thing), Mfani, pi. 

vifani. 
Likeness, mfano, pi, mifano, kifano, 

pi. vifano, sanamu, sura. 
Lims, chokaa. 

Lime {fruit), dimu. 
Sweet lime, dimu tamu. 
Limit, mpaka, pi. mip&ka (boun- 
dary), Mnga (block), upoo 
{what cannot be surpassed). 
Line, mstari, pi. mistari (drawn}, 
safu (row), ugwe (cord), shairi 
(line of verse). 
Linen, kitani. 
Lining of a kanzu round the throat, 

kaba. 
Lion, simba. 
Lip, mdomo, mlomo, or mwomo, pi. 

midomo, milomo, or miomo. 
Lip-ring, ndonya. 
Liquid, maji, kiowevu. 
Lisp, kitembe. 
Litter {carried by four men), 

machera. 
Little pieces, vidogo, sing, kidogo. 



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SUBISTANTIFE/?. 



53 



Idver^ ini, pi. vapAnL 
Lizard, nyusi, pi. wajusL 
Large water lizard^ kenge. 
Kinds of Uzards, mgurugunj, pi. 
waguruguru — gorong'ondwa — 
.kiuma mbuzi— mjumbt^aka — 
nyisikafiri. 
XjQod, mzigo, pi. mizigcK 
Loaf, mkate, pi. mikate. 
Loan, maazimo, karatha. 
Lock, kitasa, pi. vitasa Q)Ox lock), 
Borneo or gomeo (a iiaUve 
wooden lock), kufuli, pi. maku- 
fuli {padlock). 
Locust, mzige, pi. wazig©, nzige. 
Log, gogo, pi. magogo. 

(nautical), batli. 
Loin cloth, nguo, doii, kikoi, pi. 

mkoi {vntk a striped hofder). 
Loins^ kjuno, pi. viuno. 
Longing, uchu, tamaa, ha.wft. 
Look, nathari. 

Looking^qjfiLSS, fcioo, pL vioo. 
Loop, kitanzi, pi. vitanxi* 
Loops to ha^ t^ a hoai by, 
kishwara. 
Loss, hasara. 
Lots, kiira. 
Louse, chawa, tawa. 
Love,* shauko, mapenzi, habba, 

mahabu, pendo, mapendq. 
Imok, babati, nasibu. 

Messenger of iU luck, korofi. 
Lukewarmness, uvuguvugn, 
Lumbrici, cbango. 
Lwup, fungo, pi mafungo, fumba, 
pl. mafamba. 
Jjttmp {as in flour), kidonge, pl. 
vidonge, yumbu, pl. mayumbu. 
Lump (of meat), chinyango. 
Lunacy, kichaa, soda. 
Lunatic^ mwenyi kiphaa. 



Lungs, pafa, pnmn, yavuyavu (cf 

an animal). 
Lust, hawa. 

M. 

Mace (spice), basbaai. 

M(nehine, samani, mtambo, pl. mi- 

tambo. 
Madagascar, Buki, Bukini 
Madness, wazimo, mahoka (country 

dialect). 
Magadoxa, Mkuobyo. 
Magic, uchawi (black magic), 

uganga (white magic). * 
Maggot (fanza). 
Magnesia (suljf^Mte of), obumyi ya 

haluli. 
Maiden, mwana mw^ili. 
Maize (planiX ipuhindi. 
half-grown, matindi 
(corn), mabindi. 
(com cob), gunzi, pl. magunzL 
(young cob), Bgara. 
(parched com), mbisi 
Majesty, enzi, ezi. 
Malice, uoyu. 

Man (person), mtu, pl. wfttu. 
(male), mwanamume, pl. waa- 

naiime. 
(hunian being), mwana Adamu, 

bin Adamn (Ar.). 
A very large wan, jitn, pl. majitu. 
A young man whose beard is 
beginning to appear, myulana, 
pl. wayulana. 
Man of the world, mtu mwereyu. 
Mango, embe, embe (M.), pl. ma- 
embe, Embe za dodo, large 
mangoes. 
Mango-tree, mwembe, pl. miembe. 
Mangouste, mohiro, pl wacbiro. 
Mangrove, mkoko, pl. mikoko. 



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54 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Manner^ ginsi 

An elegant manner ^ madaha. 
Manners^ desturi, mathehebu. 

Good manners^ adabu, tasfida. 
Mantis^ vuDJa juhgo. 
Manure, samadi 
Manuscri'pt, mwandiko, 'pl, mia- 

ndlko. 
Mark, alama. 
Marks made hy dragging anything 

along, mkokoto, pi, mikokoto. 
Tribal mark, nemba. See Spot, 
Blotch. 
Market\ soko, pi, masoko. 
Marriage, ndoa, mikaha. 
(the ceremony), hamsi. 
(intermarriage), kuoana. 
Marrow, bongo. 

Martyr, shabidi, pi, mashi^^dL 
Mask, barakoa. 
Ma8<m, mwashi, pi. waashi 

Mason^s trowel, mwiko, pi, miiko. 
Mass, the mass of, jamii ja. 
Mast, mlingote, pi, milingote, 
mgote, pi. migote. 
Small mizen-mast, mlingote wa 
kalmi or gabni 
Master {of a house, or of slaves), 
bwana. 
Master {of a school), mwalimu, pi. 

waalimu. 
Master's son, bwana mdogo. 
Master workman, fundi. 
One*s own master, 'mweza mwe- 
nyewe. 
Mat (coarse matting), jamvi, pi. 
majamvi. 
Sleeping mat, mkeka, pi. mikeka. 
Sleeping mat made like a Inig with 

one side open, fumba. 
Oval prayer mat, musala, pi. mi- 
sala. 



Bound mai on which food is laid 

out, kitanga, pi. vitanga. 
Strips of palm leaf for plditing 

fine mats, myaa, pi. miyaa. 
Strips of palm leaf for plaitirtg 
coarse mats, mwaa, pi. miwaa. 
Narrow strips ready to he sewn 
together to make coarse mats, 
shupatu, pi. masbupatu. 
Strips for making fine mats, 

nkiri, pi. kiri. 
The thick edge of strips of 

malting, ng'ong'o. 
BuBati, a sort of matting brought • 
from Muscat, 
Matchmaker, kijumbe, pi, vijumbe. 
Malches, viberiti. 
Matter (pus), usaha. 
A matter, jambo, jawabu. 
What is the matter f Kuna nini ? 
What is the matter with youf 
Una nini. 
Mattress, godoro, pi, magodoro. 
Mayotte, Maotwe. 
Meal (food), ohakida. 
Fir^t meal after a fast, fatari. 
Meal (flour), unga. 
Meaning, maana. 
Meanness, unyonge. 
Means, njia. 
Measles, ohumwa. 

Measure, kadri, kiasi, oheo, kipimo. 
A measure, kipimo, pL vipimo. 
Measuring rod, line, Ac, cbenezo, 

pi. vyenezo. 
See Cubit, Fathom, Span, Weight. 
The weights are used as measures 
for such a capacity as would 
contain thai weight of millet 
Meat, nyama. [ (mtama). 

SmaU pieces cooked on a skewer^ • 
msbakiki, pi. misbakikL 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



55 



Pieces cooked on two paraUel 

stichsy snbana. 
Meatiness, mnofu. 
Meddler^ pingamizi. 
Mediator {peace-maher^maelehiahAj 

pi, waselehislia, msuluhisha, 

pt wasulnhifiha, mpatanishi, 

ph wapatanishi. 
MedicinCf dawa, pi. dawa or madawa. 
(medical knowledge)^ ntabibu, 

uganga. 
Medicine man, mganga, ph wa- 

ganga. 
Meekness, iipole. 
Melancholy, huzunl, hamu. 
Memorandum (written), khatL 
Memorial, kumbukumbu, uku- 

mbusho. 
Memory, ukumbuka, ufahamu. 
Menstruation, heth. 
Mention, kumbuki^nbu. 
Merchandise, bithaa. 
Merchant, mfanji biashara, pL wa- 

fanyi biashara, tajiri, pi. ma- 

tajiri (a rich man), ta^^biri, 

bazazi {huckster). 
Mercury, zebakb. 
Mercy, rebema, huruma. 
Merit, ajara. 
Merka, Marika. 
Message, maneno, babarL 
Messenger, mjuinbe, pi. wajumbe, 

mtume, pi. watume, tume. 
Metal, madini 
Middle, kati. 

Middle of a piece of cloth, mjL 
Midge, usubi. 
Midnight, usiku saa a sita, kati ya 

usiku, usiku wa manane. 
Midwife, mzalisba, pi. wazalisba. 
Mildew, kawa. 
MUk, maziwa. 



Curdled mUk, maziwi^ mabivu. 
Buttermilk, mtindi. 
Mill, dinu, pi. vinu. 
Steam mill, kinu cba mosbi. 
Oil miU, kinu cba kusbindikia. 
Hand mill, mawe ya kusagia 
{this last only is used for grind- 
ing com. Kiuu is properly u, 
wooden mortar, and the common 
oil mills consist of a lever turned 
in a mortar hy camels). 
Millipede, jongoo. 
Millet, mtama. 
fully formed hul unripe, mtama 

tete. 
MiUet stalks, mabua, sing. bua. 
kinds of millet, kibakuli, kipaje. 
Mind, moyo (heart), akili (wits\ 
Mine, madini. \nia (intention). 

Mint (herb), nana, fidina (?;. 
Minute, dakika. 

Mirade, mwujiza, j^Z. miujiza, ajabu. 
Miscarriage, kubaribu mimba. 
Mischief, matbara, uharabu. 
Miser, bakbili, cboyo. 
Misery, sbidda, tbulli. 
Misfortune, msiha^pl. misiba, taabu. 
Missile, kimwondo, pi, zimwondo 
(used to mean shooting stars, 
because said to he cast at the 
Jins hy the angels). 
Missionary, mpeekwa, pi. wa- 

peekwa. 
Mist, kungu, umande, shemali. 
Mistake, kosa, makosa. 
Mistress {of slaves), bibi. 

\of the house\ mwana. It is 

reckoned good manners in 

Zanzibar to speak of ones own 

mMher as mwana. 

Mistress (kept tooman), kinyumba. 

Mistress {sweetheart), mobumba. 



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SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Mizen-mast, mlingote wa kalmi or 

galmi. 
Mockery, usimanga. 
Moderation, kadri, kiasi. 
Modesty, haya. 
Mohilla, Moalli. 
Mole, fuko (?). 
Momhas, Mvita. 
Monday, Juma a tatu. 
Money, fetha. 
Monfia, Mafya. 
Monkey, kima. 

Tumbili, a small light-coloufjed 

monkey, 
Ngedere, a small black mfrnkey, 
Mbega, pi. wabega, a black 
monkey toith long white "hair on 
the shoulders. 
Monsoon {northerly winds), miisimi. 
Month, mwezi, pi. miezi. 

The months of the Arab year are 
determined by the sight qf the 
moon, or by the lapse of thirty 
full days. The months practi- 
cally begin from the end of the 
fasting month, and are called 
Mfunguo wa mosi, — ^wa pili, — 
wa tatu, — wa'nne, — ^wa tano, — 
wa sita, — wa saba, — ^wa nane, 
^wa kenda, Eajabu, Shaabani, 
Bcunathani. See Time. 
A month of less than thirty days, 

mwezi mpungufu. 
A month of thirty fvM days, mwe- 
zi mwangamu. 
Monthly pay, mshaara. 
Moon, mwezi. 
Moonblindness, kiwi. 
Moonlight, bala mwezi. 
Morning, subui, assubui, ussubui. . 

Morning air, umande. 
Morocco, Magharibi. 



Morsel, kidogo, pi. vidogo. 
Mortar for pounding and cleaning 
grain, &c., kinu, pi. vinu. 
Mortar for throwing shells, ko- 

mbora. 
Builder's mortar, chokaa. 
Platters used as mortar boards, 
chano, pi. vyano. 
Mosque, meskiti, moskiti, mesjid. 
Mosquito, imbu. 
Moth, noondo. 

Moth-er, mama. It is polite in Zan- 
zibar to speak of one^s oum 
mother as mwana. 
Step-mother, mama wa kambo. 
Mother-in-law, mkwe, pL wakwe. 
Mould, kalibu. 

(mouldiness), ukmigu, kawa. 
Mound (of earth), kisugulu, pi vi- 
sugulu. 
Mound {of stones), boma, pt ma- 
bomsL 
Mountain, mlima, pi. milima. 
Mourning (grief), msiba. 

To make a formal mourning, 

kiikaa matanga. 
To finish a formal mourning, 

kuondoa matanga. 
To live very privately during 
mourning for a husband, ku- 
kalia eda. 
The feast toith which a mourning 
concludes, hitimu. 
Mousta^che, muomo, pi. miomo. 
Mouth, kinwa, pi. vinwa, kanwa, pi. 

makanwa. 
Mucus {from the nose), kamasi. 

(from the vagina), utoko. 
Mud, tope ; mu^h mud, matope. 

Muddiness in water, vmnbi. 
Mule, nymnbu, bdghala. [ruba. 

Mtdtiplication (arithmetical), fh^- 



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BXmSTANTIVES. 



57 



MfiUiUude, makfitauo, knndi, pi. 
maknndi, jeahi, pi, majeshi, 
nmaati 
Mummy, mmnyani. 
Mungoose, mcbiro, pi, wachiro. 
Murderer, muuwaji, pL wauwajL 
Muscle, tafo. 

Mushroom^ kioga, pL vioga. 
Music, ngoma. 

Musical Instruments. See Drum, 
Baragumu, a spiral antelope's 

bom used as a trumpet 
Kajamba, a sort of ratUe. 
Einanda, pi. yinanda, a stringed 
instrument, used of European 
instruments generally. 
Einubi, a harp. 
Matoazi, sing, toazi, cymbals. 
Mbni, a buffalo's horn played by 

beating. 
Faanda, a trumpet. 
Upato, a plate of copper sounded 

by beating. 
Vugo, a large horn sounded by 

beating. 
Zeze, a three^stringed lute. 
Zomari, a sort of clarionet. 
Musk, mesiki, meski 
Mussel {shellfish), kijogoo, pL vijo- 

goo, kome, pi. makome. 
Mustard, kharadalL 
Myriad, kikwi, pi. vikwi or zikwi. 
Myrrh, manemane. 

N. 
NaU {finger), ukucha, pi. kucha. 
{iron), msomari, pi. misomari. 
Ifame, jina, pi. majina. 

What is your name 1 Jina lako 
nani? 
Namesake, somo, pi. masomo. 
Nape of the ^eck, ukosi, kikosL 



Napkin, kitambaa, pi. ritainbaa: 
Table napkin, kitambaa cba 



Narcotic, kileo, pL vileo. 

Nation, taifa, pt mataifa. 

Native, mzalia, pL wazalia, kizao, 

pL Tizao, Mvyao, pL vivyao. 
Nature, asili, tabia. 
Nautical instruments, Tipande Tya 

knpimia. 
Navel, Mtovu, pi. vitovn. 
Necessaries {especially as supplied 
by God*s providence), riziki, 
ziriki (M.). 
{useful things), yifaa. 
Necessity, faratbi, lazima, ukwasefh. 
Neck, shingo, pi. mashingo. See 

Ba/ik, Nape. 
Need, uhtaji, kutaka, matakwa. 
Needle, sindano. 
Neighbour, jirani. 
Neighbourhood, upande wa, ki- 

yambo (?). 
Nest, tunda, pi. matnndu. 

(a laying pUioe), Mota, pi. viota. 
Net, mshipi, pi. mishipi. 
used to take gazelles, &e., wavu, 

pi. nyavu, chavu, pi. vyavu. 
Stdke net, hedge made in the sea, 

uzio, pi. nyuzio. 
Bound casting net, kimia, pi. 

yimia. 
Seine made of European cordage, 

jarifa {or jarife), pi. majarifa. 
Seine made of cocoa-nut fibre, 

juya, pi majuya. 
Fish trap made of basket work, 
dema. 
Nettle, kiwavi, pi viwavi {used also 
News, habari. [of sea-nettles). 

Night, usiku. 
All night, usiku kuoha. 



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8WAHILI HANDBOOK, 



Four whole nights, siku nne usiku 

kucha. 
Four days and nights, siku nne 
mchana na usiku. 
Nightmare, jinamisi. 
Nipple, chuchu ya ziwa, titi, 
bubu (A.). 
of a gun, kifa, pi vifa. 
Nobody, si mtu. 

There is nobody, bapana (or 
hakuna) mtu. 
Noise, sauti. 
of voices, kelele, pi, makelele, 

utbia. 
See BeUow, Hoar, Hum, Cry, 
Nonsense, upuzi, puo. 
Noon, athuuri, jua kitwani. 
Noose, tanzi, pi. matanzi. 
North, kibula, kaskazinL 

Northerly winds, kaskazi 
Nose, pua, pi. pua or mapua. 
Nose ornament shaped like a stud, 

kipini, pi. vipiirf. 
Nose ring, azama. 
Nostril, tundu ya pua, 'mwanzi wa 

pua(?). 
Notch, a place where a triangular 

piece is broken out, pengo. 
Note, barua, khati. 
Number, henabu, kiwango. 
Nurse, yaya (dry nurse), 'mlezi, piL 
walezi (of a child), muguzi, pi. 
wauguzi (of a sick person). 
Nut, kokwa, pi makokwa. See 

Ground, Cashew, &c. 
Nutmeg, kungumanga. 



Oar, kasia, pi makasia. 

OaiJi^ uapo, pi nyapo, kiapo, pi, 

viapo, yamini. 
Obedience, mutia. 



Objections, makindano, makatazo. 
Occupation, sbugbuli. 
(Esophagus, umio. 
Offering, sadaka (gift), tbabihu 

(sacrifice), kaf ara (a sacrifice to 

avert calamity ; it is buried or 

thrown away). 
Officer, akida, mkuu wa asikari. 
Officiousness, futhuli, ufuthuli, ' 
Offspring, mzao, pi wazao. [ujuvi. 
Oil, mafuta. 
Castor-oil, mafuta ya mbarika. 
Semsem-oil, mafuta ya uta. 
Ointment, marbamu. 
Old age, uzee, ukongwe (extreme). 
Old person, mzee, pi wazee, ki- 

,kongwe, pi. vikongwe (ex- 
tremely old). 
Omelette, kiwanda, kimanda. 
Omen, fali. 
Omnipresence, «neo la Muungu {the 

spread of God). 
Onion, kitunguu, pi yitunguu. 
Open place, kiwanja» pi yiwanjn, 

wangwa, wanda. 
piece of waste ground in' a town, 

uga. 
Opinion, wasia. 
Opium, afyuni. 
Opportunity, nafasi. 
Ophthalmia, weli wa macbo. 
Orange, obungwa, pi macbungwa, 

cbungwa la kizungu, danzi la 

kizungu. 
Bitter or toild oranges, daiizi, pi. 

madanzL 
Mandarin oranges, kangaja. 
(a larger sort), cbenza, oiienza za 

kidjjemi. 
Order. See Command. 
. (regularity, or a regular order), 

taratibu. 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



59 



Ordeal^ kiapo, ;ph viapo. 
Origin^ asili, chimbuko, mwanzo. 
Ornament, pambo, pi. mapambo, 
kipambo, pi. yipambo. 
Dalia, a yellow cosmetic. 
Ndonya, lip-ring worn hy the 

Nyassa women. 
Sarafii, a small gold plate worn 

on the forehead. 
Shangwl, an ornament worn 

between the shoulders, 
Drembo, hku:k lines painted upon 

IhefoM. 
Uzuri, cosmetic applications, 
Vidani, collars of gold or silver. 
See Anklets, Bracelets, Ear, Nose. 
Orphan, yatinaa. 
Os coccygis, kiftindugu. 
Ostrich, buni. 
Otto of roses, bal w^radi. 
Outlet, pakutokea. 
Outrigger (of canoes), mateDgo, 
Outskirts of a town, kiunga. 
Oven, tanuu, tanuru. 
Over-looker, msimamizi, pi, wasi- 
mamizi, mwangalizi, pi. waa- 
ngalizi. 
Owl, bundi 
Owner, mwenyewe. 
Ox, iig*ombe or gnombe, maksai. 
Oyster, cheza, kome Q\ pi, ma- 
kome, kombe za pwani 

P. 
Face, mwendo. 

Package, packet, or parcel, robota, 
gora {of cloth), peto, pi, ma- 
peto. 
Small packet, kipeto, pi. yipeto. 
Pad of grass, d:c., used to carry a 
load on the head upon, generally 
twisted into a ring, kata. 



Pad used as a saddle for donkeys, 
khorj. 
Paddle, kafi, pi, makafi. 
Padlock, kufuli. 
Pail, ndoo. 

Pain, maumiyu, ucbungu, kauma. 
Paint, rangi. 

Pair^, jozi, jura, jeuzi, jauzi. 
Palace, jumba. 
Palanquin, machera. 
Palate, kaaka„ kaa la kinwa. 
Palisading, zizi, kizizi. 
Palm of the hand, kitanga cba 
mkono, pi. yitanga yya mikoDO. 

A sail-maker*s palm, dofra, pi. 
madofra. 
Palm-tree. See Cocoa-nut, Date, 

Leaf-stem of a palm-tree, upongoe, 

' pi. jwngoe. 

Mkoche, has an edible fruit, 

Mlala, hyphsene, branching palm. 

Myuma, borassus palm. 
Palm-oil tree, mcbikichi, pi, michi- 
kicbi. 

its fruit, chikicbi, pi, machikiohi. 

the small nuts contained in the 
fruit, kiobikioLi, pi. yioLikichi. 
Palm-wine, tembo. 

Spirit made from palm-wine, 
zarambo. 

Palm-wine syrup, asali ya tembo. 
Palmar abscess, kaka. 
Palpitation of the heart, kiberebere 

cba moyo. 
Panniers, sboi, shogi. 
Pap, ubabwa. 
Papaw, papayi, pi. mapapayi. 

Papaw-trect mpapayi, pi. mipa- 
Paper, karatasi. [payi 

Parable, metbili, metbali, mfano, 

pi. mifano. 
Paradise, peponi. 



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aWAHILI HANDBOOK, 



Gate cf paradisey kilango cha 

jaha. 
Paralysis, kipooza, tiwo (?). 
Paralytic, mwenyi kupooza. 
Parched maize, mbisi. 
Pardon, arathi, musama, masameho, 

hisa. 
Parent, mzaa, jj7. wazaa, mzazi, pi. 

wazazi, mzee, ph wazee. 
Part^ fungu, pi. mafungu, sehemu, 

upande, pi. pande, kisraa. 
Partner, msharika, pi washarika. 
Partnership, usharika. 
Partridge, kwale (?). 
Eering'ende, t^ red-legged par- 
tridge. 
Party (faction), aria. 
Pass, or passport, cheti, pi. vyeti. 
Passage (by), pito, pi. kipito. 
(through), kipenyo, pi. vipenyo. 
A very narrow passage, kioho- 

choro, pi. viohochoro. 
Palxh (in cloth), kiraka, pi. viraka 

(in planking), hasho. 
Pa^ njia, pito, pi. mapito. 
Patience, saburi, subiri, nvumilivu, 

utulivu. 
PaUem, namna. 

(to toorkfrom) kielezo, jjZ. vielezo. 
Pauper, kibapara, pi. vibapara (an 

insulting epithet). 
Pawn (chess), kitunda, pi. vitunda. 
Pay, ijara, njia, faritha, mshahara 

{monthly). 
Pea, dengu {they are not grown in 

Zanzibar, but are brought dry 

from India). 
A small pea-like bean, chooko, 

chiroko. 
Pea,ce, amani, salamu. 
Peao€'maker, mpatanishi, msele- 

hisha, msuluhisba. 



Peacock, tausi. 

Peak, kilete, pit. vilele. 

Pearl, hilu. 

Pebble {very small), mbwo. 

(or small piece of stone), kokoto, 
pi. makokoto. 
Peelf ganda, pi. maganda. 
Peg, change, pi. vyango. 
Pelvis, tokoni. 
Pen, kalamu. 

Beed pen, kalamn ya 'mwanzi. 
Penis, mbo. 
People, watu. 

People of this world, walimwengu. 

Other people's, -a watn. 

People like us, Mna sisi. 

Abdallah''8 people, kina Abdallab. 
Pepper, pilipili manga. 

Bed pepper, pilipili boho. 
Percussion cap, fataki. 
Perfection, ukamilifii, utimilivu. 
Perfumes, maniikato.' 
Period (or point of tim^), kipindi, 

pi. vipindi. 
Perjury, aziir, zuli. 
Permission, ruksa, rubusa. 
Persia, Ajjemi. 

Persian Gulf, Bahari il 'all 
Person, mtu. 

A grown person, mta mzima. See 
Old, &o. 
Perspiration, ban, jasbo. 
Pestilence, tauni, wabba. 
Pestle, mchi (or mti), pi. miohi, 

mtwango, pi. mitwango. 
Phantom, kivuli, pi. vivuli. 
Phlegm, belghamu. 
Phthisis, ukobozi. 

Physic, dawa, fl. dawa or niadawa. 
Physician, tabibu, mtabibu, pL 
watabibu, mganga. pi. wa- 
ganga. 



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SUBSTANTIVES, 



61 



Pice^ pesa, pi, pesa or mapesa. 

Piokle, achari. 

Picture, taswira, snra, sanamn. 

P4eee, kipande, pL yipaode* 
Piece of Madagascar graM cloih, 

ramba^jTZ. maramba. 
Piece let inhy way of patch (in 
pUmking\ hasho. See Firewood. 

Pig, Dgoruwe, nguuwe. 
Jivi, a wild hog. 

Pigeon, njiwa, ndiwa (IM.). 
Tame pigeon, Bjiwa manga. 
WiM pigeon, njiwa wa mwttu. 

PHe of sticks, &c., for huming, biwi, 
pi, mabiwi. 

PUes (hasmorrhoids), bawasir. 

PUgrimage, haj. 

PtK, kidonge, pi, vidonge. 

Pillar, ngnzo. 

PiUow, mto, pi, mito. 

Wooden head rest, msamilo, pi. 
misamilo. 

Pilot, rubani. 

Pimple, kipele, pH, vipele, upele, pi. 
pele (large), ^we,pl, viwe (a 
emaU kind). 

Pineert, koleo. 

Pineapple, nanasi, pL mananasi. 

Pirnia {sheUrfish), kaya, j?Z. makaya, 
panga, pi, mapaaga. 

Pipe (water), nelli. 
(oCarionet), zomari. 
(toba/sco), kiko, pi. viko. The 
native pipe consists of a howl 
(bora), a stem (digali) leading 
from the howl into a smaU vessel 
of water, which last is properly 
the kiko ; the stem from the kiko 
to the mouth is the sbilamn. 
The huhhling of the water when 
it is being smoked is the malio 
ya kiko. 



Piping, kigwe, pi. yigwe. 
Pirate, haramia. 
Pistol, bastola. 
Pit, shimo, pi, mashimo. 
Pitch or Tar, lamL 
Pity, hunima. 
Place, mabali, pahali. 
PhjLce may often he expressed by 

the prefix pa-. 
Panyamavu, a quiet place. 
Fakutokea, a place to go out at, 
Panginepo, elsewhere, 
or by the use of penyi. 
Penyi mti, the place where the 

tree is, or was. 
An open place, kiwanja, pi. 

viwanja. 
A dear space in a tovm, nga. 
A place where offerings are made 
to propitiaie spirits supposed to 
haunt it, mzimu, pi, mizimu. 
Plague, tanni. 
Plain, uwanda. 
Plan, shauri, pi. mashauri. 
Plane, randa^ 
Plank, ubau, pi, mbau. 
Planking, mbau. 

A plank laid over the body before 

the earth is filled in, kiunxa, pi. 

Plant, mbegu, mbeyu. fviunza. 

A young plant, mobe, pi, micbe, 

obipukizi, pi, yipukizi 
Upupu, cowUch. 
Mbaruti, a thistte-like ploiU with 

a yeUow floioer. 
Nyinyoro, a bulbous plant throw- 
ing up a head of red flowers. 
Ynngiyungi, the blue water-lily. 
Mm, the wild jasmine, 
Kinikia, a parasite on fruit trees, 
Mpungati, a kind of cactus. 
Plantains, ndizL 



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SWASILI HANDBOOK, 



Plantatuyiiy shamba, pi. mashamba. 
Plate, kisahani, pi. visahani. 

A plate of metal, bamba, pi. ma- 
bamba. 
Platter of wood, chano, pL vyano. 
Pleasure, anasa, furaha. -• 

Pleasing thinge, mapendezi. 
Pledge, rahani, amani, kabathi. 
Pleiades, kilimia. 
Plenty, wingi, iingi (M.), mari- 

thawa. 
Plunibline (a stone hung by a strip 

of banana leaf), timazi. 
Plug, Dguruzi, zibo, pi. mazibo. 
Plummet, chubwi. 
Pocket, mfuko, pi. mifuko. 

Pocket-handkerchief, leso. 
Poem, mashairi, utenzi (religious). 
Poet, mtunga mashairi, pL watuuga 

masbairi. 
Poetry , masbairi. 

One line of poetry, shairi. 
Point, ncba. 
Poison, sumu, uobunga. 

Fish poison, utupa. 
Pole, mti, pi. miti. 

for carrying burdens on, mpiko, 
pi. mipiko. 

for propelling a canoe, upondo, jpZ. 
pondo. 
Politeness, adabu. 
Pomegranate, kamamanga. 
Pomsloe, furungu, ph mafuruDgu. 
Pond, ziwa, pi. maziwa. 
Pool, ziwa, pi. maziwa. 

Pool left by the retiring tide, 
kidimbwi, pi, vidimbwi. 
Poop, shetri. 
Poor free man, maskini ya Muu- 

ngu. 
Porcupine, nungu. 
Pores, nweleo, mAtokeo ya ban. 



Porpoise, pomboo. 
Porridge, ngali, uji, fuka, hasida. 
Porter. See Doorkeeper, 
(carrier), bamali, pi. mabamali 
(in a caravan), mpagazi, pi. wa- 
pagazi. 
Port Dumford, Burikao. 
Position in the world, obeo, kiwa- 

ngo. 
Possessions^ mali, milki. 
Possessor, mwenyewe. 
Possessor of, dc, mwenyi, &o., pi. 
wenyi, Ac. 
Post, mti, pi. miti. 
Bearing post, mbimili, pi. rnibi- 
mili. 
Posterity, wazao. 
Pot. See Cooking-pot, Censer. 

A lobster-pot, dema. 
Potash (nitrate of), sbura. 
Potatoes, viazi vya kizungu. 

Svoeet potatoes, viazi, siihg. kiazi. 
Raised beds for planting viazi, 
tuta,pZ. matnta. 
Potsherd (broken piece of pottery or 
glass), kigai, pi vigai, gai, pi. 
magai (a large piece), kige- 
renyenza, pi vigereoyenza (a 
very smaU piece, a splinter). 
Potter, mfinangi, pi wafinangi, mfi- 
nyanzi, wafinyanzi. 
A place to bakepottet^s work, joko. 
Poultry, k'uku. 
Poverty, nmafiikini. 
Powder, unga. 

Gunpowder, baniti. 
Power, uwezo, nguvn, mamlaka,enzi. 
Practice, mtaala, mazoezo. 
Praise, sifa, bamdL 
Prattle, vijineno. 
Prayer (worship), ibada. 
(entreaty), kuomba. 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



63 



(the prescribed forms), sala. The 
regular Mohammedan times of 
prayer are, Magaribi, directly 
after sunset; Esha, an hour or 
ttoo later; Alfajiri, before sun- 
rise ; Atliuuri, at noon ; Alasiri, 
abotU half-way between noon 
and sunset. 
Preacher, mwenyi kukhntubu, or 

kuajithi. 
Precept, mafandisho. 
Pregna^ney, mimba. 
Present (see Gift), zawadi. 
Customary present^ ada, kilemba. 
Customary presents at a wedding ; 
to the bride's fath&r, mahari, 
kilemba ; to the bride* s mother, 
mkaja, ubeleko ; to the bride's 
kungu, kiosba miguu, kifunua 
mlango; to the bride herself, 
kipa mkono. 
Press or Pressure, shinikizo. 
Prey, mawindo. 
Price, kima, f Aamatd. 
Prickly heat, vipele vya hahara. 

A medicament for it, liwa. 
Pride, kibmi. 

Priest, kahini, pi. makabini (used 
in the sense of soothsayer). 
(Christian)^ kasisi, padre or pa- 
diri, pi. mapadiri. 
Prison, kifnngo, gereza. 
Privacy, faragha. 
Privy, choo. 

Proceeds, pato, pi. mapato. 
Produce (fruit, seed, Ac), zao, pi. 

mazao. 
Profit, fayida, ghanima. 
Progeny, mzao, pi. wazao. 
Progress, kiendeleo. 
Prohibition, makatazo. 
Promise, abadi, wahadi. 



Promissory note, awala. 
Pronunciation, mata*mko. 
Prop, mbimili, pi. mihimili, mate- 
gemeo. 
A prop to keep a vessel upright 
when left by the tide, gadi. 
Property, mali, milki. 
Prophet, nabii, mtume, pi. mitume. 
Prosecution, mstaki, pi. mistaki. 
Proselyte, mwonj^ofu, pi. waongofu. 
Prostitute, kababa, pi. makababa. 
Protection, bami, bamaya. 

Under British protection, fi ba- 
mayat al Ingrez (Ar.). 
Proverb, mfano wa maneno. 
Provision, madaraka. 
Provisions, yyakula. 
Provocation, ekerabi. 
Prow, gubeti 
of a smaU vessel, kikono, pi. 

vikoao. 
(head), omo. 
Prudence, busara, fikira. 
PuUey, kapi, pi. makapi, gofia. 
Pulpit, mimbara. 
Pump, bomba. 
Pumpkin, buga, pi. maboga. 
plant, mboga, pi. miboga. 
shell used to carry liquids in, 

dundii, pi. madundu. 
Mumnnye, pi. mamumuuye, a 

sort of vegetable marrow. 
Tango, pi. matango, eaten raw 

like cuctmiber. 
Eitoma, pi. yitoma, a smaU 

round sort. 
Tikiti, pi. matikiti, a round kind 
of water-melon. 
Punch, keke. 

Purchaser, mnunuzi, pi. wanunuzi. 
Purgative, dawa la kubara. 
Purity, masafi, utakatifu. 



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8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Purpose^ kusudi, pL makusudi, 

kasidi, nia. 
Purse, kifuko cha kutllia fetha. 
Push in (he cheek, mdukuo. 
Putridity, kioza. 
Putty, chaki. 
Python, chatu. 

Q. 
Quail, tombo, tomboroko. 
Quality, labia, ginsi, jisi, aina. 
Quantity, kiasi, kadiri, cheo 

(meoMLrement). 
Quarrel, mateto, tofauti, nazar, 

ngomyi 
Quarrelsomeness, ugomvi. 
Quarter, robo. 
Three-quarters of a doUar, kasaa 

robo. 
Quarter of a tovm, mta, pi. mita. 
Queen, malkia. 
(chess), kishi. 
Question, maulizo, swali 
Quieting thing, kitulizo,2>2. viiulizo. 
Quietness, ntulivu, makini, kimya. 
Quiver, podo. 

B. 

Babbit, sungura, kisungura, pi. 
visungura, kitungule, pL vitu- 
ngiile, MtitL 
Bace, mashindano. ' 

Bafter, boriti (for a stone roof), 
kombamoyo, pi. makomba- 
moyo (for a (hatched roof), 
pao, pL mapao (very (hin). 
Bag, kitambaa, plL vitambaa, 

utambaa, pL tambaa. 
Bain, mvua. 
Bain chud, ghubari, pi. maghu- 
Bainy season, masika. [bari. 

Lesser rains, mvua ya mwaka. 



Bainbow, npindi wa mvua, kisiki 

cha niTua (M.). 
Bammerfor heaiing roofs, Mpande, 

pi. yipande 
Bampart, boma, sera. 
Bank, daraja, cbeo. 
Bansom, kombozi, pL malcombozi, 

ukomboo, ukomboKi, fidia, 

ufidiwa, nkombolewa. 
Barity, t'unu, hedaya. 
Bash (smtll pimples), vipele. 
Bat, panya. 

a very large hind, bnku. 
Bations, posho. 
Batoness (of meat, Ac), ubichi. 

(dulness), ujinga. 
Bazor, wembe. 

Beason, maaua, sababo, huja, akili. 
Beasoning, hnja. 
BebeUion, maasL 
Becess, kidaka, pi. vidaka, kishu- 

baka, pi vishubaka j(a pigeon- 
hole). 
Wall at the hack of a recess, raff. 
BecoTnmendation, maagizo. 
Bectitude, adili. 

Bed coral, marijani ya fethaluka. 
Bed Sea, Babari ya Sham. 
Bedeemer, mkombozi, pi. wako- 

mbozi. 
Beed, unyasi, pi nyasd, *mwanzi, pi 

miwanzi. 
Beference, maregeo. 
Befuge, makiinbilio. 
Begret, majutio. 
Begularity, kaida. 
Beign, ezi, enzL 
Bein, kigwe, pi. vigwe. 
Bejoicing, furaha, shangwi 
Belations (relatives), akraba, ndugu, 

jamaa. 
A near relative, karibu. 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



65 



Bdaxation Qoo6emng\ nlegem. 

Religion^ dini, dua. 

Relish (something to he eaten with 

rice or porridge), Htoweo. 
Remainder, msazo, masazo, mabakia. 
Remedy, dawa, mapoza. [baki. 

Reminder, nkumbusho. 
Remission (of sins), maghofira, ma- 

ondoleo. 
Remnant, mabakia. 
Rent, ijara. 

Repentafuse, toba, majuto. 
Representative, wakilL 
Reproaches, matayo. 
Reprc^te, baa, pi. mabaa. 
ReptiU (?). 
Kenge, a monitor (?), a very large 

slender lizard. 
P'ili, a large snake, 
Chatu, a python. 
See Sndkej Crocodile, &c. 
Request, haja, matakwa. 
Residue. See Remainder, 
A little left in a jar, &e,, kii^nda. 

pi. yifihinda. 
Resin, ub'mbo. 

Respiration, kutanafcin, kushusba 
Rest, raha, pmnziko. [pumzi. 

Resting-place, pmnzikio, kitno, pi. 

zituo or vituo. 
Restlessness, fathaa. 
Resurrection, ufufuo, ufufulio, ki- 

yama (the general resurrection). 
Resuscitation, (actively) kufufua, 

kuhuisba, (neuter) kufiifaka, 

kuhulka. 
Retainer, mfoasi, pL wafiiasi 
BetaUation, kasasi, kiflasL 
Return, maregeo, marejeo, kuja 

zao, &c. 
Reoenge, majilipa. 
Reverence, unenyekeo. 



RemUng, mashutumu, mashntumio, 
matayo. 
Revival, See Resuscitation. 
Reward, ijara, ujira, majazo, thU' 
wabu (especially from God). 
Reward for finding a lost thing, 
kiokosi, pi. yi<^08i. 
Rheumatism, baridiyabis, Qweli wa 

viungo. 
Rhinoceros, kifaru, pL vif aru, pea. 
Rib, ubanii, pi. mbavu, kiwavu 

chana (A.). 
Rice, growing^ or yet in the husk, 
mpunga. 
cleaned from the husk, mchele. 
cooked, wall. 
watery, and imperfectly cooked, 

maahendea. 
cooked so thai the grains are 
dry and separate, pukute ya 
wall. 
scorched in the cooking, ukoko, 

utaadu (A.). 
left from overnight to he eaten in 
the Tnoming, wall wa mwikuu. 
Kinds of rice, sena, bungala, 
Bbindano, garofuu, kapwai, ki- 
fungo, madevu, mwanga, sifara, 
uchukwi. 
Riches, mail, utajiri, ukwasi. 
Rich man, tajiri, pi. matajiri, mwe- 
nyi mali, mkwasi, pL wakwasi. 
Ridicule, mzaba, thihaka. 
Right, haki, wajib, adili. 
Righteousness, haki. 
Rbnd, ganda, pi. maganda. 
Rind of a lemon, &c., after the 
inside has heen squeezed or 
extracted, kaka. 
Ring, pete, pi. pete or mapete. 
Rings on the scabbard of a suxn'd, 
(fee, ukoa, pi, koa. 



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8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Bing where the Hade enters the 

hafty noleo, pi. manoleo. 
Ear-ring, pete ya masikio. 
Ring-twrm, choa. 
Ripple, viwimbi. 
Bisk, in trading, jukcu 
Biver,m.U}, pi, mito. 
Boad, njia. 

Boar, ngurnmo, vumi. 
Bobber, mnyaDg'anyi, pi. wanya- 
Dg^anyi, haramia. 
People who wand^ about ai night, 
, robbing and committing violence, 
mruDgura, mpakacha. 
Bock, mwamba, pi. miamba. 
A smaU rock, kijamba, pi. vi- 

Jamba. 
in the sea, kipwa, pi. vipwa. 
BoUing of a ship, mramma. 
Boof, dari, sakafii (stone roof or 
floor), paa, pi. mapaa (thatched 
roof). The thatched roofs con- 
sist generally of a front and 
back slope, kipaa cha mbele and 
kipaa cba nyuma, and hips for 
the ends, which are carried up 
under and within the main 
slopes; these hips are called 
visusi, sing, kisusi. 
A lean-to, kipenu, pi, vipenn. 
The roof over a waiching-place in 
the fields, duDgu, pi madungu. 
Book (chess), fil. 
Boom (spa4se), nafasi. 
(apartment), ohumba, pi, vyumba. 
Ukumbi, hall or porch ;Uis within 
a stone house, but outside an 
earthen one, 
S^ule or sebula, parlour, recep- 
tion room, 
Orfa, orofa, or ghdrofa, an upper 
, room. 



Gbala, a dark room on the groundr 
floor, a store-room. 
Boot, shina, pit. mashina. 
Bootlets, mizizi, mizi (M.). 
Bope, kamba, ngole (Mer.). 

Hempen rope, kamba, ulayiti. 
Bosary (Mohammedan beads), tsLS- 

biih. 
Bose, waradi, waridi. 
Otto of roses, hal wilradi. 
Bose-water, marashi mawaridf. 
Bose apple, darabi, pi. madarabi. 
Boundness, mviringo. 
Bow (line), safu. 
Bow (noise), uthia, kero. 
Boyalty, kifaume, ufaume. 
Bubbish (from old buildings), fusi, 
kifusi. 
(small articles), takataka. 
Budder, shikio, sakaDi, msukani, pi. 

misTikani, usukani, j?L sukani. 
Buddie, used by carpenters to mark 

out their work, ngeu. 
Budeness, safihi. 
Buir^ or Buins, maanguko. 
Bunavoay (from a master, horns, Ac), 
mtoro, pi. watoro. 
(from a fight, d:c.), mkimbizi, pi. 
wakimbizi. 
Bupee, rupia. f 

Bupia or any similar skin disease, 

buba. 
Bust, kutu. 
Bustling, mtakaso. 



Sabre, kitara, pL yitara. 

Sacrifice, sadaka (an offering), fidia 
(giving up), tbabibu {sacrific- 
ing), mathabuba (the victini), 
kafara (an animal or thing 
offered but not eaten). 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



■ 67 



Saddle, kiti cha firasi, matandiko, 
seruji (an Arab saddUi), khorj 
(the pad used for a donkey). 
Sadness (see Grief), rammu. 
Safety, ealamu, salama. 
Saffron, zafarani. 
Sailt tanga, pi, matanga. 

Dhow-sail, duuini. 

Sail-cloth, kitali. 
Sailor, baharia. 
Saint, walli. 
SaJce, ajili, huja, maana. 

For my sake, unipendavyo (as you 
love me). 
Sale (auction), mnada. 
Salesman, dalalL 
Saliva, mate. 
Salt, chumvi, miinyo (A.). 
Saltpetre, shura. 
Salute (fired), mizinga ya salamu. 

(salutalion), salamu. 
Salvation, wokovu, suudi, njema. 
Salver, sinia, pi. masinia. 
Sanction, ithii^. 
Sand, mchanga, mtanga (M.). 
Sandals, viatu, sing, kiatu, viatu 
yya ngozL 

sfyrap of a sandal, gidam. 
Sandalwood, liwa(?). 
Sandfly, usubi. 
Sap, maji. 

Saturday, Juma a mosi. 
Saucepan, sofuria. 
Saviour, mwokozi, pi, waokozi. 
Savour, luththa, tarnn. 
Scab, kigaga, pi. vigaga. 
Scahhard, ala, pi. nyala. 

The metal rings on a scabbard, 
ukoa, pi, koa. 
Scaffold (for building), jukwari. 
Scales (of a fish), magamba, mamba 
(M.). 



Scales (balances), mizani. 

Scale pans, yitanga vya mizani. 
Scar, kovTi, pi. makovu. 
Scarf (often worn round the toaist), 

deuli. 
Scent, barufu, manuka, nukato, pi. 

manukato, meski, marashi (a 

scent for sprinkling), 
Tibu, a kind of scent. 
See Bose, ATnbergris, Aloes wood. 
School, chuoni. 
Scissors, makasi. 
Scoop. See Ladle. 
Score (20), korja. 
Scorn, tharau, thihaka. 
Scorpion, nge. 
Scraps left after eating, makombo, 

sing, kombo. 
Scrape (slide), para. 
Scratch, mtai, pi. mitai. 
Scream, kiowe, pi, viowe (cry for 

help), kigelegele, pi. vigelegele 

(a trilling scream raised as a 

cry of joy). 
Screw, parafujo. 
Scrip, mkoba, pi. mikoba. 
Scrofulous and gangrenous sores, 

mti. 
Scrotum, piunbo, mapumbu. 
Scvll, kitwa, pi. vitwa, fuvu or 

bupuru la kitwa. 
Scum, povu, mapovu. 
Sea, bahari. 
A sea, mawimbi, wimbi. 
A seaman, mwana maji. 
One from beyond seas, mja ua 

maji. 
Seaweed, mwani. 
Seal, muburi. 
Seam, mshono, pi. mishono, bandi 

(tacked), upindo (a hem). 
Season, wakati. 

F 2 



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68 



8WABIL1 HANDBOOK. 



The priMipal uawns in Zawnbar 
are: — ^Musixnl, the time of the 
northerly windi (kazkasi), tha* 
i8f December, JanHory^ <md 
February. For Marehy April, 
and May, the rainy seatonj 
masika; after ihat^ the cold 
time, kf pupwe ; then, ab<mt the 
end of Anguet, demani, or 
mwaka. The toutherly winds 
(kiisi) begin to drop in Oetcber, 
and in the interiaU between 
ihem and the northerly winde 
come the times of iasterly and 
westerly winds^ msJeleti or tanga 
mbilL 

Seasoning. See ReiUsh. 

Seat, kikao, makazi. 

The stone or earth teat near a 
dooTy baraza, kibaraza. 

Secrecy, siri, faragha. 

Secrets^ mambo ya siri. 

Secretary, mwandishijpL waandisbi, 
kbatibu, karani. 
Secretary of State, waziri, pL 
mawaziri. 

Sect, mathhib, mathehebo. 

Sediment, masbapo. 

Seed, mbegu, mbeyu. 

Seedling, mohe, pi. miohe. 

Self, moyo, naCri) nafusi 

Self'cmdent, kiuaya. 

Semen, sbabawa, manni. 

iScwwcm, Tiftita. 
Semsem otZ, maf^ta ya ttta. 
What is left aftw the oil hoB been 
pressed out, shudu. 

Senna, sanamaki. 

Sense, akili. 

Sentinel, mngoja, pi. watigoja. 

Servant, mtiunishi, pi. watnmisbi, 
mtumwa, pi. watmnwa) ooker. 



One who serves at table, mwa- 

ndikaji, pi. waandikaji. 

In a shamba there are generally 

three chief servants. 1. Msi- 

mamizi, generally a free mom. 

2. Nokoa, ^ chief slave. 8. 

Kadamu, the second head dave. 

Service, utumwa, huduinu, hidima. 

Setting-out, things set out or t^ place 

for them, maandiko. 
Shaddock, famngu, pi. maftimnga. 
Shade, uvuli, Yuli) mruli, mvili, 

kivali, kitua. 
Shadow, kivuli, pi. vivtlli. 
Shame (disgrace), aibu. 
(modesty), haya. 
(a thing causing confusion), ari, 

fetheha, bezaya. 
having no shame, mjanja, pi. 
wajanja. 
Shape, kiasi, kalibu, namna. 
Share, fa&ga, pi. mafungu, setneba, 

kisma. 
Sharing, usbarika. 
Sliark, papa. 
Sharpness, ukidi. 
Shaving (of wood), usafi. 
Shawl, shall. 

worn round the waist, mahazama. 
Sheaf, or bundle of cut rice, mganda, 

pi. miganda. 
Sheath, uo, pi. mauo, ala, pL nyala. 
Sheave (of a pulley), roda, koradani. 
Shed, banda, pi. mabanda, Mbanda, 

pi. vibanda. 
Sheep, kondoo. 
Sheet, shuka. 
of a saU, demani. 
of a book, gombo, pi. magombo. 
of paper, ukuraea, pi. kurasa. 
Shelf, kibaa, pi. vibati. 
in a recess, rufiif. 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



69 



Soso, pi, ma0U8o, a hind of hrnig- 
ing shelf. 
SheU (sea ahells)^heUQ, pi masbella. 
(husk), ganda, pi, maganda, 
(empty sheU), fuvu, pi mafuvn, 
bupuru, pi mabupuru, kaka. 
Shepherd, mlishi, pi waligbi, mchu- 

n^ipl. wachunga. 
Sherd, See Potsherd, 
Shield, ngao. 

Shin, muimdi wa guu (A.). 
Ship, merikebu, marikabu, jaha«i. 
Man^-toar, manowari, merikabn 

ya mizinga. 
Merchant ship, merikequ ya tajat 
Steam ship, merikebu ya.dobaaoi 

merikebu ya mosbi. 
Ship belonging to the government, 

merikebu ya serkali. 
FuU'Tigged ship, merikebu ya 

milingote mitatu. 
Barque, merikebu ya miliugote 

miwili na nuss. 
Native craft, chombo, pi vyombo. 
Shirt, kanzu. 
Shivering, kitapo, kutetema, ku- 

tetemeka. 
Shoal (hank), fungu, pi. mafUQgu. 
Shock, shindo. 

Shoe, kiatu cha kizungu or eba 

kihindi, pi viatu vya kizungu. 

Shoemaker, mshoni yiatu, pi wa- 

shoni viatu. 
Shoot, chipukizi, uohipuka, pi 
chipuka. 
A pointed shoot like that contain- 
ing a spike of flower, kilele, pi 
yilele. 
Shop, duka, pi maduka* 

Shops with warerooms, bokbari. 
Shot (smaU), marifiaa. 
Shot-beU, beti. 



Shoulder, bega, pi mabega, fuzi, pi. 
mafusi (A.)* 
Shoulder-blade, kombe la mkoiio. 
Sh^ut, ukelele, pi kelele, kelela, pi 

makelele. 
Shower, mauyunyo. 
Showing, wouyesbo. 
Shrewdness, werevu. 
Shroud, saauda. 
Shrub, kijiti, pi vijiti. 
See Thorn. 

Mwango, pi miwaugo (?). 
Sick person, mgonjwa, pi magonjwa, 

mweli, pi waweli. 
Sickness, ugoajwa, uweli, marathi. 
Side, upande, pi pande. 
Side of the body, mbavu, mata^ 

mbavu. 
The other side of a river, &c., 
ng'ambo. 
Siege, mazingiwa. 
Sieve, kiyamba. 
Siftings of rice after pounding, 

wishwa. 
Sighing, kuugua. 
Sign, dalili. 
Signal, isbara. 

Ukonyezo, pi konyezo, a sign 

made by raising the eyebrows. 
Kikorombwe, a kind of signal cry. 
Silence, nyamavu, kimya. ^ 

SUk, barirL 
Silliness, mapi«wa, puo. 

Silly talk, upuzi. 
Silver, tetba. 
Silversmith, mfua fet^a, pi wafpa 

fetba. 
Simpleton, mjioga,pZ. wajinga. 
Sin, tbambi, pi tbambi or ma- 

tbambi, makosa, takairi. 
Singleness, upweke. 
fi^tp, funda(?). 



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70 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Sir! BwaDa! 

SiUeTy umbu, pi. maumbu, ndugu, 
ndugu mke. 
Ab a term of endearment, dada. 
Foster- sister, nduga kunyonya. 
Sister-in-law, sbemegi. 
Sitter, mka&,pl. wakaa. 
Sitting, kikao, pi. vikao, kitako, pi. 

vitako. 
Size, iikau, ukubwa, kiasi, kadiri, 

cheo. 
Skeleton, mzoga (?) 
Skilful workman, mstadi, pi. wa- 

stadi. 
SkiUed or master-ioorlcman, fundi 
Skin, ngozL 
Sky, uwingu. 
Slackness, ulegevu. 
Slander, masingizio, fitina (sowing 

of discord). 
Slaughter-house, matindo. 
Slave, mtumwa, pi. watumwa, mn- 
hadimu, pZ. wabeidimu, mtwana, 
pi. watwana. 
A slave hoy, kitwana, pi. vitwana. 
A slave girl, kijakazi, pi. vijakazi. 
A slave woman, mjakazi, pi. wa- 

jakazi. 
A concubine slave, suria, pi. ma- 

siwria. 
A slave horn in the house or 

country, mzalia, pi. wazalia. 
A runaway slave, mtoro, pi. wa- 

toro. 
A fellow slave, mjoli, pi. wajoli. 
A household of slaves, kijoli, pi. 

vijoli. 
Piece of land allotted to a slave 
for his own tise, koonde, pi. 
makoonde. 
Slavery, utumwa. 
Sleep, uzingizi, zingizi. 



Sleeping place, malalo. 
Things to sleep upon, malazi. 
Sleeve, mkono, pi. mikono. 
Sling, kombeo, pi. makombeo. 
Slip of a tree, Ac., mche, pi. micbe. 

A slip which has put forth leaves, 
mcbe uliocbanua. 

One which has made a new shoot, 
mcbe uliocbipuka. 
Slipperiness, utelezi. 
Sloth, uvivu. 
Slovenliness, fujofujo. 
SmaUness, udogo. 
Small-pox, ndui. 
Smell, barufa, manuka, azma. 
Smith (worker in metal), mfna, piL 

wafua. See Blachmith, Ac. 
Smoke, mosbi, pi. miosbi. 
Snail, koa, pi. makoa, konokono. 
Snake, njoka, joka, pi. majoka 
(Urge). 

Gbatu, python. 

Fili, cohra (?). 
Snare, sbabuka. 
Sneezing, cbafya. 
Snoring, kukoroma. 
Snuff, tumbako ya kunuka, or 

kunusa. 
Snuff-box, tabakelo. 
Soap, sabuiii. 
Soda, magadi. 
Solder, libamu. 
Soldier, asikari. 

Sole (of the foot), uayo, pi. nyao. 
Solitude, upekee, ukiwa. 
Somauli Coast, Banada. 
Somebody, mtu. 

Some one else's, -a mwenyewe. 

Child of somebody, i.e., of respect- 
atble parents, mtoto wa watu> 
mwana wa watu. 
Somersault, kitwangomba. 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



71 



Souy mwana, pi. waana, kijana, 
mtoto mume. 
Wadi Mohammed, Mohammed's 

son. 
Bin Abdallah (Ar.), Ahdallah's 

son. 
Hamisi wa Tani, Hamisi the son 
of Tani {Othman). 
. Son-in-taWf mkwe, pi. wakwe. 
Songy iiimbo, pi. nyimbo. 
Sooty kaa moshi, makaa ya niosihi. 
Soothing thingy kitulizo, pi. vitulizo. 
Soothsayer^ kahini, pi. makabinL 
Sorey donda, pi. madonda, kidonda, 
pi. vidonda, jeraba. 
8<yres in the leg, nyungunyungu, 
mti. 
SorroWy kasarani, huzuni, sikitiko, 
matukio. 
Sorrow for a loss, majonzi. 
Sorrow for something donCy ma- 

jutio. 
Excessive sorroWy jitimai. 
Sort (kind), ginsl, namna, aina. 
The sort is often expressed by 
the prefix ki-. Kizungu, the 
European sorty kifaume, the 
kingly sort. 
Sotdy roho. 
Sound, sauti. 
Soundness, uzima. 
Source, asili, chimbuko. 
South, kusini, subeli. 
Southerly wind, kusi. 
Sovereign, mwenyi ezi, mwenyi 
inohi, mwenyi mji. 
(coin), robo Ingrezi. 
Sovereignty, ezi, enzi. 
Sp€use, nafasi. 
{of time), muda. 
(open space), uwanda, uga. 
Spade, jembe la kizungu. 



Span, futuri, shibiri, sliibri. 

Spangles, puluki. 

Sparky chechi, pi. macheohi. 

Sparkle, kimeta. 

Speaker, mneni, pi. waneni, mse^i, 
pL wasemi, misemaji, pi. wa- 
semaji. 

Speaking, kusema, kunema. 
A da/rk obscure way of speaking, 

kilinge cba maneno. 
An enigmatical way of-speakirtg, 
in which the last syUahle is 
taken from the endy and made 
to begin the word, kinyume, 
kinyuma. (See Appendix I.) 

Spear, fumo, pi. mafumo ^(flat- 
Uaded) mkuke, pi. mikuke, 
(fhrec'edged) sagai,|)Z. masagai. 

Speeta/des, miwani. 

Speech (speaking), kunena. 
(oration), mataguso, milumbe. 

Spider, buibui. 

Spinal column, uti wa maungo. 

Spirits, mvinyo. 
Evil spirit, pepo. 
Kinds of spirits, jini, pi, majini, 
milhoi, mahoka, dungumaro, 
kitamiri, kizuu, kizuka, koikoi, 
mwana maua, &c. 

Spit, uma, pi. nyuma. 

Spittle, mate. 

Spoil, mateka. 

Spleen, wengo. 

Splint, gango, pi. magango, bauzi, 
pi. mabanzi. 

Splinter (of wood), kibanzi, pi. 
vibanzi. 
(of glass or earthenware), kige- 
renyenza, pi. vigerenyenza. 

Spoon, mwiko, pi. miiko, kijiko, pi. 
vijiko (a tea-spoon), mkamshe, 
pi. mikamshe (a wooden spoon). 



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BWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Sport, mchezo, mzaba. 

Spot, waa, pi. mawaa, Iripakn, pi. 

vipaku. 
Spout (from a roof), kopo kt 

nytunba, marizabu. 
Sprain, kuteukft. 
Spread, eneo. 

Spreading a meal, maandiko. 
Spring, mtambo, pi. mitambo. 

of water, ch^nchem, jicho la maji 
Sprinkle, manyunyo. 
Sprinkler (for scents), mrashi, pi. 

mirasbi 
Spur of a cock, kipi, kipia, pi. vipia. 
Spy, mpelelezi, pi. wapelelezi, 

mtumbuizi (A.). 
Square, mrabba. 
Squint, makengeza. 
Stable, banda la frasi, fiija la fiasi 
Staff, gongo, pi. magongo, mkongo- 

jo, pi. mikongojo. 
Stagnation, vilio, pi. maviUo. 
Stain, waa, pi. mawaa. 
Stairs, daraja, ngazL 
Up-stairs, juu, darioi 
Dovm-stairs, cbini. 
Stalks, of mtama, bua, pi. mabua. 
of a kind of millet chewed like 

sugar-cane, kota, pi. makota. 
of cloves, &c., kikonyo,2>i. vikonyo. 
Stall keeper, mohuruzi, pi, wa- 

churuzi. 
Stammering, kigugumizi. 
Stamp, muhuri, chapa. 
Staple, pete, pi. mapete, tumbuu. 
Star, uyota. 
Falling stars, nyota zikishuka. 
Shooting stars, kimwondo, pi. 

yimwondo. 
Starch, kanji, dondo. 
Start {fright), kituko. 
{beginning), fell, pi. saafeli. 



Sk^Hing thing, mzungu, pi mi- 
zungu. 
A thing to frighten people, Mnya- 
go, pi. vinyago. 
State, hah. 
Statue, sanamu. 
Stealing, kwiba. 
Steam, mvuke. 

A steamship, merikebn ya moehi. 
Steel, feleji, pua. 
Steelyard, mizani. 
Steersman, mshiki shikio. 
Stem of a tree, shina, pL mashina. 

of mtama, bua, pi. mabua. 
Step (stepping), batua. 

{of stone, Ac), daraja. 
Step-father, baba wa kambo. 

Step-mother, mama wa kambd. 
Steward, msimamizi, yZ. wasimamizL 
Stick, fimbo, ufito, pi. fito (thin), 
bakora (a walking'Stick with a 
handle bent at right angles). 
A short heavy stick, Mbaraugo, 
pi. vibarango, mpweke, pL mi- 
pweke. 
A staff, gongo, pi. magongo, 
mkoQgojo, pi. mikongojo (an 
old man*8 staff). 
Stillness, kimya. 

Stirrup, kikuku cha kupandia fiasi. 
Stocks (for the feet), mkatale. 
Stomach, tumbo. 
Pit of the stomach, chembe oha 
moyo (A.). 
Stone, jiwe, pi. mawe or majiwe. 
A stone house, nytunba ya mawe. 
Small stones or pieces of done, 

kokoto, pi. makokoto. 
Very small stones, not larger than 

an egg, mbwe. 
Very smaU grit, changarawi 
Fresh coral, matumbawi* 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



73 



PreciouB ttones^ Mto, pi viio, 

johari. 
SUmes of fruit, kokwa, pi, ma- 

kokwa. 
Stooping, kiinamizi. 
Stop (end), Mkomo, kinga. 

(atoj^ng), kizuizo, kizuizi, kizuio. 
Stoppage in the nose or toindrpipe, 

mafua. 
{stagnation), yilio, pi. mavilio. 
Stopper, zibo, pi. mazibo, kizibo, pi, 

vizibo. 
Store {put by), akiba. 
Store-room, ghala. 
Storm, tMniba, tufaniu 
Story, hadithi, habari. See Tale, 
Stoutness, unene. 
Strainer, kunguto, pi, makunguto 

{of basket-work). 
Straits {distress), shidda. 

{narrow seas), kilango cha baliari. 
Strands of a cord, meno, ncha. 
Stranger, mgeni, pi, wagenL 
Strap, ukanda. 
Stratagem, hila. 
Stream, mto, pi, mito, kijito, pi, 

vijito. 
Strength, nguvu. 
String, ugwe, nzi, katani 

String of heads, kigwe, pi. yigwa 
String-course, nshi. 
Strip, See Mat, 
Stripe {line), uzi, pi. Dynzi, mfuo, 

pi. mifuo, utepe, pi tepe. 
Study, mtaala. 
Stumhle, kwao, pi makwao. 
Stumbling-block, kwao, pi, makwao. 
Stump, shina, pi mashina. 
Stupor, karukwa na akili. 
Stye in the eye, chokea. 
Style {of writing), dibaji, a good 

style. 



SvSbject, rayia. 

Substance, asili. 

Subtlety, busara, werevn. 

Subtraction {arithmetical), baki. 

Suburbs, kiunga. 

Sugar, BukarL 

Sugar-cane, mua, pi miwa. 

Suit of clothes, kisua. 

Sulphate of copper, mrututu. 
of magnesia, chimiyi ya halnli. 

Sulphur, Mberiti. 

SuUanship, UBultani. 

Sum, jumla. 

Summary, muhtasari. 

Summit, kilele, pi yilele {used of 
any sharp-pointed top or peak, 
of the centre shoot of a cocoa- 
nut tree as well as of the peak 
of a mountai7h). 

Sun, jua, pi majua. 

The coming out of the sun after 
rain, kianga. 

Sunday, Juma a piii 

Sundries, takataka. 

Sunset, magharibi, mangaribt 

Supercargo, karaoi 

Superciliousness, MtoDgotongo. 

Superintendent, mwangalizi, pi wa- 
angalizi, msimamizi, pi wasi- 



Supper, chaknla cha jioni. 

Suppuration, kutunga. 

Surety, mthamini, thimiii, thamana, 

lazima. 
Surf, mawimbi 
SwaUow {bird), barawai, mbili- 

wili (?), mbayuwayu (A.). 
Sweat, hari, jaaho, vukuto. 
Sweetheart, mchumba. 
Sweet lime, dimu tamu. 
Sweetness, tamu. 
Sweet potatoes, yiazi, sing, kiazi. 



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8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Swindler^ ihalimu. 
Swing,, pembea. 
Swine, nguruwe, nguuwe. 
Switch, ufito, pi. fito. 
Sword, upanga, pi. panga. 

curved sword, kitara, pL vitara. 
straight two-edged sword without 

any guard, upanga wa feleji. 
with a small cross hilt, upanga 

wa imani. 
Syphilis, sekeneko, kijaraha cha 

mboni, tego (a virtUent kind 

supposed to he the resuU of a 

charm). 
Syria, Sham. 
Syrup, asali. 

T. 
Table, meza. 

Table-chfh, nguo ya meza. 

Table - napkin, kitambaa cha 
meza. 
Ta4:k of a sail, goshi 
Ta^sking {sewing), bandi 
Tail, mkia, pi. mikia. 
Tailor, mshoni, pi. washoni. 
Taking away, maondoleo. 
Tale, hadithi, kisa, ugano. 
Tale'hearer, mzuzi. 
Talipes, kupinda na mguu. 
Talk, usemi, 

SUly talk, upuzi 
Tcdker, msemaji, pi. wasemaji. 
Tamarind, ukwaju. 

Tamxirind tree, mkwaju, pi, mi- 
Tangle, matata. [kwaju. 
Tap, bilula. 
Tape, ntepe, pi. tepe. 
Tar, lami. 

Tartar on the teeth, ukoga. 
Taste, tumu, tamu, luththa, nyonda, 
maondi, maonji 



Taster, mwonja, pi. waonja, mwo- 

nda (M.), pi. waonda, kionja, 

pi. vioiija, kionda (,M.), pi. 
' vionda. 
Tea, cbayi, cha. 
Teacher, mwalimu, pi. waalimu, ' 

mkufunzi, pi. wakufunz£ 
Tea>ching, mafundisho, elimu. 
Teak, msaji. 

Teapot, bull, pi. mabuli. 
Tear, chozi, pi. machozi, tozi (M.\ 

phmatozL 
Teazing, thihaka. 
Tediousness, uchovn. 
Telescope, durabini. 
Temper, tabia. 

Temperance, tawassuf, kadiri. 
Temple, hekalu (a greai thing, the 

temple at Jerusalem), baniya 

(a building, the temple at 

Mecca). 
Temptation, majaribu, nyonda. 
Ten, kumi, pi, makumL 

a decade, mwongo, pL miongo. 
Tent, khema, hema. 
Testicles, mapimibu, tamboa. 
Testimony, ushahidi. 
Thanks, shukuru, nshukura, salamn, 

ahsanta, marahaba. 
Thatch, makuti (of cocoa-nut leaves). 
Thin sticks used to tie the makuti 

to, upau, pi. pau. 
See Cocoa-nut. 
Theft, uizi. 
Thicket, kichaka, pi. vichaka, koko, 

pi. makoko. 
Thickness, imene. 
Thief, mwivi, pi. wevi, mwibaji, pi. 

webaji. 
Thieving, kwiba, idzi, wibaji. 
Thigh, upaja, pi. paja, paja, pi. ma- 

paja. 



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75 



Thirnble^ subana. 
SaUmaket^e palm, dofra, pi. ma- 
dofra. 
Thing, kitu, pi vitu (a thing of the 
senses), neno, jambo, mambo 
{things of the intellect), 
I have done nothing, sikufaoya 

neno. 
I see nothing, sioni kitu. 
A hind thing, jambo la wema. 
Strange things, mambo mageui. 
Third (a third part), f^elutb. 
Thirtl, Hu. 

Thorn, mwiba, pi. miiba or miba. 
Mcbongoma, pi. micbongoma, a 

thorny shrub used for hedges. 
Bikwamba, pi. mikwamba, a 
thorny shrub. 
Thought, wazo, pi. mawazo, fik^ra, 

tliamiri, nia. 
Thousand, elfu, pi. elfu or alafu. 
a thousand or myriad, kikwi, pi. 

zikwi or vikwi. 
a hundred thousand, lakki. 
Thready \xzX,pl. nyuzi, kataui. 
Threat, wogofya, tisho. 
Throat, koo, pi. makoo. 
Thumb, kidole cha gumba. 
Thunder, radi (near), ngarumo 

(distant). 
Thursday, Alhamisi. 
Ticket, kibarua, pi. vibania. 
Tickling or tingling, mnyeo, kinye- 

nyefu. 
Ticks, papasi {in houses), kupe {on 

cattle). 
Tide, maji kujaa na kupwa. 
Spring tides, bamvna. 
Neap tides, maji mafu. 
Tiller, kana, gana. 

Tiller ropes, mijiari, sing, mjiari. 
Timber, miti, mibau. 



Time, wakati, wakti, majira. 
{sufficient), nafasi. 
{hour), saa. 
{leisure), faragha. 
(first, d;c), mara. 
(fixed term), mohulla. 
Times (age), zamani. 
iSJpoce of time, muda. 
Period of time, kipindi. 
A short time, kitambo. 
Tirnes, in multiplication, fi. 
Six times eight, sita fi the- 
manya. 

Divisions of Time. 

There are two years in nse in 
Zanzibar ; that which is most com- 
monly heard of is the Arab year of 
twelve lunar months. It cannot be 
more than about 355 days long, and 
has therefore no correspondence to 
the seasons. The months are de- 
termined by the sight of the new 
moon, or by the expiration of thirty 
days since the beginning of the 
previous month. It happens some- 
times that some of the coast towns 
will begin their months a day before 
or after what was taken as its first 
day in Zanzibar. A gun is usually 
fired from one of the ships when 
the month begins. Practically the 
Bamathan is treated as the first 
month, and the rest are reckoned 
from it; the word by which they 
are denoted seems to mean not 
fasting, as though the Bamathan 
being the month of fasting, the rest 
were the first, second, third, &o., 
of not fasting, until the months of 
Bajdb and Shaahan, which have 
both a special religious character. 



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76 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



The following are the names of the 
Arab months, with their Swahili 
equivalents : 



Abab. 



Swahili. 



Moharram. 


Mfonguo a 'nne. 


Safr. 


Mftmguo a tano. 


Babia al aowal. 


Mftmgao a site. 


Babia al akhr. 


Mfunguo a saba. 


Jemad al aowal. 


Mfangno a nane. 


Jemad al akhr. 


Mfunguo a kenda. 


I^jab. 


I^jabu. 


Shaaban. 


Shaabanf. 


Ramathan. 


Ramathani. 


Shaowal. 


Mfunguo a mosi. 


Th'U ka'ada. 


Mfunguo a pili. 


Th'il hfljjah. 


Mfunguo a tatu. 



The two great Mohammedan 
feasts are held on the first of 
Shaowaly when every one gives pre- 
sents, and on the tenth of Th'il 
hajjahy when every one is supposed 
to slaughter some animal and feast 
the poor. 

The other year in use among the 
Swahili is the Nautical and Agri- 
cultural year; it is roughly a solar 
year, having S65 days. It is 
reckoned to begin from the 8iku a 
rmoaka (answering to the Persian 
Nairuz)^ which now occurs towards 
the end of August. Tlie last day 
of the old year is called Kigwnzi^ 
and the' days are reckoned by 
decades, called Tmongo, sing, mwo' 
ngo. Thus — Mwongo wa mia con- 
sists of the days between 90 and 
100. Mwongo wangapif asks which 
decade it is. The 8iku a mwaha is 
kept as a great day, and formerly 
had a number of special observances 
connected with it. In the night or 



early in the morning every one used 
to bathe in the sea; the women are 
particularly careful to do so. They 
afterwards fill a large pot with 
grain and pulse, and cook them. 
About noon they serve out to all 
Mends who come ; all the fires are 
extinguished with water and lighted 
again by rubbing wood. Formerly 
no inquiry was made as to any one 
killed or hurt on this day, and it is 
still the custom to go armed and 
to be on the guard against private 
enemies. It used to be a favourite 
amusement to throw any Indians 
that could be caught into the sea, 
and otherwise ill-use them, until 
the British Government interfered ' 
for their protection. The year is 
called after the day of the week on 
which it began ; thus, in 1865 it 
began on Thursday and was 
Mwaka Alhamin; in 1866 on 
Friday, and was Mwaka Juma, and 
so on. 

The seasons will be found briefly 
mentioned under that word. 

The week has been reoonstruoied 
on the Arab week, retaining only 
the Arab names of two days, Alha- 
mist and Juma (Thursday and 
Friday), which answer to our Satur« 
day and Sunday for Mohammedan 
religious purposes, and are the days 
which slaves in the country are 
generally allowed for their own 
recreation or profit. Juma is so 
named from the assembly held on 
that day for public worahip; the 
Arab names of the rest ai-e merely 
those used by English Quakeis, 
first, second, third, &o. 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



77 



English. 


Akabio. 


SwAHnj. 


Sunday. 


AliUiad. 


Juma a plli. 


Monday. 


Xth e^neen. 


Juma a tatu. 


Tuesday. 


AM t^luth. 


Juma a 'nne. 


Wednesday. 


Ar robua*. 


Juma a tano. 


ThoTBday. 


AlkhamiB. 


Alhamisi. 


Friday. 


Juma'. 


Jama. 


Saturday. 


Asiabt. 


Jama a moel. 



The day begins at sunset ; to*night 
therefore in the mouth of a Swahili 
means what an Englishman would 
call last night As the days are of 
a Tery nearly uniform length there 
is little practical incorrectness in 
taking sunset as six o'clock in the 
evening and reckoning the night 
first and then the day from it, hour 
by hour. Thus, seven, eight, and 
nine are the first, second, and third 
of the night (taa a hwanza, a pilij 
a tatu ya usiku). Midnight is the 
sixth hour, $aa a Hta, Five in the 
morning is the eleventh hour of the 
night, Mia a edhaehara. Nine 
o'clock in the morning is the third 
hour of the day, sa^i a tatu. Twelve 
at noon is the sixth hour, saa a iita, 
and four and five the tenth and 
eleventh hours, $aa a kumi, mm a 
edhashara. Sunset is determined 
by observation, and a gun is fired, 
and the Sultan's flag hauled down 
to mark it. During the Bamathan a 
gun is fired at half-past two in the 
morning to warn every one of the 
approach of morniog, that they may 
get their cooking and eating over 
before dawn. This gun-fire is called 
daakuu. 

There is another way of marking 
the time by reference chiefly to the 
hours of prayer (see Prayer); the 
following are the chief points : 



Magaribi, sunset 

Mshuko wa magaribi (coming out 

from sunset prayers), about 

hatf-past six. 
Esha or Isha, from half -past six 

to eight. 
Mshuko wa esha, about half-an- 

hour later. 
Nuss ya usiku, midnight 
E^aribu na alfajiri, between three 

and four in the morning. 
Alfajiri mkuu. rising of Vie morn- 
ing star, about four. 
Alfajiri mdogo, dawn. 
Assubui, the morning, i.e., after 

sunrise. 
Mchana, (he day from assubui to 

jioni. 
Mafungulia ng'ombe (letting out 

of cattle), about 8 a.u. 
Mafungulia ng'ombe makuu, is 

earlier, mafungulia ng'ombe 

madogo, is later than eight 

o*clock. 
Jua kitwani, noon. 
Athuuri or Azuuri, nocm, and 

thence till three o'dock. 
Awali athuuri, between twelve and 

one. 
Alasiri, about half-past three, or 

from three to five. 
Alasiri kasiri, about five, or thence 

to half -past. 
Jioni, evening, from about five or 

half -past till sunset. 



Tin, bati. 

Tip, ncha, nta (M.). 
Tithes, zaka. 
Tobacco, tumbako. 
To-day, leo. 



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SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Toe, kidole, pi. vidole, kidole cba 

mguu. 
Tok&t, dalili, buruhani. 
Tomb, kaburi, pi. makaburi. 
To-morrow, kesho. 

the day after, kesbo kutwa. 

the day after thai, mtondo. 

after that, mtondo goo. 
Tongs, koleo, pL makoleo. 
Tongue, uliud, pi. ndimi 

A piece of cloth, &o., to lie under 
an opening, lisani 
Tool, samani. 

Carpenter* 8 tool for marking lines, 
maliatL 
Tooth, jino, pi. meno. 

cu^ds, cboDge. 

Dirt on the teeth, ukog£k. 

He has lost a front tooth, ana 
pengo. 

Tooth stick or brush,, msuaki, pi. 
misuaki. 
Top, juu. 

{the toy), pia. 
Torpor, ntepetefu. 
Tortoise, kobe. 
Total, jumla. 

IWeZ,kitambaa cba kufutia uso, &c. 
Tower, mnara, pi. minara. 
Toion, mji, pi miji. 
Trance, dalili. 
Tra4:k, nyayo. 
Trade, biasbara. 
Trader, m&nyi biasbara. 
Traitor, kbaini 
Trap, mtego, pi. mitego. 

(with a spring), mtambo, pi. mi- 
tambo. 
Traveller, msafiri, pi. wasafiri. 
Tray, sinia, pi. masinia. 
Treacle, asali ya mua. 
Treasure, hazina, kanad, kbazana. 



TreatmerU, mwamale. 
Tree, mti, pi. miti. 

Mkadi, Pandanus. 

Mtomondo, Barringtonia. 

Mtoudoo,CalophyUum inophyllum. 
Trench, bandaki. 

Trench for laying in foundations, 
msinji, msingi. 
Trial, majaribu. 
Tribe, kabila, f aifa, pi. mataifa. 

(taifa is larger than kabila). 

Of what tribe are you f Mtu gani 
wee? 
Trick, bila, cherevu, madanganya. 
Trot, masbindo (of a horse), matiti 

(of an ass). 
Trouble, taabu, utbia. 
Trousers, soruali. 

Trovod (mason^s), mwiko, pi. miiko. - 
Trumpet, paanda. 

Trunk, sbina, pi. masbina, jiti, pi. 
majiti. 

(cut down), gogo, pi. magogo. 

(the human trunk), kiwiliwili. 
Truth, kweli. 

A truth teller, msemi kweli. 
Trying, maonji, majaribu. 
Tii), pipa, pi. mapipa. 
Tuesday, Juma a nne. 
Turban, kilemba, pi. vilcmba. 

A turban cloth, utambi, pi. tambL 

ends of turban cloth, utamvua, pi, 
tamvua, MsbungL 
Turkey, bata la mzinga, pi. mabata 

ya mzinga. 
Turmeric, manjauo. 
Turn, zamu, pi. mazamu. 

By turns, kwa zamu. 
Turner, mkereza, pi. wakereza. 
Turnery, zikerezwazo. 
Turtle, kasa. 

Hawkshead turtle, from which 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



79 



tortoisesheU is obtained, ug'a- 

mba, gnamba. 
TurUe dove, hua. 
Twin, pacha. 
Tioist, pindi, pi mapindi. 
Type {for printing), chapa, pZ. ma- 

chapa. 

U. 

Udder, kiwele. 
Ulcers, donda ndugu. 
Umbrella, mwavnli, pi. miavuli. 
Native wmbreUa, dapo, pi ma- 

dapo. 
Uncleanness, janaba, ucbavn. 
Uncle, mjomba, pi. wajomba, baba 

mdogo (mothei's brother), amu 

(fathers brother). 
Undergrowth, magugu. 
Understanding, akili (pi.). 
Underwood, makoko. 
Unity, umoja. 
Universe, ulimwengu. 
Uproar, fujo,kelele, makelelQ, nthia, 

kero. 
Urine, mkojo. 
Use, kutumia, kufaa. 

(habit), mazoezo. 
Useful ihings, vifaa. 
Usurer, mlariba, pi walariba. 
Usury, iriba. 
Utensils, vyombo. 
Uterus, mji. 
Uvula, Mmio. 



Vagabond, hana kwao (homeless). 

Vagina, kuma. 

Valley, boonde, pi, boonde or ma- 

boonde. 
Value, kima, f^amani, kadiri, kiasi, 

npataji, uthani. 



What is it w(yrth 7 Ohapataje ? 
Vapour, mvTike, fuMzo. 

Vapour bath, mvuke. 
Vault, or vaulted placs,'kuba., kubba. 
Vegetables, mboga. 

Dcdoki, pi. madodoki, a long 
many-angled seed pod. 

Fijili or figili, a large white 
radish. 

Jimbi, pi majimbi, a .root very 
much like a hya/nnth root. 
Vegetable marrow, mumunye, pi 

mamumuDye. 
Veil, utaji, sbela. 
Vengeance, kasasi. - 
Verses, masbairi. 

Utenzi, religious verses. 

Vimnhvizo, verses sung at a dance. 
Vesicular eruption on the skin, 

uwati. 
Vial, kitupa, pi vitupa. 
Vice, uovu, ufisadi, ufiski. 

(the tool), jiliwa, pi majiliwa, 
iriwa. 
Vicegerent, kaimu, pi makaimu, 

nayibu, kalife. 
Victim, mathabuba. 
Victuals, vyakula. 
Vigil, kesba, pi makesha. 
Village, mji, pi miji, kijiji, pi vijiji. 
Vine, mzabibu, pi mizabibu. 
Vinegar, siki. 
Violence, jeuli, nguvn. 

Kwa nguvu, by violence. 

Ana jeuri, he oMa^ks people wan- 
tonly. 
Virgin, bikiri, kizinda. 
Viscera, matumbo. 
Vizir, waziri, pi mawaziri. 
Vizirship, u waziri. 
Voice, sauti. 
Vow, nathiri, nazlri. 



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8WAHILI HANDBOOK, 



Voyage^ safari. 
VvUure, taL 



W. 



Wages^ ujira. 
monOdy, mshahara. 
aailoTB'y halasa. 
Wailing, maombolezo. 
Waistcoat, kisibau, pi, viaibau. 
deeved,, cha mkono. 
sleeveless, kisioho mkono or cha 
vikapa 
WaXky mwendo. 
A waXky matembera. 
to go for a wdUc, kwenda tembea. 
Wall, ukuta, pi, kuta, kikuta, pi. 
vikuta, kitalu, pL vitalu (of an 
enclosure), kiyambaza (mud 
and stud). 
WaU-plate, mbati, mwamba, pi. mi- 

amba. 
Walnut, jozL 
Wandering about, mznngiiko, pi. 

mizunguko. 
Want, uhtaji, upimgnfa, kipunguo. 

(poverty), shidda, umasikini 
War, vita, kondo (Mer.). 
Wareroom, ghala. 
Warehouse and shop, bokhari, 
bohari. 
Warmth, moto, nharara. 

Lukewarmness, uyngayuga. 
Wart, chunjua. 
Washerman, dobi. 
Waste, upotevu, ubaribiYU. 
Waster, mpotevu, pi. wapotevu, 

muharibivu, pi. wabaribivu. 
Waich, saa. 
ivigiC), ketba, piL makesha. 
(time or place of waiching), ki- 

ngojo, pi vingojo. 
(watching-place). Undo. 



Water, maji. 
Fresh water, maji matamn, maji 

yapepo. 
Water-closet, choc, chiro. 
Thaler cooler (earthen botOe), 
guduwia, gudulia, kuzi (a 
larger kind with handles and 
spout). 
Water jar, mtungi, pi. mitungi. 
Water melon, battikh. See 

Pumpkin. 
Waier skin, kiriba. 
Wave, wimbi, pL mawimbi. 
Way, njia. 

the shortest way, njia ya kukata. 
Weakness, nthaifu. 
Wealth, mail mengi, ntajtri, nkwasi. 
Weapon, selaha, mata (weapons, i.e., 

hows and arrows). 
Weather, wakati 
Weather side, npande goahini, 
upande wa juu. 
Weaver, mfoma, pi. wafuma. 
Wedding, hanisi. 
Wedge, kabari. 
Wednesday, Juma a tana 
Weeds, magugu. 
Kinds of weeds, kitawi, mdago, 
gugu m^itu, mbaruti. 
Week, jiimaa. 

Weight (see Measure), ntfaani. 
How much does it weigh f Yapata 

kassi gani utbani ^ake ? 
Native Weights : 
Wakia, the weight of a silver 

dollar, about one ounce. 
Battel, sixteen ^vakia, about one 

pound. 
Kibaba, pL vibaba, one xattel and 

a half. 
BCani, tivo rattel and three- 
quarters. 



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SUBSTANTIVES. 



81 



Piflhi, four ribaba, or six rattel. 
Frasila, thirty-five rattel, or twelve 

mani. 
Farra ya mti, seventy-two JwNiel, 
or twelve pishi. 
9r«S, kisima, pi yiMnuk. 
We^ng, kilio. 
West, maghribi. 

West wmd, umande. 
Wei, rataba, maji. 
Whale, nyamgomi, ngumL 
Wheat, Dgano. 

Whed, gurudumu, pi, magnru- 
dumu. 
Wheeled carriage, gari, pi, ma- 
gari. 
WJieistone, kinoo, pL vinoo. 
Whip, mjeledi, pi, mijeledi. 
A plaited thong carried by over- 
lookers and schoolmasters, ka- 
mbaa, kikoto (M.). 
Whirlwind, kisusuli, pepo za cba- 

mcbela. 
WhisUing, msony©, miunfii. 
White ants, mobwa. 
White of egg, ute wa yayi. 
Whiteness, weupe. 
Whitening, chaki. 
Whitlow, mdudu. 

Wich of a lamp, utambi, pi. 
tambi. : 
of a candle, kope, pi, makope. 
Widow, mjani, mjaani, mke aliofi- 

"wa na mttmewe. 
TFteif^, npana. 

Wife, mke, pi -wske, mtnmke, pi 
-watuwake, mwanamke, pi wa- 
«naake. 
WHdemees, baira, nylka, tmyika. 
WUd people, washcnzL 
WHd animals, nyama za mwitu, 
nyama mbwayi, Dyaana wakali. 



WUl (mind), moyo, nia, kntfudi. 

(testament), wasio. 
Wind, upiepo, ftmch wind, pepo. 
See Cold, Whirlwind, Storm, Eaet, 

West. 
Northerly Winds, which blow from 

December to March, kaskazi.. 
Southerly winds, which hhw from 

April to November, kusi. 
Read winds^ pepo za omo (a^ 

stern winds). . 
Wind on the beam, matanga kati. 
Winding, kizingo, pi yizinga 

of a stream, magbuba. 
Windlass, ditara. [dirisha. 

Window, diridia, pi. dirisba or ma- 
Wine, mrinyo (strong wine), divai 
Wing, bawa, pi mabawa. [j(claret). 
A wing feather, ubawa, pi mbawa. 
Wink, knpepeea. 
Wire, masango, uzi wa madini. 
Wire-drawer's plate, cbamburo. 
Wisdom, b^ima, busara, akili. 
Wit, ujuvi (?). 

Witch, mobawi, pH. waohawi. 
Witchcraft, ucliawi. 
One who uses witchci'aft against 
another, wanga. 
Witness, sbabidi, pi maebabidi. 

(testimony), ushabidi. 
Wits, akili. 

Wizard, mcbawi, pi. wacbawi. 
Woe, msiba. See Grief. 
Woman, mwanamke, pi waanaake 
or waanawake. 
A young tooman, kijana,pZ. vijana. 
A young woman who has not yet 
left her father* S house^one whose 
breasts are not yet flattened, 
mwanamwali. 
A slave woman, mjakazi, pi wa- 
See Person, Oldy Slave, [jakam 



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82 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK, 



W&mb, tmnbo, matumbo, mji. 
Wonder^ ftjabu. 

Wonders^ mataajabo. 
Food, mti. See Firewood, Timber, 
A woody msitu wa miti. 
A piece of tooody kijiti, pi. vijiti. 
Kinds of wood. 
Finessi, Hhe wood of the jack-fruit 

tree ; it has a ydhw colour. 
Mche, a reddish wood much used 

in Zanzibar. 
Mkumavi, a red wood. 
Msaji, teak. 
Mtobwe, the wood of which the 

best bakora are made. 
Sesemi, Indian black wood. 
SUnbati, a kind of wood brought 

from near Cape Delgado, 
Sunobari, deal. 
Wooden clogs, viatu vya mti. 
TJie button which is grasped by 
the toesy msuruaki, pi. misu- 
ruaki. 
Woollen dothy joho Qyroadcloih). 
Thick woollen fabrics^ blanketing^ 
bushuti. 
Word, neno, pi. maneno. 
Bad words, matukano. 
Work, kazi. 

Workman, mtenda kazi. 
(skilled), fundi. 

(skilful, a good hand), mstadi, pi. 
wastadi. 
Workshop, Mwanda, ph viwand^, 

kiwanja, pi. viwauja. 
World, uliuiwengu, dunia. 
People of this world, walimwengu. 
Worldly affairs, malimwengia. 
Worm, nangonango, change, 

nrnio (?). 
Worthy kima. See Value. 
Wound, jeraha, donda, pL madonda. 



kionda, pi. vionda, kidonda,.|>Z. 

vidonda. 
Wrath, ghathabu. 
Wriggle, pindi, pi. mapindL 
Wrist, kiwiko cha mkono, kilimbili. 
Writer, mwandishi, pZ. waandishi, 

akatabao, pi. wakatabao (tmter 

of a letter). 
Writings, maandiko, maandishi 
Writing-desk, dawati. 
Wrong, thidumu, sivyo. 

Y. 

Yam, kiazi kikuu, pi. viazi viknu. 

A kind of yam like a hyadnHh 
rooty jimbi, pi. majimbi. 
Yard (of a ship), foramali. 

(an enclosure), uanda, uanja, na, 
Yawn, miayo. [pi. nyiiA. 

Year (see Time), mwaka, pL miaka. 

Last year, mwaka jana. 

The year before last, mwaka juzi. 
Yesterday, jana. 

The day before yesterday, juzi. 
Yolk of an egg, kiini cha yayL 
Young of birds, kinda, pi. makinda. 

See Chicken, &c. 
Youth, ujana, udogo. 

A youth, kijana, pi. vijaua. 

Z. 

Zanzibar, Unguja. 

The language or dialect of Zanzi- 
bar, Kiunguja. In Zanzibar, 
Eiswahili is understood to mean 
chiefly the language used on the 
coast north of Mombas, 
The original inhabitants of Zanzi- 
bar, Muhadimu, j>Z. Wahadimu. 
Hieir sultan is the Munyi 

Zeal (effort), juhudi. [mkuu. 

. (jealousy), uwivu. 

Zebra, punda milia. 



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{ ContorDe. 



, 



he first syUable. Swak ^^^^^^g Classes. 




d- or ch- into vi-. Kitu 
ombo vingi, many dhows. 
: makasha mengi, many 



Those which 

ldmoja,one 
Those which 

chests 
Those wHcd"**®* ^ *^® plural- K 

foUowed bj"°^ °'°'°J»' o'lo claw: 

The word 



ly places. 



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( 83 •) 



ADJECTIVES AND NUMERALS. 



Adjectives. 

Adjectives always follow the Substantives they 

agree with, 

Mtu mtoemay a good man. 

Regular Swahili Adjectives are made to agree with 
the Substantives they qualify by prefixing to them the 
initial syllables proper to the class of their Substan- 
tives, in the singular or plural, as the case may be. 
The minor rules laid down in regard to the prefixes of 
Substantives are applicable to Adjectives and their 
prefixes. The following instances will illustrate the 
ordinary application of these rules : 

Class I. M-tu *m^ycLj a bad man. 

Wortu toa-hayay bad men. 
M'tu rmo-eupei a white man. 
Wortu vyeupe, white men. 

Substantives of whatever class denoting living beings 

may have their Adjectives in the forms proper to the 

first class. 

Mbuzi mrhubtoot a large goat. 

Mbuzi fjoa-kvhwat large goats. 
Mbuzi miD^kundUf a red goat. 
Mbuzi vhehundUf red goats. 

O 2 



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84 8WAEILI MANDBOOK. 

Waziri mwema^ a good vizir. 

Mawaziri wema, good yizirs. 
Kijana mwema, a good youth. 

Vijana wema, good youths. 

Class II. M-ti m-zuri, a fine tree. 

Mi'ti mi'zurif fine trees. 
M-ti mtr-ema, a good tree. 

Mi4i mi-ema^ or nhemay good trefls. 

Class m. Ny^umha n-zwri, a fine house. 

Ny-umba n-zuri, fine houses. 
Ny-umba ny-eupe, a white house. 
Ny-urriba ny-eupe, whit6 houses. 

Class IV. Ki-tu Ici-refu, a long thing. 

Vi-tu vi-refa, Jong thsi^gB. 
Ki'tu ch-epesif a light thing. 
Vi-tu vy-epesi, light ihiitgs. 

Class V. Kasha zito, a heavy chest. 

Mo'kMba ma-zitOf beavy cbests. 
Xaxikaj-ekandia, a led ^ei^ 

Morkaeha m-ekundu^ red chests. 

Class VI. V-irnbo m-zuriy a beautiful song. 

Ny-imbo n-zuri, beautiful songs. 
XJ'bou m-r^, a long plank. 
M'hau n-defu, long planks. 

Class VII. MahaXi pa-panA, a brottd plaoe, or broad plaee& 
Mahali p-eusi, a black place^ or black places. 

Class VIII. Ku-fa ku-zuri, a fine death. 

Kvr-fa' km-tma, a good deat&. 

It will be seen at once from th© aboTe examples bow 
to make the AdjectiTie agree wrth its Substantive in 
ordinary oases. Tlie following ndes must be remem- 
bered in order to avoid mistakes : — 

1. Adjectives beginning with a vowel require pre- 
fixes which end in a consonant, wherever possible, as 
in the above instances^ mweujpe, mwekundu^ mwema, 
chepeai, kwemcu 



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ADJECTIVES AND NUMERALS. 85 

%. AdjectivBS begmning with a vowel must have j- 
prefixed when they are made to agree with nouns Kke 
ktt9h(L, as in the instance given above of Jcasha jehmdu, 
a red chest. Monosyllabic adjectives prefix ji^ as in 
kasha jipya, a new chest. 

3. Prefixes ending in -a, when they are pnt before 
adjectives beginning with e-, merge the a into the 
first letter of the adjective, as in the instances, weupe, 
wehmdu, imkiindu, peusi. This suppression of the a is 
more noticeable in Adjectives than in Substantives, 
and occurs even in the few Adjectives whidfi begin 
with -o^; -a before t- coalesces with it and forms e. 

Weusi = wa-eusi. Meupe = ma-eupe. 

Pema = pa-ema. Mororo = ma-ororo. 

Wengi=z wa-ingi. 

4. Adjectives beginning with a consonant. are subject 
to tiie same rules when n is to be prefixed as Substan- 
tives of the third class and plurals of the sixth. The 
rules are given at length under Class VI. of Substan- 
tives. The following instances will show their appli- 
cation to Adjectives : 



Nywmba j vdogo^ little 
Mbau \ ngeniy strange 



n prefixed. 



Nyimbo i nzurir fine 

ndefu, long — r becomes d. 
rnbovu, rotten — » becomes m. 
mbiliy two — nw beeomes mh. 
httbwaj great \ 
tieoe^ thick 
pana, broad 
tosttHsveet 
chaeket few 
fupi, short 



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86 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

Besides the many apparent irregularities in these 
n formations, there are two or three really irregular 
forms. These are ngema or njemw (not nyema), good, 
and *mpya (not jpya), new. 

Adjectives beginning with a vowel are, like the cor** 
responding Substantives, regularly formed by prefixing 
»y-, as in the instance given, nyeupe, from -eupe, white. 

Instances are given in the list of Adjectives where 
there is likely to be any practical difficulty in knowing 
what form to use. 

-Ote, all, and -enyt, or -t«y», having or with, are not 
treated as Adjectives, but as Pronouns. Instances 
illustrating their changes will be found under each. 
On the other hand -ngajpi, how many ? is treated as an 
Adjective. 

Irregulae Adjectives. 

Although Swahili is rich in Adjectives when com- 
pared with other African languages of the same family, 
it is very poor in comparison with English. The place 
of the English Adjective is supplied — 

1. By Arabic words which are used as Adjectives 
but do not vary. 

Bahisif cheap. Laini, smooth. 

2. By a verb expressing generally in the present 
imperfect to become, and in the present perfect to he, 
possessed of the quality denoted. 

Fimbo imenyoka, the stick is straight. 

Fimbo iliyonyoka, a straight stick. 
Firnbo imepotoka, the stick is crooked. 

Fimbo Uiyopotoka, a crooked stick 
Mtungi um^cui, the jar is fall. • 

Mtungi uliojaa, a fall jar. 



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ADJECTIVES AND NUMERALS. 87 

3. By a Substantive connected with the thing quali- 
fied by the particle -a, of. 

Mtu ijoa choyo^ a greedy perk»n. 

Mtu wa ahUi, a man of understanding, a ^ise man. 

If it is wished to predicate the quality of any person 
or thing, the verb huwa na, to have, must be used. 

Ana choyo, he is greedy. 
Kina taka, it is dirty. 

4. By the use of the word -enyi or -inyi, which may 
be translated by having or toith. 

Mtu miDenyi afia, a healthy person. 
Kitu chenyimmringOy a round thing. 
Kaniba zenyi ngutvu^ strong ropes. 
Embe yenyi maji, a juicy manga 

When -enyi is followed by a Verb in the Infinitive, 
it answers to our participle in -ing* 

Mwenyi hupenday loving. 

6. By the use of Adjectival Substantives which 
change only to form the plural. 

Kipofu, blind, or a blind person, pL Vipofu^ blind, or blind people. 

Where in English a special stress is laid upon the 
Adjective, in Swahili the relative is inserted. 

Jiwe kiibway a large stone. , 

Jiwe lililo hiibwa, a large stone, literally, a stone that is large. 
Mtu wa haki, a just man. 

Mtu aliye wa haJci, a just man. 

The Comparison of Adjectives. 

There are not, properly speaking, any degrees of 
comparison in Swahili. 



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88 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

The CoMPiitATiVE degree as it exists in English is 
represented in several ways. 

1. By the use of kuliho^ where there is, ihe idea being 
that when the two things are brought together one of 
them is marked by the possession of the quality men- 
tioned, whence it foUows that it must possess it in a 
more eminent degree than the other. 

8aa hit njema hvliko tte^ thia wat^ is good (or the bed) where 

that is, ix., this watch ia better tlian that 
Tamu kfdikaasaliy sweeter than honey. 

2. By the use of zayidi ya, more than, or of punde, a 
little more. 

Unguja mji mhuhiM isayidi ym MvUa, Zanmbar is a large town 
more than Mombas, »*.d., Zanzibar is a larger town than 
Mombas. 

Kitu kirefu pund€f something a little longer. 

3. By the use of kupita, to pass or surpass. 

Salimu ampita Ahdallah, Salim is better than Abdallah. 
Ndiyo tamu ycepita asali, it is sweet, it passes honey, i^., it is 
sweeter than honey. 

4. Comparison of one time with another may be ex- 
pressed by the use of the Verba hizidi, to increase, 
kupungua, to diminish. 

Mti umezidi kuzaa, the tree has borne more fruit than it did 
previouflly. 

The Superlative may be denoted by Uie use of the 
Adjective in its simple form, in an absolute sense. 

Ma/naruisi mema ya toapi f Where are the best pines ? 

Ndiyo mevMby these are the best. 

Ni ywpi cdio mwema i Who is the beet df them? 

When .this form is used of two only, it Is more 



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ADJECTIVES AND NUMERALS. 



89 



correctly Englished by the Comparative than by the 
SuperiatiTe. So conversely where the Comparative 
forms aj:e so used as to apply to many or all, they 
must be translated by Superlatives. 

ScuL hii njema kuliko zote^ this watch is the best of all. 

Ali awapita w&te, All surpasses them all, or, is the best of all. 

NlTMERALS^, 

There are two sets of numerals in use in Zanzibar ; 
one is properly Swahili, the other Arabic, but in a 
Swahiliized form. 

The numbers from one to ten are as follows : 



Bnglish. 


SwAmLi. 


Arabic. 


One 


Moei 


Wdhid 


Tiro 


PUi 


Theneen 


Three 


Tatu 


ThelathcL 


Four 


Nne 


*Aroha 


Five 


Tano 


Eamsi » 


Six 


Sita 


Sita 


Seven 


Saba 


84d>a 


Eight 


Nane 


Themanya 


Nine 


Kenda 


Ti88a or Tissia 


Ten 


Kumi 


'Athara. 



It will be seen that for six and seven there are only 
the Arabic names. The other Arabic numbers under 
ten are not very commonly used, but for numbers above 
ten the Arabic are more used than the purer Swahili. 



English. 


Swahili. 


Arabic. 


Eleven 


Kumi naimja 


Edashara 


Twelve 


Kumi na mbili 


Thenashara 


Thirteen 


Kumi na taiu 


Thdaihatathara 


Fourteen 


Kumi Tia *nna 


Ardbatashara 


Fifteen 


Kumi na tano 


Hamstaahara 


Sixteen 


Kumi na sita 


Siiashara 


Seventeen 


Kunrvi na adba 


Sahatashara 



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90 



aWAEILI EANDBOOK. 



English. 


SWAHILI. 


Arabic. 


Eighteen 


Kumi na nane 


Themanyatashara 


Nineteen 


Kumi na Jcenda 


TissatasJiara 


Twenty 


Makumi mawiU 


Asharini or IsHrin 


Thirty 


Maikwmi matatu 


Thelathini 


Forty 


Makumi manne 


Arohaini 


Fifty 


Makumi matano 


Hamsini 


Sixty 


Makumi eita 


Settini 


Seventy 


Makumi sciba 


Sabwini 


Eighty 


Makumi manane 


Themanini 


Ninety 


Makumi kenda 


Tisaaini 



The intermediate numbers are expressed in the pure 
Swahili by adding na moja, na mbil% <S^c. Thus forty- 
one is makumi manne na moja ; forty-five is makumi manne 
na tano, and so on. In the Arabic, the smaller number 
precedes the larger. Twenty-one is wdhid u ishrin, forty- 
five is khdmsi u arohain. The mode of counting most 
usual in Zanzibar is to employ the Arabic names for 
the larger numbers, but to follow the Swahili order, 
thus — . 



Twenty-one 

Twenty-two 

Twenty-three 

Twenty-four 

Twenty-five 

Twenty-six 

Twenty -seven 

Twenty-eight 

Twenty-nine 

Thirty-one 



AnJiarini na moja 
Atuharini na mbili 
Asharini na tabu 
Aiharini na *nne 
Afharini na tano 
Asharini na sita 
Asharini na $dba 
Asharini na nane 
Asharini na kenda 
Thclathtm na mqja 
d:e. dte. 



There is no negro word in use for a hundred ; the 
Arabic mia is universally employed, and for several 
hundreds the numeral follows it, as mia tatu, three 
hundred. If the Arabic numerals are used they pre- 
cede the word mta, thekUha mia = three hundred. The 



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ADJECTIVES AND NUMERALS. 



91 



Arabic dual miteen is very commonly used to express 
two hundred. 

Thfere is a Swahili word for a thousand, ktktm, hut it 
is very rarely used except in poetry. The common 
word is the Arabic elfu. This is used in the same way 
as mia ; thus, elfu tatu is three thousand, elfu tano, five 
thousand, &c. The Arabic dual elfeen^ two thousand, 
is more common than elfu mfnli. If the Arabic nu- 
merals are employed the small nxtmber comes first, the 
plural form aldf is employed, and the final of the smaU 
number is heard, thus theldthat alaf is three thousand, 
khdmaet aldf five thousemd, and so on. 

Lahki is used for ten thousand, and the word mily&n 
is known, but is rarely employed, and perhaps never 
with exactitude. 

Fungate occurs for seven^ as denoting the days spent by 
the bridegroom in his bride's company after marriage. 

MwongOj plur. miongo, occurs for a ten or a decade, in 
reckoning the nautical year. 

Both these words occur in cognate African languages 
as cardinal numbers. 

When used in enumerating actual things, and not 
in mere arithmetical computation, six of the Swahili 
numbers are treated as regular Adjectives, the other 
four remaining unchanged. Thie following table will 
show the forms proper to each class of Substantives. 



Mttj 


Mti 


Ntumba 


KiTU 


1. mmoja 


mmoja 


moja 


kimoja 


Watu 


MiTI 


Nyumba 


ViTU 


2. wawili 


mi will 


mbili 


Yiwili 


8. wal.atu 


mitatu 


tatu 


vitata 



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92 



ewaehi eandbook. 



Wattj 


Mm 


Nyumba 


, Vrro 


4. wanne 


minne 


'nne 


Timie 


5. vatano 


mitano 


tana 


vitano 


6. flita 


sita 


Bita 


sita 


7. sabe, 


eaba 


saba 


saba 


8. waoane 


nioAiie 


nana 


Tinane 


9. kenda 


kenda 


kenda 


kenda 


10. kumi 


kiimi 


kumi 


kumi 


Kasha 


UlMBO 


Mahali 


KlIFA 


1. xnoja 


mmoja 


pamoja 


kumoja 


Hakasha 


Niraraa 


Mahali 


KCPA 


2. mawili 


mbili 


pawili 


kuwiU 


3. matatu 


tatu 


patatu. 


kutatu 


4. manne 


•line 


panne 


kunne 


Ik mataoa 


fano 


patana 


kutano 


6. sita 


sita 


sita 


sita 


7. saba 


saba 


saba 


saba 


8. manane 


nane 


panane 


kunane 


a. kenda 


kend^ 


kfioda 


kenda 


XO. kumi 


kumi 


knmi 


kumi 



Tli6 number idways foll0w& the Substantive^ 
One man, mlu mmoja. 
If an adjective is employed, the numeral follows the 
adjective, thus exactly reversing the English order. 
Two good men, waiu wema toavjili. 

The Ordinal numbers are expressed by the use of the 
variable particle -a. (See Prepositions.) 

The fiuid majv mintr wa tatu. 
The fourth house, nyumha ya *nne. 
The fifth chair, kiti eha tano. 



The Ordinal numbers are : 

First, -a thoot, ot more com- 
monly -a kwanza* 
Beeond, -apili. 



Third, -a tatu. 
Fourth, -a *nne. 
Fifth, -a tano. 



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ADJECTIVES AND NUMERALS. 93 

Sixth, -a sita. Tenth, -a hami. 

Seventh, -a iaba. &c. &c 

Eighth, -o TMue. Last, -a mwisho. 
Ninth, -a kenda. 

Once, twice, ifec, are denoted by the use of marra, or 

mara, a time. 

Once, Tnara mqja. 

The first time, mara ya kwanza. 
Twiee, mara tnbt'fo*. 

The second time, mara ya pili. 
How many times? Mara ngapii 

Often, mara nytngi, 

Pbactions may be expressed by- the use oif$mg^ a 

part^ as 

Fungu la thelathiniy a thirtieth. 

The only fractions in common use are the parts of a 

dollar, which are thus expressed in forms borrowed 

from the Arabic : 

Onfc*8ixteenth — Nuss ya ihemunL 

One-eighth — Themunt, or Themm, or 2je*mnu 

Three-sixteenths — Themuni na nuss ya ihemuni. 

One-fifth — Zerenge, 

Q^e-quarter — R6bo. 

Five-sixteenths — It6bo na nuM ya themoni. 

Three-eighths — Rdbo na themum. 

Seven-sixteenths — Bdbo na Xh.emuni na nms ya themunt. 

One-half— ^tt88. 

Nine-sixteenths — Nubs na nuss ya themunt. 

Five-eighths — Nuns na thcmunt. 

Eleven-sixteenths — Nuss na fhemuni na niisa ya themifm. 

Three-quarters — Kassa rcbo [i.e., a dollar less hy a quarter]. 

Thirteen-sixteenthB— fossa robo na nrns ya themum. 

Seven-eighths — Kassa ihemuni* 

Fifteen-sixteenliis — Ka^sa nuss ya \hemuni. 

Numbers treated as Substantives make their plurals 
by prefixing wo- : 

Makmni mawiliy two tens, i.e., twenty. 
Mamqja pia^ all ones, t.e., all the same. 



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94 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



LIST OF ADJECTIVES. 



Those words to which no hyphen is prefixed do not^take any variable syllable. 



A quality for whieh one cannot find 
a word, a sort of a, -nyangd- 
lika. 

Eitu May&ngdlika goni? What 
sort of a kind of thing is (his ? 



Able, having ahUity for, or power 

over, mweza. 
Abortive (fruit, <fec.), -pooza. 
Active, -tendaji. 
Ac^cusent. 
Mpaka mmoja, having a wmmon 

boundary, 
EutangamaDa, to adjoin. 
Alike, sawasawa, -moja. 
Alive, hayi 

AU, -ote, or -ot'e, varying as a pos- 
sessive pronoun and not as an 
adjective. 
Glass i. wote. 

„ n. sing, mote, pi, yote. 



m. „ 


yote, „ 


zote. 


IV. „ 


chote, „ 


vyote. 


V. „ 


lote, „ 


yote. 


VI. „ 


wote, „ 


zote. 


vn. „ 
vm. „ 


pote. 
kwote. 





-ote has special forms after the 
particles of time emd place, 
po pote, whensoever, 
ko kote, whitlwrsoever. 
mo mote, whereinsoever. 
Also after the first and second 
persons plurdL 
sisi Bote, we aU. 
ninyi nyote, you aU, 
Sote has the meaning of together. 

tu sote, we are together, 
Wote has the meaning of both, 
sisi wote, both of us, 

2. Pia, the whde, all of it or 
ihem^ 

3. Jamii. 

Jamii wa asikari, aU (he soldiers. 
Almighty, mweza vyote. 
AUemate, moja bado wa moja. 
Ancient, -a kale, -a zamani, -a 

kwanza. 
Angular, 
Euwa na pembepembe, to have 
corners. 
Antique, -a kikale, of the old style. 
Artful, -a vitimbi. 
AvoakCt macho. 
Re is awake, yn macho. 



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LIST OF ADJECTIVES. 



95 



Bad^ -bciya, making mbaya wUh 
nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 
-ovu or -bovu, making mbovu 
vaith, nouns like nyumba or 
nyimbo. -ovn expresses rather 
corruptness than mere badness. 
Utterly had, baa, pi, mabaa. 
Good for very little, thalfu. 
Bare, -tnpu, making tupu with nouns 
like nyumba or nyimbo. 
Bareheaded, kitwa kiwazi. 
Barren, of kmd, kame. 
of animcUs, tasa. 
of persona, si mzazi. 
Beautiful, -zuri. 
Bent, of persons, kibiongo, pi vibl- 

ongo. 
Best, bora (pre-eminent). 
Bitter, -chungu ( -tungu (M.)), 
maMng uchungu toith nouns 
Uke nymnba, nyimbo, or kasba. 
Dawa ucbungu, bitter medicine, 
Tunda uobungo, bitter fruit. 
Black, -ensi. Sometimes forms occur 
as if from -nsl, such a« wausi 
for weusi, mausi /or meusi, and 
viusi for vyensi or veusi. It 
makes nyensi wUh nouns like 
nymnba or nyimbo, and jeusi 
with nouns like kasba. 
Blind, kipofo, pi, vipofu. 
Blue, samawi (sky colour), 

Maji a babari (sea-waier colour), 
BluTd, -yivu (see Idle), 

Kisu bakipati, the knife is blunt. 
Bold, -jasiri, shujaa, pL masbujaa. 
Breeding (of animals), koo, 

Koo la mbuzi, a breeding goat. 
Broad, -pana, making pana with 
nouns like jkyvaoabsk or nyimbo. 



Careless, -zembe. 
Castrated, maksai 
Certain, yakini. 

A certain man, mtu mmoja. 
Cheap, rakbisi, rahisi. 
Checkered, n^irakaraka. 
Chief, bora, -knn. See Qreat, 
Choice, -teule, aali. 
A choice thing, bedaya, tunu, 
bikaya. 
Civilized, -ngwana, -a kiung^wana 

(of the civilized sort). 
Clear, safi, fasihi, -eupe (see White). 
Clear, kweu, mbayani, thabiri 
(manifest), -wazi (see Open). 
-eupe (see White). 
Clever, bodari, mabiri, -a akili. 
Chmsy, -zito (see Heavy), 
Coloured, -enyi rangi. 

Of one uniform colour, -takatifu. 

Comic, -cbekeshaji, -testeabi. 

Common, vivi bivi, zizi bizi, &c., 

yee kwa yee, &c. (see Pronouns), 

A common thing, jazi. 

CompUtey kamili, -kamilifo, -timi- 

livu. 
Confident, -tumaini. 
Confidential, -sirL 
Consecrated, wakf. 
Cool, wovisi. 
Correct, sabibi, fasibi. 
Countrified, -a kimasbamba. 
Covetous, bakbili, -enyi oboyo, -enyi 

tftmftft. 
Crafty, -a bila, -«reyu. 
Crazy, mafuu. 
Credible, mutaabir, -tabarL 
Crooked, kombokombo, msbitbari. 
Cross, -kali (see Fierce), 

Cross roads, njia panda. 
Cunning, -erevu, -a bila. 



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96 



SWABILI HANDBOOK. 



Damp, kimaji. 
Daring, -jasiri. 
Dark, -a giza (of dar^mess), -efosi 

{aeeBioDky. 
Dead, -fu. 
One who8€ modher 4$ dead, MtQ 

aliafiwjb na mama^ 
Deaf, Mziwi, pi. viziwi. 
Dear, ghali 
Deceased, marehema. 
D^ormed, kitema, pi. vfleiML 
Destructive^ 4iarabii, -^raribivu. 
DevQui, -taowa. 
D^ferenU -i^gine (see O^ier), what- 

Ihubali, ihtiiafii. 
DifficvU, -gunra -(flce Sard), -zito 

(jtee Heavy). 
Disfigured by disease, HBnyi lenaa. 
Disobedient, aasi. 
Didtinet, rabalimbali. 
Double, maradnfa. 
Dressed'Up, -pambi. 
Drmtken, -levi. 
Dry, -kavu. maMng kavn toUffi mmns 

like nywuba «r n jimbo. 
yabis. 
DuU, -vivu. iSe« leOe. 
Dumb, bubu, ^Z. mabnbn. 

B. 
Easy, -epesi. See lA^U. 
Elder or Eldest, -kubwa. See ereoL 
Eloquent, -semaji, -seim. 
Empty, -tupu. See Bare. 
Equal, sawa, aawasawa, 
Eternal, -a milele. 
European, Ulayiti, •« Einmgii. 
Even (ZeveZX iiawasawa. 

{not odd), kamili. 
Every^ kiUa or kulla. iit «lw«y8 
precedes its subitamtive^ 



Killa mtu, every man. 

Killa niendapo, whenever / •go, 
or, every itwie I go. 
Evidmt, thahiri, -i^ara. See Open^ 
Ex6ra;vagant, mubathnifa. 

J^af, -nono. 
FaUhftd, aminL 
Feeble, iheAfvL. 
Female, -ke. 

On the female mde, kukeni. 
Few, haba, -chaoke, moA^ chaehe 
with notms Uke Mynmba or 
nyimbo. 
JP^eroe, -kaM, maldng fcaii ^dlk mmms 

like nyumba or nyimbo. 
Filthy, -chavu. 
Final, tama. 
Fine, -zari. 
Firm, imara {of Stings), thMi (of 

persons). 
Fixed (cerlain), maalum. 
Flat, Bawasawa, panapaim. 
Foolish, -pwnbafu. 
Foreign, ^enu 
Forgetful, Hsahan. 
Forgiving, -eamelje. 
Former, -a kwanza. 
Fortunate, heri, -enyi bahati, -a 

heri. 
JVee, hum, ^ngwana. 
Fresh, -bichi. See Raw. 
Fresh water, nraji mataura, maji a 
pepo. 
J^ViiZ, tnjsA, to become fnU. 
Full to the brink, fora, faraltoL 
Fidl of words, mwingi wa aaa- 

neno. 
FuU grmm, -^tq. 
Future, mkabil. 



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LIST OF ADJECTIVES. 



97 



G. 



Generous, karimu, -pajL 
Gentle, -anana. 

Gloriom, -tukufu, -enyi fakhari. 
Gluttonous, -lafi. 

Crood, -ema, making njema or ngema 
with nouns like njumba or ny- 
imbo, andjeiDA with nouns like 
kasha. 
The idea of goodness may he ex- 
pressed by the suffix -io. 
Manuka, smdls. 

Manukato, good smells, 
Euweka, to put, 
Kuwekato, to put properly. 
Greedy, -enyi roho, -en^i tamaa, 

-enyi choyo. 
Great, bora, -kuu and -kubwa or 
-knba, making kuu and kubwa 
with nouns Uke nyumba or 
nyimbo. Kun is used preferably 
of moral or figurative greatness. 
Kubwa, of physical size. 
Great, when applied to anything 
not material, is usually rendered 
hy -ingi. 
Green, chanikiwiti, raugi ya majani. 
{Fresh, or unripe), -bichi See 
Baw. 

H. 
Handsome, -zuri. 
Handy, -a mkono. 

A handbook, chuo oha mkono. 
Happy, -a heri, f urahani. 
Hard, -gumu. 

Having, with, being vnth, or who or 
which has or have, -enyi or 
-inyi. It varies like a possessive 
pronoun, as in the follomng 
examples : — 
Class I. Mtu mwenyi (or mwi- 
nyi) mali, a rich man. 



Watu wenyi mali, rich people. 
Class II. Mti mwenyi (or mwi- 
nyi) kuzaa, a tree in bearing. 

Miti yenyi (or yinyi) kuzaa, 
trees in bearing. 

III. Nyumba yenyi (or yinyi) 
dirisha, o house with windows. 

Nyumba zenyi (or zinyi) 
diriflha, houses with windows. 

IV. Kikapu chenyi (or kinyi) 
nguvu, a strong basket. 

Vikapu vinyi nguvu, strong 
baskets. 

V. Neno lenyi kweli, a true word. 
Mabakuli yenyi mayayi, 

basins with eggs in them. 

VI. Upindi wenyi nguvu, o 
strong bow. 

Pindi zenyi nguvu, strong 
bows. 

VII. Mahali penyi mtende, the 
place where the date-tree stands 

Healthy (of persons), -enyi afia,-zima 

(of places, (fee), -a afia. 
Heavy, -zito. 
High, -refu. See Long, -kubwa 

See Great 
Hollow, -a uvurungu, -wazi. See 
Open. 
A JioUow stone, jiwe la uvu- 
rungu. 
It sounds hoUow, panalia wazi. 
The hollow 01' open space in or 
under anything, mvungu. 
Holy, -takatifu. 
Hot, -a moto. 

I am hot, nina hari. 
Hot-tempered, hararii. 
Human, -a mwana Adamu, -a bina- 

damu, -a mtu. 
Humhlcy -nenyekevu. 
Humpbacked, -enyi kigongo. 



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SWAHILI HANDBOOK, 



I. 

Idle, -vivu. 

Ignorant (like a simpleton^ -jinga. 

Ill-omenedf -korofi. 

lU'tempered, -kali. See Fierce, 

Immature, -changa. 

Infirm, tbaifu. 

Ingenious, -jiizi. 

Inquisitive, -pekuzi, -jasusi, -pele- 

lezi. 
Insignificant (mean), -nyonge. 

(unimportant), khafifo. 
Insipid, -dufu. 

J. 

Jealous, -wivu. 

Juicy, -enyi maji. 

Just, sawa, -a haki, -enyi haki. 



Kind, -ema. See Good. 

(doing kindnesses), -fathili. 
Knowing, -erevu, -juzi. 

L. 

Languid, -tepetevu, -chovu. 
Large,.'kahvr& or -kuba. See Great. 

(wdl-grown), -kuza. 
Lawful, halali. 

Lawful to you, halili yako. 
Laying (of birds), koo, pi. makoo. 

Eoo la k'uku a laying hen. 
Lazy. See Idle. 
Lee, -a damalini, -a chini. 
Left (hand, <fec.), -a kushoto, -a kuke. 
Level, sawa, sawasawa. 
Liberal, karimu, -paji. 
Light (not dark), -eupe. See White. 

(not heavy), -epesi, maMng nyepesi 
wil^ nouns like nyumba or 
nyimbo, and jepesi with nouns 
like kasha. 

(unimportant), khafifu. 



Lined (of clothes\ bitana. 

LitUe, -dogo, katiti (A.), -chache 
(few). 
Little water, maji machache. 
(Maji and other similar nouns 
being treated as plurals, and 
therefore requiring few and not 
smaU as their adjective.) 
Kidogo, pi. vidogo, is used as a 
substantive for a little or a little 
piece of anything. 

Living, hayi, -zima. 

Long, -refti, making ndefu with 
nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 

Long-suffering, -vumilivu. 

Lukewarm, -enyi nvuguvuga. 

M. 

Mad, -enyi wazimu, -enyi mahoka 

(Country dialect). 
Male, -ume, making mume or ndume 
(as from -lume) toith nouns of 
the second class. 
On the male side, kuumeni. 
Manifest, thahiri, waziwazi, mba- 

yani, -wazi. See Open, 
Manly, -ume. See Male. 
Bebera (a strong he-goat), 
FahaU (a buU), 
Many, -ingi or -ngi, making nyingi 
with nouns like nyumba or 
nyimbo, and jingi with nouns 
like kasha. 
Eathiwakatha. 
Maternal (on the mother's side), -a 
kukeni. 
(motherly), -a mama. . 
Mean, -nyonge. 
Merry, -ohekeshaji. 
Middling, kadiri. 
Mischievous, -harabu, -tundu. 
Moderate, kadiri. 



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LIST OF ADJECTIVES. 



99 



Jftie^ -ingi (see Many), tele. 
MwrderouSy kiuwaji, ndtili 

N. 

Naked, -tupu, uchi. See Bare, 

Narrow, -embamba, making nyemba- 
mba toi(h noune like nytunba or 
nyimbo, and jembamba with 
nouns like kasba. 

Necessary (unavoidable), lazim, fa- 
rathi 
(indispensable), kanuni 

New, -pya, making 'mpya with notms 
like nyumba or nyimbo, jipya 
with nouns Uke kasba, and 
pipya vnih nouns of place. 

Noble, bora, -kuu. See QreaL 

Notable, masbubiir, mashur. 

Nice^ -ema (see Oood), -tamo. See 



Nipping(pressing closely and UghUy), 
-kazo. 

O. 

Obedient, iayi, -tiL 

Obligatory, faratbi 

Obstinate, -kaidi, -ebindani, -shi- 
pavu. 

pdd (not even), witiru. 

Officious, -fathuli, -jnvi 

Old (of things), -kuknu, making 
kuknu with nouns like nyumba 
or nyimbo. Eukna im^ies 
being worn ouL Where mere 
antiquity is to be expressed see 
Ancient, 
(of persons), -zee. 
Extremely old, -kongwe. 
How old is he i Umri wake 
apataje? 

On&-eyed, -enyi ohongo. 



Only, -a pekee, peke yake, &a 
Open, -wazi 
Other, -ingine or -ngine. 
Class L Mgine or mwingine. 

wangine. 
n. Mwingine or mgine. 

miogine. 
nL Nyingine (sing, andplur.) 
TV. Eingine or chingine. 

vingine. 
V. Jingine. 

mangine or mengine. 
VL Mwingine or mgine. 

nyingine. 
yn. Pangine or pingine. 
(The) other, -a pili 
Other peopled s, -a watu. 
Another person^s, -a mwenyewe. 
(not the same) is expressed by 

adding the relative particle (see 

p. 117). 
panginepo, elsewhere, other places* 

P. 

Paternal (on the fathet's side), -a 
kuumeni 
(fatherly), -a baba. 
Patient, -stabimiii, -vmnilivn. 
Perfect, kamili, -kamilifa, -timilifo. 
Perverse, -potoe, -tundu. 
Phiin (evident), thabiri, -wazi. 
Pleasant, -tamu (see Sweet), -a kn- 



Plenty, tele. 

Polite, -a adabu. 

Poor, masikini, fukara, fakiri. 
wretchedly poor, thalili 
utterly destitute, hohe babe. 

Printed, -a cbapa. 

Profane, -najlsi 

Pure, safl, fasibi, -takatifn. 

H 2 



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JOO 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Q. 

QttorreZwnie, -gomvi. 
Quick^ -pesi. 

Quiet, -tnliyu («ttS), -nyamavu 
{tOmty. 

B. 

I{ar0, nadira, -a tunii. 

Bawy -bichi making mbichi wiik 

nouns like nynmba or nyimbo. 

Bichi is used for raw, unripe, 

underdone, fresh, or any state 

which VfiU or might change by 

keeping or cooking. 
(fhcajperienoed), -jinga. This word 

is speeiaUy applied to newly 

arrived slaves. 
Beady, tayari. 

{quick), -pesi, mahiil 
Bebeilious, aaaL 
Bed, -ekundu, making nyekondn 

with nouns like nymnba or 

nyimbo, and jekuudu with 

nouns like kasha. 
Begular, -a kaida, taratibiL 
Safu za kalda, regular roum. 
Mtu taratibu, a person of regular 

habits. 
Bemarkable, mashtihTir, masbur. 
Bich, -enyi mali, -kwasi, tajiri, pi. 

matajiri. 
Eight (hand, Ac), -a kulia, -a 

kuume, -a kuviili. 
Bipe, -bivu, making mbivu with 

nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 

Bivu is used as the contradictory 

of bicbi See Baw. 
Botten, -ovu or -bovu. See Bad. 
Bough, kuparuza^ to he rough and 

grating. 
Bound, -a mviringo. 
Bayed, -a kifanma 



S. 
Safe, salama. 
Same, moja, pi mamoja. 
Sanguine, -tumaini. 
Satisfied or content, rathi. 

Self-satisfied, -kinayi 
Sa/vage, -kali (see Fierce), mbwaL 

Very savage, nduli 
Second, -a pili 

A second in command, akida. 
Secret, -a siri, ndani kwa ndani 
Separate, mbalL 
Severe, -zito. See Heavy. 
ShaUow, [maji] haba, [majl] ma- 
iS^rp, -kali. See Fierce, [chache. 
Short, •fupi, making fupi with nouns 

like nynmba or nyimbo. 
Shrewd, -erevu, -enyi busara. 
Sick, -gonjwa, -welL 
SHent, -nyamayn. 
A silemt man, mta wa klmya- 
kimya. 
Slim, -embamba. See Narrow. 
Slender, -embamba. See Narrow. 
Sleek, -nene. See Stout. 
Slow, -vivn. See Idle. 
Smooth, laini. 

Soaked (with rain, Ac), ohepeohepe. 
Soft, -ororo, making nyororo with 
nouns like nyumba or nyimbo, 
and jororo with nouns like kasha, 
-anana, laini. 
the soft, teketeke. 
Solid, yabisi. 

Some, baathi ya, aka'i ya. 
Some — others — , wangine — wa- 
ngine — . 
Sound (heaUhy. living, entire), -zima. 
Sour, -kali. See Fierce. 
Spotted, madoadoa, marakaraka. 
Square, mrabba. 
Steadfast, ihahit 



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LIST OP ADJECTIVES. 



101 



p, -a kusimama. 
8tiU, -anana, -tulivu (quiet), -nya- 

mavu (silent), -zizima (very 

stiU watery d;c.). 
Stout (plump, thick), -nene. 
Strange (foreign, surprising), -geni. 
(startling), mzungu, pi. miznngu. 
Strong, hodari, -enyi nguvu, -ume. 
Sweet, •tamu, making tamu toith 

nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 

T. 

TaU, -refu. See Long, 

A very tall man, -tambo. 
Thick, -nene. 

Thick syrup, asali nzito. ^ 



Thievish, kijivi, pi, Tijivi, mwibaji, 

pi, webaji 
Thin, -embamba (see Narrow),'epesL 

See Light. 
Tiresome, -chovu. 
True, -a kweli, hakika yako, &c. (it 

is true of you, dkc), yakini 

(certainly), 
TruHujorthy, amini. 
Truthful, -a kweli, -neni kweli 



Uncivilized, -a kishenzi. 

Uncultivated, -gngu. 

Underdone (half -cooked), 'hiohl See 

Baw, 
Unhealthy, -well 
Unlawful, haramn. 
Unripe, -bichi See Baw, 
Usual, -zoea. 
We are used to him, tuna mazoea 
naye. 



Vain, ana makuu, he is vain. 
Valuable, -a f^amani. 
Vigilant, macho. See Awake, 

W. 

Wasteful, -potevu. 

Watery, chelema. 

Weak, thaifu. 

Wealthy, See Bich, 

Weary, -ohovn. 

WecUher, -agoshlni, -a juu. 

WeU, See Healthy, 
WeU done (cooked), -bivu. 
Bipe, 

Wet, majimaji, ritaba. 

White, -enpe, making nyenpe with 
nouns like nyumba or nyimbo, 
and jeupe with nouns like 
kasha. 
Very white is expressed hy putting 
a strong accent on the last 
syllable, and sometime raising 
the voice on it into a sort of 



See 



Whole, -zima. See Sound, 

pia, pia yote, zote, &o. 
Wide, -pana. See Broad. 
Wild (of plants), -gugu. 
(of animals), -a mwitu. 
WiUing, -epesi, -pesi 
Worn out, -kukuu (of things), -ko- 

ngwe (of persons). See Old. 



Yellow, rangi ya manjano. 

Young (immature), -ohanga, making 

mchanga vnth nouns like 

nyumba or nyimbo. 
Younger, youngest, -dogo. 



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102 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



PEONOUNS. 

Personal Pronouns. 

The full forms of the Personal Pronouns are — 

I, MimL We, Siei or Svnsvji. 

Thou, Wewe. You, Nyinyi or Nvoinyi. 

He or she, Yeye. They, Woo, 

The second and third persons singular are often con- 
tracted into Wee and Yee. The second person singular 
is always used where one person only is to be denoted. 

There are no special forms for it and they when 
referring to inanimate things. If any special emphasis 
makes it necessary, the Demonstrative Pronouns 
agreeing with the nouns referred to must be used. 
Similarly, for he or •she and they, the Demonstrative • 
Pronouns proper to the first class may be used, when 
any special emphasis is to be expressed. 

The objective cases, me^ thee, him, her, t», them, are 
expressed by the same forms as those given above for 
the subjective case, I, thou, &c. 

The possessive case, of me, of thee, of him, &c., is 



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FR0N0UN8. 103 

generally expressed by the Possessive Pronouns (which 
see, p. 109); there is thus no distinction between ofmie 
and mine^ of thee and thine^ &c. 

Hahari zangu, my news, or news of me. 

The Possessive Pronouns proper to animate beings 
may be used of inanimate things also ; -aibe, its, and 
'OOj their, being used for of it and of them, in reference 
to all nouns of whatever class they may be. 

The possessive case may be regarded as an instance 
of the Personal Pronouns in a special form subjoined to 
the variable preposition -a, of. 

The Preposition »a, with or and, is commonly joined 
with short forms of the Personal Pronoun to express 
and or with me, and or with you, &o. &c. 

Nami, and or with me. Nasi or Naswiy and or with us. 

Nawe, and or with you. ' Nanyi or Naiiwi, and or with you. 

Naye, and or with him or her. Nao, and or with them. 

Ncu), Nayo, Naaho, Nolo, Napo, Nao, Nayo, Nazo, Navyo, Napo, 
NaJco, and or with it and or with them. 

The above forms may be used for either the objective 
or subjective cases after and. Nam = and I or and me, 
Nawe = and thou or and thee, &c. &o. 

It will be seen that in referring to animate beings 
the latter half of the full form of the Personal Pronoun 
is suffixed to the na-j and in referring to inanimate 
things the syllable suffixed is that which denotes the 
relative (see Belative Pronouns, p. 117), a syllable 
which occurs also as the final syllable of those Demon- 
strative Pronouns which refer to a thing mentioned 
before. 

Other Prepositions, that is to say, kwa and hatika, are 



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104 SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

constructed with the full form of the Personal Pronoun 
referring to animate beings, and with the Demonstra- 
tive Pronouns, where necessary, referring to inanimate 
things. This rule distinguishes the preposition kvoa^ 
for, by, ifec, from the form of the variable -a required 
by substantives of the eighth class and sometimes by the 
case in -ni, 

Kwa mimit for me. Kwangu, of me or my, to my [house]. 

The prefixes used in conjugating the verb to mark 
the sulyect and object may be regarded as shortened 
forms of the Personal Pronouns. The objective and 
subjective cases are denoted by slightly different forms. 

It will be most convenient to take the prefixes de- 
noting animate beings first, as they alone can be used 
in the first and second person. The following are the 
subjective or nominative fonjas : — 

I, Ni- or JV-. We, Tu- or Tw-, 

Thou, U- or W'. You, Mu-, 'M-, or Mw-. 

He or she, A- (or Yu-). They, Wa-, 

The rule for applying these prefixes is that the forms 
ending with a vowel are used when they are to be im- 
mediately followed by a consonant, and those ending 
in a consonant are used before a vowel. In the third 
person, both singular and plural, the vowel remains 
unchanged before o or t*, it coalesces with e and t 
into an e, and merges into an a, so as to be no longer 
distinguishable. Thus, where the verb or tense prefix 
begins with o, the third person singular is apparently 
without prefix and the third person plural is marked 
only by a w-. Examples of and further observations on 
these prefixes will be found under Verba, as playing an 



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^BONOUNS. 105 

important part in their conjugation. The form yu- is 

but seldom used for the third person singular, and 

very rarely with any but monosyllabic verbs. 

The syllables which stand for the objective or accu^ 

mtive case of the Personal Pronouns denoting animate 

beings, when they are connected with Verbs, are — 

Me, -nt- or -n-. Us, -tu' or 'Ivh, 

Thee, -kih or -Zctc-. You, -tea-. • 

Him or her, -to- or -mw-. Them, -toa-. 

The same rules as above apply to the use of forms 
ending in a consonant before a vowel, and forms ending 
in a vowel before a consonant. 

As the forms proper to the first class of Nouns denote 
animate beings, there remain seven classes denoting 
inanimate things, each of which has its appropriate 
subjective and objective pronominal forms when con- 
joined with a verb. The subjective pronominal prefixes 

are — 

or Wn plur. I- or Y-. 

„ Y- 

„ Ch- 

„ L- 

„ W- 

,, P- 

„ Kw- 

Here also the forms ending in a vowel are used 
before a consonant, and the forms ending in a conso- 
nant are used before a vowel. Examples of their use 
will be found in the sections on the conjugation of the 
Verb. 

There, used as the subject of a verb, is expressed by 
kur- or pa- employed as personal prefixes. Ku- is the 
more indefinite of the two. Owe, they, or people, used 



LASS II. sing. 


u- 


,, HI. „ 


I- 


„ IV. „ 


Ki- 


„ V. „ 


Li- 


» VI. „ 


U- 


„ VII. „ 


Pa- 


„ vra. „ 


Ku- 



,. Zi- 


» 


Z-. 


., Vi- 


>l 


Vy- 


„ Ya-. 






„ Zi- 


» 


Z-. 


.. Pa- 


)} 


P-. 


., Ku- 


>l 


Kw. 



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106 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

to denote what is customary, are expressed by the 
prefix hir. 

The objective forms in reference to inanimate objects 
are very similar to the subjectives. 



Ct.ars IL 


sing. 


-u- 


plur, -i-. 


,, III. 


if 


-i- 


„ -zi-. 


„ IV. 


»> 


-M- 


„ -vi-. 


„' V. 


>» 


-li- 


M -ya-. 


„ VL 


» 


-n- 


„ -zi-. 


„ vn. 


» 


-pa- 


» -pa-. 


.. vm. 


» 


-ku- 


„ -ku-. 



In these forms also u becomes tc, and i y, before vowels. 

The following examples will illustrate the use of the 
objective syllables : they are parted off from the rest of 
the word ' by hyphens. Instances are given of both 
vowel and consonantal verbs. 

Glass I. A-ni'penda, he loves me. 

A-n'-ambia, he tells me. 
A'kt^^pendOi he loves you. 

A'huHimbia, he tells you. 
Na-m-penda, I love him. 

NcHmo-arnbia, I tell him. 
A'tti-pendoj he loves us. 

A-tvHimbia, he tells us. 
A'WO'penda, he loves you. 

A-worambia, he tells you. 
A-wa-penda, he loves them. 

A-uDOrambiat he tells them. 
ft II. A'-vrpenddt he likes it (mtit a tree). 

A-w-ona, he sees it 
A<-penda, he likes them (mitiy trees). 

A-y-ona, he sees them. 
„ III. A-t'pendOy he likes it (nyumba, a house). 

A'^ona, he sees it 
A'Zi-pencUu he likes them (nyumba, houses). 

A'ZP-ona, he sees them. 



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pronouns: 107 

Glass IY. A-ki-penda, he likes it (hitu, a thing). 
A'ki-onay he sees it. 
A-vi'penday he likes them (vitUy things). 
A-vi-oiuiy he sees them. 
,, y. A4i'penday he likes it (kcuha, a chest). 
A'li-ona, he sees it 
A-ya-penda, he likes them (mdkashaf chests). 
A-ya-onay he sees them. 
„ VI. A-u-penda, he likes it (uimbot a song). 
A-to-kmay he sees it (ubaUy a plank). 
A'Zi-penda, he likes them (nyimbOf songs). 
A'zi-onay he seee them (mbau, planks). 
,t VIL .i-j)a-2)en<2a, he likes it or them (place or places). 

A-poronay he sees it or them. 
„ VIII. A'ku-pendOf he likes it (^t6a, stealing). 
A'kthonOj he sees it 

In all cases the Pronominal Syllable representing the 

subject is the first prefix, and therefore the first syllable 

of the word ; and the syllable representing the object 

is the last of the prefixes and immediately precedes the 

verb. 

A'takapo-ktHmay when he shall see yon. 
Wa-lipoki-m-peThday when they loved him. 
A-ki-kw-ita, if he calls you. 

It is quite allowable for the sake of emphasis to ude 
the fall forms of the Personal Pronouns as well as the 
subjective and objective syllables. 

Mimi nakupenda vmoe, I love you. 
Wewe vfanipenda mimiy you love me. 

When so used, however, a very strong emphasis is 
put upon the persons loving and loved, and unless such 
an emphasis is intended the full forms ought not to be 
used. The above phrases might be better translated 
by — ^For myself I love you the best; and. It is you 
who love vne. 



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108 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

In poetical Swahili an objective suffix is xused as well 
as the objective prefix. The syllables used as a suffix 
are the same as those given before with na (see p. 103). 
The suffixes are not used in the dialect of Zanzibar. 

U-ni'hifaihi-mi, do thou preserve me. (Both the -nt- and the 

-mi represent the object of the verb.) 
Aha-zi-anguska-zo, and he threw them down. (Both the -zi- and 

the-zo represent the object of the verb.) 
Na-vjOrambicMiiy I tell you. 

The xu3e of the objective prefix implies a reference to 
some ascertained object : it is therefore properly used 
wherever in English the object would be expressed by 
a Pronoun. Where in English the object would not be 
expressed by a Pronoun, the objective prefix has the 
effect of a definite article, and its omission that of an 
indefinite article. 

Natdka hununtia nyumba (no objective prefix being used), I want 

to buy a house. 
Natdka huvnunua nyumba (the objective prefix -i- being used), 

I want to buy the house. 
Naona mtuy I see somebody. 
. Namwona mtu, I see the man. 

. Where a Demonstrative Pronoun is used with the 
object, the objective prefix must always be used. 

^ Natdka kuinunua nyumba Mi, I want to buy this house. 
Naimoona mtu yule, I see that man yonder. 

The objective prefix is used where anything about 
the person or thing is about to be stated. 

Na-mrjua aliko [I know of him where he is], I know where he is. 
NaU-m4hania amekufa [I thought of him, he had died], I thought / 

he was dead. 
Aka-mrkata kitwa [and he cut of him the head], and he out off 

his head. 



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PBONOUNS, 109 



PospssivE Pronoun's. 

The Possessive Pronouns are always placed after the 
Substantive denoting the thing possessed, and vary 
according to its Class and Number. 

The unvarying parts of the Possessive Pronouns are : 

My, -afigu* Our, -etu. 

Thy, -ako. Your, -enu. 

His, her, or its, -ake. Their, -cu). 

The same forms are used for its and their, of what- 
ever class the thing possessing may be. 

In many dialects of Swahili the form of the third 
person singular is -ahwe, and in some that of the second 
is 'dhoo. 

The above forms may be used as enclitics, and fre- 
quently are so with some common words, such as haha, 
father, mavna, mother, mwana, child, mwenzi, companion, 
&c. When the final letter of the substantive is -a, -e, 
or -i, it merges into the first letter of the possessive 

suffix. 

Mwanangu, my child. 

Mwenzangu, my companion. 
Mwanako, thy child. 

Mwenzdko, thy companion. 
Mwanake, his or her child. 

Mwenzake, his or her companion. 
Mwanetu, our child. 

Mwenzetu, our companion. 
MwanenUf your child. 

Mwenzenu, your conipanion. 
Mwanao, their child. 

MtoenzaOf their companion. 



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XIO 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

The initial letters proper to each class of Substan- 
tives are : 



Class I. Hng, w- plwi w-. 

„ II. „ w- „ y-. 

„ ni. „ y- „ Z-. 

„ IV. „ oh- „ vy% 



Class V. sing. 1- plur, y-. 

„ VI. „ w- „ Z-. 

„ VIL „ p- „ P-. 

„ VIII. „ kw- „ kw-. 



Besides these forms proper to the several classes, 
Substantives in the locative case in -ni require special 
forms of the Possessive Pronouns according to the 
meaning of the case. These forms are the same for 
all Substantives, of whatever class or number they 
may be. 

1. When the case denotes being uoithiny or to, or from 
within, the Possessive Pronouns must begin with wiio-. 

2. Where the case denotes mere nearness, and can be 
translated at, by, or near, the Possessive Pronouns must 
begin with p-, 

3. For all other meanings the Possessive Pronouns 
mxu3t begin with ho-. 

The following instances will show how all these rules 

are applied : — 

Class L Mtu wangu, my man. 

Waiu toako, thy men. 
Mbuzi wake, his or her goat 

Mbuzi foetu, our goats. 
Waziri wake, his vizir. 
Mawaziri wake, his yizirs. 
„ II. Mti wenu, yoxa tree. 

Mitt yao, their trees. 
„ m. Nyumba yangu, my house. 
Nyumho zako, thy houses. 
„ rV. Kiti chakef his chair. 

VUi vyetu, our chairs, 
n V. Kiuha lenu, your chest. 

Makasha yao, their chests. 



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PEONOUNS. Ill 

Glass VI. Uimbo wangu, my song. 

Nyimbo zako^ thy songs. 
„ VII. Mdhali pcLke, his, her, or its place or places. 
„ ynL Kufa hwetUf our dying. 

1. Nyumbani mwenu, in your house or houses. 

2. Nyumbani poo, near their house or houses. 

3. Nyumbani kwanguy to my house. 

All the Possessive Pronouns will be fonnd in the 
Table of Concords (p. 82), arranged nnder the olassee 
to which they are appropriate. The Personal Pronouns 
may be added to give emphasis. 

Kisu changu mimi, my own knife. 
Vyangu mimi, they are mine. 

The Possessive Pronoun is xused for the preposition 
-a, of, where it is intended to mark particularly the 
person whose the thing is. 

Kiti eha suUaniy the sultan's chair, or a sultanas chair. 

KUi dhake iuUani, the saltan's own chair, or this sultanas chair. 

There is another and short enclitic form for the 
Possessive Pronouns of the second and third persons 
singular, which is much used with some common 
words, such as mume, husband, mhej wife, ndugu, brother 
or sister, &c. They consist of -o for the second person 
and -e for the third, with the appropriate initial letters 
for each class as given above (p. 110). 

Mumeioey her husband. 

Mkewofor mkeo, thy wife. 
Mfjoenziwe, his companion. 

Jinalo, thy name. 
Shogaye, her Mend. 

It will be seen from the above tables that there is 
absolutely nothing to distinguish the singular and 
plural of Substantives in the form of the third class 



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112 SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

wliich denote animate beings, when joined with Pos- 
seegive Prononns. It is probably for this reason, and 
to avoid ambiguity, that they are frequently treated as 
ordinary Substantives of that class. 

Ndugu yanguy my brother. 

Nduguye or Ndugu yake, his brother. 
Nduguzo or Ndugu zakoj thy brothers. 

Mbuzi zetu, our goats. 

Possessive Pronouns are sometimes used in English 
where Personal Pronouns are used in Swahili. 

Waka-m-funga mikono nyuma [and they tied him hands behind], 

and thay tied hi's hands behind him. 
Ali-m-kata kitwa [he cut him head], he cut off his head 

' After verbs of coming and going Possessive Pronouns 
beginning with z- (or in other dialects with vy- or th-) 
are used somewhat as — his way, &c., were used in old 
English. 

Amekwenda zake, he has gone away, or he has gone off. 

Twende zetu, let us be going. 

Wamehuja zaoy they have come home, or they have come away. 

/ 

Eeflective Pronouns. 

The Swahili verb is made reflective by prefixing -ji-, 
as if it were a pronoun in the objective form. 

Norji-penda, I l<^e myself. 

Self may be translated by the Arabic word, we/w, 
nafsiy or nafim ; or by the word moyo, a heart, plur. 
mioyo or nyoyo. 

Nafsi yangu, or moyo wangu, myself. 
Nafsi zetu, or nyoyo zetu, ourselves. 



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FBONOUNS. 113 

Itself, themselves, &c., may also be expressed by the 
^ord -enyewe with the proper prefix. 

Glass I. Mtu mwenyewey the man himself. 

Watu toenyewe, the people themselves. 
Mhuzi mwenyewe, the goat itself. 

Mbuzi toenyewBy the goats themselves. 
Waziri mioenyewe, the vizir himself. 
Mawaziri toenyewe, the vizirs themselves. 
II. Mti mioenyewe, the tree itself. 

Miti yenyewe, the trees themselves, 
IIL Nyumba yenyewe, the house itself. 

Nyumba zenyewe, the houses themselves. 
rV. KUu chenyewe, the thing itself. . 

Vitu vyenyewe, the things themselves. 
V, Kdsha lenyewe, the chest itself. 

Makaeha yenyewe, the chests themselves. 
VI. Uimho mwenyewe, the song itself. 

Nyvmbo zenyewe, the songs themselves. 
•VII. Mahali penyewe, the place itself. 

Mwenyewe may be used for myself and ihysel/j as well 
as for himself or herself 

Wenyewe may be used for ourselves and yourselves, as 
well as for themselves. 

By myself, by ourselves, &o., are expressed by peke 
with the appropriate Possessive Pronoun. 

Peke yangu, by myself, or I only. 
P>$ke yetUy by ourselves, or we only. 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

There are three Demonstrative Pronouns. 1 , denoting 
objects at no great distance. 2, denoting objects pre- 
viously mentioned. 3, denoting objects at a distance. 
They have each forms proper to the several classes of 
Substantives and to the thjree meanings of the case 
in -n». 

I 



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114 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK, 



1. This or that, these or those, of objects at no great 
distance. 

Class L Mtu huyu, this man. 

Watu hawa, these people. 
Mbuzi huyu, this goat. 

Mbuzi hawa, these goats. 
Waziri huyu, this vizir. 

Mawaziri hawa, these vizirs. 
n. Mti huu, this tree. 

Mitt hit, these trees. 
in. Nyumba hizi, this house. 

Nyumha hizi, these houses. 
lY. Kitu hiki, this thing. 

Vitu hivi, these things. 
V. Kasha hili, this chest. 

Makasha haya^ these ckests. 
YI. TJimbo huu, this song. 

Nyimbo hizi, these songs. 
yil. Mahali hapa, this place. 
Vin. iCtt/o fcttfctt, this dying. 

1. Nyumbani humo (humu (?) ), here, in the house. 

2. Nyumbani hapa, here, hy the house. 

3. Nyumbani huku, here, to the house. 

It will be observed that the second syllable of each 
of these Demonstratives is the pronominal syllable 
given at p. 105, and that all begin with h-, followed by 
the vowel of the pronominal syllable. 

2. This or that, these or those, referring to something 

mentioned before. Both the other forms can also be 

used in this sense. 

Glass I. Mtu huyo, that man. 

Watu hao, those people. 
Mbuzi huyo, that goat. 
Mbuzi hao, those goats. 
,^ II. Mti huo, that tree. 

Miti hiyo, those trees. 
„ m. Nyumba hiyo, that house. 

Nyuifiba hizo, those houses. 



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PBONOUNS, 



1L3 



Class IY. Kitu hicho, that thing. 

Vitu hivyOf those things. 
,, y. Kasha hilOf that chest. 

Makasha hayOf those chests. 
„ VI. Uimbo huo, that song. 

Nyimbo Mzo^ those songs. 
„ YII. Mahali hapo, that place or those places. 
„ VIII. Kufa huko, that dying. 

1. Nywmbani httmo, in that house. 

2. Nyumbani hapo, by that house. 
8. Nyumbani huko, to that house. 

3. That and fhose or yonder, referring to things at a 
distance. 

Glass L Mtu yule, yonder man. 

Watu wale, those people. 
Mbuzi yide, that goat. 
Mhuttwale, those goats. 
II. Mti ule, that tree. 

Miti ile, those trees. 
ni. Nyuwha ile, that house. 

Nyumha zile, those houses. 
IV. Kitu kile or chile, that thing. 
Vitu vile, those things. 
V. Kasha lile, that chest. 

Mdkasha yale, those chests. 
VL Ui'mbo ule, that song. 

Nyimbo zile, those songs. 
VII. Mahali pale, that place or those places. 
VIII. Kufa huU, that dying. 

1. Nyumbani mle, in that house. 

2. Nyumbani pale, by that house. 

3. Nyumbani hide, to that house. 

It will be seen that these last Pronouns are made 
by adding -le to the second syllable of the first set of 
Demonstratives. Sometimes the whole of the first form 
is retained, making huyule, hawale, huule. Mile, hizile, 
hikile, hivile, hilile, hayale, hapale, hukule, 

i2 



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116 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

An increase of distance is denoted by a stress on the 

final syllable. 

Miu yuley that man yonder. 
Yulee, that one farther off. 
YideeCf that one still farther. 

The more stress is laid on the final syllable, and the 
more the voice rises into a falsetto, so much the greater 
is the distance denoted. 

When the substantive is mentioned the demonstra- 
tive always follows it. 

The demonstratives are frequently doubled, and then 
have the meaning of just this, that very, &o, 

Palepale, just there, 
Mti uleule, that very tree. 
Maneno ycdeycUe, just those words. 

With the first set of demonstratives the final or true 

pronominal syllable is doubled and prefixed to the usual 

form. 

Papahapa, just here. 

Vicihivi, just these things. 
Zizihizi, those very, &c. 
Kukuhuku, just to this place. 

These forms are also used to denote that there is 
nothing special about what is mentioned. 
Zizihizi^ just these and no more. 

Huyo is often used when people are chasing a man 
or an animal. 

Auyo ! Euyo I = There he is I There he is ! 

There are other forms which ought probably to be 
regarded as demonstratives, as they have the force of, 
This is it, and. This is not it. 



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PRONOUNS. 117 



Glass I. ndimi, it is I. 

ndiwe, it is thou. 
ndiye, it is he. 



ndisi, it is we. 
ndinyi, it is you. 
ndio^ it is they. 



„ II. ndio, this is it. ndiyo, these.|ure tlley. 

„ III. ndiyo, ndizo. 

„ IV. ndicho. ndivyo. 

n V. ndilo, ndiyo* 

„ VI. ndio. ndito. 

„ VIL ndipo, 

„ VIIL ndiko, 

ndimo, it is here, or it is there. 

ndipo* 

ndiko. 

The negative is made by substituting si- for ndi. 

Siye^ it is not he. Sicho, &c. &c., this is not it. 

Both forms may be used interrogatively. 

Ndiye ? Is it h^ ? Siye ? Is it not he ? 

Other demonstratives may be used with these for the 
sake of greater emphasis or clearness. 

Eelative Pronouns. 

The Relative Pronouns have special forms appropriate 
to the several classes of Substantives and the three 
meanings of the -ni case. 

Glass I. Who and TF^om, sing, ye or yee, plur. o or wo. 

II. Which, »ing. o or wo, plur. yo. 

III. „ „ yo „ zo. 

rV. „ „ cho „ vyo. 

V. „ „ lo „ yo. 

VI. „ „ o or wo „ zo. 

VIL „ „ po „ po. 

VIIL „ „ ko „ ko. 

1. Wliereini, mo 

2. Whereat „ po 

3. Whereto t, ko. 



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118 / 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

These relatives occur most frequently in their 
simple forms in connection with -ote^ all. 

yee yote, wo wote, whosoever or whomsooYer. 
wo wote, yo yote, zo zote, cho chote, vyo vyote, lo lote,po pote, what- 
soever. 
mo mote^ whereinsoever, inside everything. 
po pote, wheresoever or whensoever. 
ko hoUy whithersoever or wheresoever. 

When connected with the substantive verb, to be, 
that verb is represented by the syllable -li-. 

Glass I. aliye, [he] who is. walto, [they] who are. 

„ II. ulio, [it] which is. iliyo, [they] which are. 

„ III. iliyo. zilizo, 

„ IV. kilicho, mlivyo, 

„ V. lililo» yaliyo, 

„ VI. ulio. zilizo. 

„ VII. palipo. paZipo, 

„ VIII. kuliko. kuliko, 

1. mulimo, wherein there is. 

2. palipo, where there is. 
8. kuliko, where there is. 

There is a disposition in Zanzibar to make -o the 
general relative. Thus one very often hears alio for 
aliye, Ulio for lililo, and ilio for iliyo, ^ 

When joined with the verb the syllable denoting the 
relative follows the* sign of the tense if there is one. 

The relative may be joined with the verb to form the 
present, or rather, an indefinite tense, without the use of 
any sign of time whatever. It is made precisely as in 
the examples given above of the use of the relative 
with the verb, to be, only substituting the particular 
verb for the syllable -li-. 

[he] who loves, apendaye, 
[they] who love, wapendao. 



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PRONOUNS. 119 

[the tree] which falls, uanguhto, 

[trees] which grow, imeayo. 
[the house] which falls, yangukayo, 

[houses] which £bJ1, ziangukazo. 

Where the relative is the object of the verb the same 
form may be used, only introducing the objective prefix 
proper to the substantive referred to, and changing the 
personal prefix. 

[fruit] which I love, nilij^sndalo, -11- and 'to- being the syllables 
appropriate to tunda, a fruit, and other nouns of the Fifth 
Class. 

When taken to pieces the word is seen to be, m-, I, 
-Zt-, it, -pendor, love, -Zo, which. 

Kelatives are rarely used in Swahili with any tenses 
except the present imperfect (the ^-na- tense), the past 
perfect (the -li- tense), and a peculiar form of the fature 
(the 'taka- tense). The following instances will show 
the way in which the relative is expressed with these 
several tenses both as subject and object. 

Glass I. [the man] who is coming, ana-ye-huja, 

„ who came, cdi-ye-kuja, 

„ who will come, atiika-^e^huja. 

„ whom he is striking, anorye-mpiga, 

„ whom we loved, tuli-^e-mpenda, 

[the men] who will beat us, waidkoro-tupiga, 

„ whom we will beat, tutdkoro-wapiga. 

[the ox] which is eating, ana-ye-ktUa, 

„ which we shall eat, tidaka^&^la. 

„ II. [the tree] which fell, uU-o-anguka, 

„ which he cut down, ali-o-ukatcL 

[the trees] which were visible, Ui-yiHmekana. 

„ which we saw, tuli-yo-iona, 

„ III [the house] which fell down, ili-yo-anguka, 

„ which I bought, niU'yo4numta^ 



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120 SWAHILI HANDBOOK, 

Glass HI. [the houses] which fell down, zUi-zihanguka. 
„ which I bonght, nUi-zo-zinunua, 

„ IV. [the knife] which cut me, hili-cho-nikatct. 
„ which I took, nUi-cko-kitwaa, 

„ which I gave you, nUi-cha-kupa, 

[the knives] which fell down, vili-ffyo-angvka, 
„ which I gave you, nili-vyo-kupa, 

„ V. [the chest] which is unfastened, lili-lo-funguka, 
„ which I unfastened, nilirlo-lifungua, 

[the chests] which were carried, yaXi-yo-chukulAvoa, 
„ which they carried, wali-y(Mfachukv>a. 

„ VI. [the song] which plea&ed me, uU-o^ipendeza. 
„ which I liked, nili-(Mipenda, 

[the letters, nyardka] which I wrotetnili-zo-ziandika. 
„ which I sent to you, niU-zo-kupdekecL . 

„ which reached me, zili-zo-nivjasilia. 

„ VII. [the place] which' I live in, nina-po-pakcM. 
[the places] which I saw, nUi-^po-paotM, 

The particles of place and time, mo, po, ho, are treated 
as relative particles. 

alimo, where he is (within). 
cdipo^ where he is (if near). 
alikOf where he is (far off). 
anapokwenda, when he is going. 
anakokwendtty whither he is going. 
dLimokwenda, wherein he went. 
alipoktoenda, when he went. 
cHikokwenda, whither he went. 

There is one ambiguity whicli cannot be avoided 
where both subject and object are of the same class. 
Aliyempiga may mean, who beat him, or, whom he beat ; 
hilichokikata may mean, which cut it, or, which it cut, 
supposing Mm, a knife, to be one substantive, and kitu, 
a thing, to be the other. 

The negative is combined with the relative by the 



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PRONOUNS. 121 

lise of -«-. There is but one ne^tive tense, and it 
embraces all times, past, present, and future. 

asiye^ [he] who is not, who will not be, who was not. 
udoanguka, [the tree] which falls "not, which is not falling, which 

. did not fall, or, which will not fall. 
nieichohupa^ [the knife] which I did not give you, do not give 
you, or, shall not give you. 

Where the relative is used in English with a prepo- 
sition, the relative particle is sometimes joined with the 
verb and also with the preposition ; but mor.e commonly, 
the force of the preposition being contained in that of 
the Swahili verb, no special form is requited. See 
Derivative Verbs, p. 157. 

The man whom I went with, mtu nali-o-kwenda naye. • 
The man I went to, mtu nali-o-mwendea. 
Where I came from, nili-po-toka. 
Where I am going to, nina-ko-kwenda. 

As the Swahili has no proper word for to have, but 
uses for it kuwa nay to be with, cases of double relatives 
are very frequent where having is mentioned. 

The knife I have, Hsu niliclio naeho. 
The houses you have, nyumha ulizo nazo. 
The knife I had, kisu niliehokuwa nacho. 
The houses you had, nyuniba ulizokuwa nazo. 

The relative is used in some cases in which it is not 
employed in English. 

Who went by ? Nani ali-ye-pita (who is he who paftsed) f 
• He likes this fruit, tunda hili ndilo alipendalo (this &uit is it 
which he likes). 
The boy is going, kijana aendao. 
Whosoever may come, yee yote atakayekuja. 

There is another way of expressing the relative by 



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122 SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 

means of ambaye or ambaye kwamba, though not nsed 
in Zanzibar. When it is employed the final syllable of 
ambaye changes according to the rules given above, 
making amiHWf amhazo, amlbacho, ambavyo, &o. 

Sometimes an English relative can be expressed by 
the use of mioenyi, &c., having. 

The man wboM house it is, mtu mtDenyi nyumba. 



Interrogative and other Pronouns. 

There are four Interrogatives which are not variable. 

Nanti Who? I Ninif What? 

Linif When? | Ganif What sort? 

Oani always follows the substantive it is connected 

with. 

Mtu gani f What man ? What sort of man ? 
KUu gani f What thing ? What sort of thing ? 

What? is sometimes expressed by the syllable -ni 
suffixed to a verb. 

Atapatanil What will he get ? 

Amefanyani f What has he done ? 

Kunani 9 What is there ? What is the matter ? 

Kina nini f Wliat has it ? What is the matter with it ? 

Wanani f What have they ? What are they at ? 

What o'clock is it ? is rendered by Saa ngapi f How 
many hours ? 

The interrogative Which? is expressed by -pt pre- 
ceded by the appropriate syllable, which is the same as 
that used as the subjective personal prefix to verbs. 
It' always follows the noun it refers to. 



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123 

Clabs 





PRONOUNS. 




I. 


Which [man] Yupil 


Lmen] Wapi^ 


n. 


„ [tree] Upi'i 


[trees] Ipi'i 


in. 


„ [house] Ipii 


[houses] Zipif 


IV. 


„ [thing] Kipi^ 


[things] Vipii 


V. 


„ [chests] Upif 


[chests] Foptf 


VI. 


„ [song] CTiw'? 


[songiil ZtiH? 


VII. 


„ [place] PaiM? 


[places] Papi? 



The Interrogative, if followed by a verb, requires a 
relative with it. 

Mtu yupi apendaye hwenda f Which [or what] man likes to go ? 
Nywnba ipi ikupendezayo f Which house do you like ? 

Nani f who ? is also generally followed by a relative. 

Nani cUiopo ndangoni ? Who is at the door ? 

It is, however, allowable to say nani yupo mlangoni^ 
which is a literal translation of the English. 
The interrogative Where ? is wapi f or api f 

Wenda wapi ? Where are you going ? 

When referring to a substantive wapi must always 
be preceded by the syllable which is the proper sub- 
jective personal prefix for that substantive. This prefix 
very probably represents the substantive verb, and may 
often be translated by is it f or are they f 

Class L sing, Yu wapi? plur. Wa wapi?' 

„ IL „ U wapi ? „ I wapi ? 

„ m. „ I wapi? „ Ziwapi? 

„ IV. „ Ki wapi ? „ Vi wapi ? 

„ * V. „ Li wapi? „ Yawapi? 

„ VI, „ Uwapi? „ Ziwapi? 

„ VII. „ Pa wapi ? „ Pa wapi ? 

A fuller form to represent' where is it f or where are 

they f is made by adding -ho to the personal prefix. 

Tukowapii Where is he? Zikowapif Where are they ? 



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124 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

The noun referred to follows this interrogative. 
J vifipi mertkebu ? Where is the ship ? 

How? is expressed by the syllable -Je suffixed to the 
verb. 

Nitdkipaiaje ? How shall I get it ? 

Chali/anywaje ? How was it made ? 

Ulipendaje, ao kupika^ ao hichil How do you like it, cooked or 
raw? 

Asemaje ? [How does he talk ?] What does he say ? 

Urefu wake yapataje ? How long is it ? 

Urhri wake apataje ? How old is he ? 

Kwenda chini kwake chajpataje Ikisima] ? How deep is it [a 
' well]? 

The use of kupata^ to get, in these phrases must be 
noticed. There is no direct way of attaching the how f 
to the adjective ; they say therefore, " His age, how 
gets he it?" 

How many? is expressed by -ngapi, which is treated 

as an adjective. 

How many people ? Watu wangapi ? 
How many goats ? Mhuzi wangapi or ngapi f 
How many trees ? Miti mingapi ? 
How many houses ? Nyumba ngapi ? 
How many chairs ? Viti vingapi ? 
How many chests ? Makasha mangapi ? 
How many planks ? Mhau ngapi ? 
How many places ? Mahali pangapi ? 

How? is in some cases expressed by the use of other 
phrases. 

How long ago ? Tangu lint f [since when ?] 

How much ? Kadri gani, or Kiassi gani9 [what quantity ?] 

How often ? Marra ngapi f [how many times ?] 

The exclamatory What I is rendered by the inter- 
rogative pronoun in -pi. 

Furaha ipi I What joy 1 



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( 125 ) 



VEKBS. 

Regular Swahili verbs always end in -a, as, hupenda^ 
to love, hupiga, to beat. 

Verbs derived from the Arabic may end in -6, -*, or -«, 
as, husamehe, to pardon, kusafiriy to travel, huhanbu^ to 
destroy. Verbs in this form do not change the final 
vowel, where verbs in -a regularly do so. 

The simplest form of the verb is used in Swahili, 
as in English, for the second person singular of the 
imperative. 

Pendal Love! Pigal Strike! 

. Samehel Pardon! Safin! Travel I 

Sartbu I Destroy ! 

The second person plural imperative is made by 
adding -nu All the other tenses and moods are made 
by prefixing syllables to the simple form, except that 
verbs in -a change -a into -e in the present subjunctive, 
and into -i in the present negative, and a -to- is inserted 
to mark the passive. 

There is a negative as well as an affirmative con- 
jugation, in which the tenses and persons are also dis- 
tinguished by prefixes. 

The various prefixes form in pronunciation one word 



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126 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

with the verb, and when taken to pieces denote its 
person, number, tense, mood, subject, and object. 

Amekwambia = A^me-hw^mbia = He-has-you-tell = He has told 

you, 
Waliponipenda = Wa-U-piMii'penda = They-did-when-me-loYe 

= When they loved me. 
NUcikcushokupa = Ni-tahcHiho-'kurpa = I-ahall-wbich-yon-giYe-ta 

= Which I shall give to you. 
Ningalimvxma = Ni-ngali'mw-ona — I-should-have-him-see = I 

should have seen him. 

The syllables used as prefixes have not the same 
meaning standing separately as they have when com- 
bined with the verb in their proper order; fear this 
reason, therefore, as well as to show the proper pro- 
nunciation, they with the verb must all be written as 
one word. 

Lists of the several prefixes will be found at the end 
of the preliminary observations to the second part of 
this handbook (p. 237). The personal prefixes will be 
found described under Pronouns (p. 104), and seen 
arranged under their appropriate classes of Substantives 
in the Table of Concords, p. 82. 

Indefinite Tenses. 

1. Customary actions are expressed by prefixing hvr 
to the verb. In this form there is no distinction of 
number, person, or time. 

Bthenda^ one goes, they go, everybody goes, he used to go. 
Hu-penda, one likes, they like, one would like. 

2. The relative may be joined with the verb without 
any sign of time. The personal prefix only is put 
before the verb, and the relative sign sufi&xed to it. 



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VERBS. 127 

Sing. Class I. Ni-penda-ye, [I] who love. 

U'penda-ye, [thou] who lovest. 
A'penda-ye, [he] who loves. 
„ n. U-anguka-o, which falls. 

„ III. I-anguka-yo, 

„ IV, Ki-anguha-cho^ 

„ V. Li-anguka-lo, 

„ VI. U-angukorOf 

„ Vn. P-anguka-pOf where falls. 
„ VIII. KtD-<inguka-kOy whither falls. 

Plur, „ I. Tu-penda-o^ [we] who love. 

M'penda-Oy [you] who love. 

Wa-penda-o, [they] who love. 
„ n. I-anguka-yo, or, Y-angukoryo, which fall. 

„ III. Zi-anguka-zOy 

„ rV. Vy-anguka-vyo, 

„ V. Y-anguka-yOy 

„ VI. Zi-anguka-zo, 

The relative may represent the object of the verb, 
but in that case the objective sign (pp. 105-6) ought to 
be inserted between the personal prefix and the verb. 

Class I. Ni-m-penda-ye, [he or she] whom I love. 
Ni'ku-penda-ye, [thou] „ „ „ 
Ni-wa-penda-o, [you or they] „ „ „ 

Sing. „ II. Ni'U-penda-o [it] which I love. 

„ III. ^i-i-penda-yOy 

„ rV. Ni-ki-penda-cho, 

„ V. Ni-li-penda-lOf 

„ VI. Ni-u-penda-Oy 

„ VII. Ni-pa-penda-po, 

„ VIII. Ni'ku-penda-ko, 

Plur. „ II. Ni-i-penda-yo, [those] which I love. 

„ III. Ni'Zi-penda-zOy 

„ rV. Ni'Vi-penda-vyOf 

„ V. Ni-ya-penda-yOy 

„ VI. Ni-zi-penda-zo, 

3. The negative form, expressing Who, or which does 



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128 8WAEILI HANbBOOK. 

not, is made by the personal prefix, the syllable -«- 
[not] and the relative sign, followed by the verb. 

Sing, Glass I. Ni-si-ye-penda, [I] who love not. 

U-Bi-ye-penda, [thou] who lovest not. 

A-si-ye-penda, [he or she] who loves not. 
„ Ife U'Si-o-angukaf which falls not. 

„ in. I'Si-yo-anguka, 

„ -rV. Ki-si'ChO'angukaj 
„ V. Li-si-lo-anguka, 

„ VI. U-8i-(Hingukaf 

„ Vn. Pa-si-po-angukaf where falls not 

Ku-si'ko-anguka, whither falls not, 

Mvrsi-nKHingukaf wherein falls not. 
Plur. „ I. Tu-n-o-prnday [we] who love not. 

M-si-o-penda, [you]. , 
Warst'O-penda, [they]. 
„ n. I'si-ya-angukay which fall not. 

„ III. Zi'Si-zo-angukay 
„ rV. Virsi-^yo-anguka^ 

„ V. Ya-si-yo-anguka, 

„ VL Zi-si-zo-anguka, 

Where the relative is the object of the verb, it is 

expressed as in the affirmative tenses, by the form of 

the relative particle and the insertion of the objective 

prefix. 

Ni-Bi-zo-zi-penda, which I do not like. 

This negative tense may be applied with equal pro- 
priety to past, present, or future time, amounting in 
effect to a negative of the relation at the time and under 
the circumstances implied in the context. 

The application of the relative to the definite affir- 
mative tenses is explained under Pronouns (p, 119). 

The difference between — which I like — and — I who 
like it — is to be foulid in the form of the relative 
particle. 



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VERBS. 129 

[Nywrnbd^ nili-yo-ipenda, [the house] which I liked. 
nili-ye-ipenda, I who liked it. 

[Kitu] nili-cho-kipenda, [the- thing] which I liked. 
nili-ye-hipenda, I who liked it. 

Definite Tenses. 

The important part of eacli tense is the tense prefix. 
It is preceded by the personal sign of the subject, and 
may be followed directly by the verb. If any signs of 
relation are used they are suffixed to the tense prefix, 
and the objective prefix (if any) mlist always imme- 
diately precede the verb. The tense prefix is the same 
for all persons and both numbers. The personal prefix 
is the same for all tenses, except the slight changes 
dependent upon the question whether the first letter of 
the tense prefix is a vowel or not. 

In order therefore tg construct the proper form of 
verb, it is necessary first to ascertain the proper personal 
prefix, next the proper tense prefix, then the particles 
of relation and objective prefii, if they are required, 
and then to finish with the verb. Thus, to say, A house 
has fallen down. A house is nyumha, a word of the third 
class ; the proper personal prefix for a singular noun of 
the third class is -i, the tense prefix for the present 
perfect is -we-, the verb to fall ib ku- anguha (the ku- 
being the sign of the infinitive : we have therefore — 

Nytmba imeanguka — a house has jQallen down. 

If we wished to say. Six houses have fallen down ; we 
find that nyumha being of the third class keeps the same 
form in the plural ; sita is six, and must follow its noun ; 
the subjective prefix proper to plural nouns in the third 



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130 SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

class is zi- ; the tense prefix and the verb remain the 
same. 

Nyumba sita zimeanguka, six houses have fallen down. 

To take one more complicated example, I saw the 
knife, which you gave him. The personal prefix for 
the first person is ni- or »-, the tense prefix of the past 
perfect is -ali', to see is hi-ona^ knife is Ajwm, a substantive 
of the fourth class. As some particular knife is intended 
we must use the objective prefix, and that for a singular 
substantive of the fourth class is -Tci'. As the tense 
prefix begins with a vowel we must use the personal 
prefix which ends in a consonant. We have therefore — 

Nalihiona kisu = I saw the knife. 

* Which you gave him.' The relative referring to a 

singular noun of the fourth class is -cho-. It must 

follow the tense prefix, which is -ali-y as before, for the 

past perfect. The sign of the second^ person singular 

is tt- or w- ; the verb, to give to, is kvrjpd. The object 

of the verb is Mm, the objective prefix for nouns of the 

first class is -mu- or -m-. Putting these together we 

have. 

Which you gave him, walichompa. 

And the whole sentence, 

I saw the knife which you gave him, nalikUma Msu tocdichompa. 

It must not be forgotten that ku- and jpa- may be 
. used for there in an impersonal sense. 

Kulihuwa or Palikuwa, there was or there were. 
Kukapiga, &c., and there struck, &a 



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VERBS. 



131 



Indicativk Tenses. — ^Present. 

There are in the language of Zanzibar two Presents) 
one' Indefinite and one Imperfect. 

1. The Indefinite Present answers to our common 
English present, I come, I love, &a It is made by 
prefixing -o- to the verb. 



N- ■ 1 




f I love. 


W- 




Thou lovest. 


-— 




He or she 


TF-, r-, ar, L-, TT-, P-, Kw 


> a-penda < 


loves. 
It loves. 


Mw- 




We love. 


W- 




You love. 


T^,Z-,Vy^,T;Z- ) 




I They love. 



2. The Present Imperfect answers to our tense with 
am^ I am coming, I am loving, &c. It is made by pre- 
fixing -no- to the verb. 



A'y U-, J-, Ki; Li', JJ- 

Fa-yKu' Yna-penda 

Tu- 

TTo-, I-, Zi-, Ft-, Yor, Zi^ J 



flam 
Thou art 
He, she, 

or it is . loving. 
We are 
You are 
They are 



In the first person the m- is often contracted into 'n-, 
and sometimes altogether omitted. This tense used 
after another verb may be translated by an English 
present participle. 

Namwona, or Nalimwona anahuja, I see him, or, 1 saw him 
coming. 

In the dialect of Mombas this -na- tense is used of 
past time. In Zanzibar it is the more usual form of 
the present. 

K 2 



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132 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Present Perfect. 

The Present Perfect is made by the prefix -we- : it 
denotes an action complete at the time of speaking, and 
therefore answers to the English tense with liave. 



Ni- 

U- 

A- 

U', J-, Ki- 

Tu- 

Wa- 
/-, Zi^, Vir 

Ta- 



r I have 1 

Thou hast 
I He or she has 
' me-peTida J It has gloved. 

We have 

You have 
I They have / 



In verbs denoting a etate or the possession of a 
quality the present has the meaning of to enter upon, 
to acquire, or to become, what the verb denotes. The 
-we- tense must then be translated by to have, or to be, 
&c. (p. 86). 

Inqjaa, it is gettuig full. 

IvfKtjaa, it is full. 
Inapasukat it is heing torn. 

Imepasuha, it is Ipru. 
Inapotea, it is becoming lost. 

Imepotea, it is lost. 
AnavaOt he is putting on. 

Amevaay he has put on, therefore^ he wears. 

When the -we- tense occurs in a narrative, it denotes 
an action complete at the time referred to, and must 
generally be translated by had, 

Nikamwona ameufungiM mhmgo, and I saw that be .had 
un&stened the door. 

The -we- tense may sometimes be translated as a past 



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VERBS. 



133 



participle^ signifying a state arrived at at the tinsie of 
speaking or at the time referred to. 

Yu hayi ao amekxifa f Is be alive or dead ? 
Zalikuwa zimepotea^ they were lost. 

In this sense it may be nsed to form compound tenses, 
somewhat as the past participle is in English. 

In some dialects of Swahili the prefix is pronounced 
'ma- rather than -me-. See the end of Appendix IL 



Past Perfect. 

The Past Perfect tense is made by the prefix 'li- or 
-oZt- : it denotes an action complete in past time, It 
must sometimes be translated in English by the tense 
with had, but more commonly it represents the indefinite 
past, which usucJly ends in -ed^ 



N- >i 










W- 






W'y r-, c%-, L- 






p., Kw- 


» ali' ' 






Tu)' 








Mto- 






I > 




W" 






Thou 




r-, Z-, Fy-, r- J 






He or she 








penda \ I* 


loved. 


Ni' ) 




We 




u- 




You 




A" 




^They , 




U', I-, JTi- 








Li'j Pa; Ku- 


1 li' - 






Tw 






3f. 






War 






I-, Zi'y Ft*., Ya-. 






When it is 


intended 


L to den 


ote the ( 


iction as a 



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134 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



continuous one, the syllable -Jki- may be inserted after 

the tense prefix. 

N-aU-hi-mpenda, I loved him [not once but oontinuouBly]. 
W-aU-papendana^ when they loved one another. 
TT-oZt-jTO-^i-ipendafia, while they loved one another. 

Narrative Past. 

In telling a story it is usual to begin with one verb 
in the 'li- tense, and then to put all that follow in a 
tense made by the prefix -ka-. This tense includes in 
itself the power of the conjunction wnd. It can never 
properly stand at the beginning of a narrative, but no 
other past tense can properly be used for any verb 
except the first. It may occasionally be used after 
another verb, where the time being indefinite would 
in English be represented by a present. 



\ loved. 



Nika- is frequently contracted into Ha-, 

Hamwona = Nikamwona = And I saw him. 

The 'hor- of this tense is often pronounced -kt- in rapid 
or careless talking. ; 



Ni' 






U- 




And I 


A- 




And thou 


U', J-, Ki' 




And he or she 


Li', Fa-, Ku- 


ka-penda ^^^^^ 


Tu- 


And we 


M- 


And yon 


Wa- 


[And they 


I',Zi',Vi',Ta') 







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VEBBS. 



135 





Future. 




The Future Tense is made by the prefix -ta-. 


Ni- 




U- 




' I shall 


A- 




Thou wilt 


U-, J., Ki' 




He or she will 


Li', Pa-, Ku- ) ta-penda ^ 


It will love. 


Tu- 




We shall 




M- 




You will 




War 




They will 




I-, 2*., n-, Ta-^ 









In the first person the prefix Ni- is often omitted. 
Tapenda = Nitapenda = I shall love. 

When particles of relation are introduced the prefix 
'to- is very rarely used ; the tense prefix stands almost 
always as -taka-. 

Atakayehuja, [he] who will come. 

With particles of relation the difference between the 
present, indefinite, and future times is much more care- 
fully observed in Swahili than in English. 

NildlapOy when I sleep, i.e., in the case of my sleeping. 

Nmapolala, when I sleep, i.e., at the time when I am sleeping. 

Nitalcupolala, when I sleep, i.e., when I shall be sleeping. 

Mtu aendaye, the man who goes (at any time). 

Mtu anayehwenda, the man who is going (now). 

^Mtu atakayekwenda, the man who goes (at some future time). 

Thus, if it is intended to send a man somewhere and 
pay him afterwards for his trouble, where it might be 
said in English — Tell the man who goes that I will 
pay him when he comes back — the Swahili verbs must 
all be in the future, Mwambie yule atakayekwenda kwamha 



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136 



BWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



atahaporudi nitamlipia. Where it is the fact and not 
the time, person, or thing, that is the important element 
of the idea, it is better not to use the particles of rela- 
tion, but to employ the -hi- tense, which see. 

Conditional Tenses. 

There are four tenses which may be called Con- 
ditional. The first, made with -hi', expresses a state of 
things as supposed to be existing. The second, made 
with 'japo'j expresses a state of things supposed as 
possible. The other two refer to contingencies ; one of 
them, made with -nge- or -nga-^ expresses what would 
now be happening, and the contingency on which it 
would depend regarded as existing; the other, made 
with -ngali', expresses what would have happened, and 
the contingency on which it would have depended 
regarded as no longer existing. 

Actual Conditional or PARTiciPLiL Tense. 

This tense is made with the prefix -H-, and may be 
translated by the English present participle, or by as, 
if, when, since, though, or any other words by which 
the idea of a state of things can be introduced and con- 
nected with the rest of the sentence. 



' loving. 



Ni- N 






U- 




I 


A- 




Thou 


U; I-, Xt- 




He or she 


Li',Pa-,Ku^ )M'penda 'it 


Tu- 




We 


M- 




You 


Fa- 




I They 


J-, Zi'y Vi'y Ta-, 







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VEBBS. 137 

The prefix Nihi- may be contracted into iB-. 

• Bifuhuza - Nihifuhuza = As I was drivmg. 

Viewed as a present participle, the -hi- tense can be 
used to form compound tenses, especially a past im- 
perfect. 

Alikv/voa akiogoleat he was swimming about. 
# 
The following are a few examples of the use of this 

tense : — 

Nitafurdhi nihikuona, [seeing you I shall rejoice] I shall be 

glad to see you. 
Akija AhdaUdh mwambia^ [Abdallah coming, tell him] Tell 

Abdallah when he comes. 
Nikiwa naehe, [I having it] If I have it — ^when I have it — ^if I 

should have it — in case of my having it — since I have it. 
AUpotea ahizunguha Tcwa siku rnbili, [He was lost wandering 

for two days] He lost his way and wandered about for two 

days. 
Majivuno yakiwa mengi, [Puffings up being many] Much self- 

exaltation. 
Upepo ukiwa moto hutanua, [Air being hot] Air expands when 

it becomes heated. 
Akisema hweUi hasadikiwi, [Telling the truth, he is not believed] 

If he should tell the truth, he would not be believed. 

In this instance the use of the -Jci- tense and of the 
negative present are both remarkable. It will be seen, 
however, upon examination, that there is no real con- 
tingency in such a sentence as this. It affirms a fewt 
in a state of things, not a contingency upon a supposed 
state of things ; it is not his telling the truth which 
prevents his being believed. 

A corresponding past tense may be made by the 4% 
tense with the relative particle -po-, 

Walipopenda, when they loved, being that they then loved. 



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138 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Japo-penda, even if ' 




love. 



Possible Conditional. 
This tense is made by the prefix -japo-y and puts a 
case ; it generally implies that the case is an extreme 

or unlikely one. It may be translated by even if. 

Ni- 

U- 

A- 
U', I-, Ki- 
Id'f Pa-, Ku- 

Tu' 

t' 
Wa- 

I'yZi-yVi-,Ya-^ 

The prefix seems to be formed from Jcuja, to come, 

and -po, the particle denoting when or where ; so that 

ujapo may be translated, When you come, and so with 

the other persons ; this will give the force of the tense. 

Wajapokupigay when they come to beating you, i.e., even if 
they beat yon. 

Ja^ with the personal signs may be used alone in 
the sense of-— even if. 

Ujapo hukioni, even if yon do not see it. 

Present Contingent. 
This tense is formed by the prefix -nge- or -ngor, and 
puts a condition and its results as present. It necessarily 
implies that neither are in existence. 



u- 

A- 
U-, I-, Ki- 
Li', Par, JSTtt- 

Ttt- 

3f- 

Wa- 
I', Zi', Vir, Yar 



nge-penda 



' I should, or if I did 
Thou wouldest, or if thou 

didst 
He, she, or it would, or if 

he, she, or it did 
We should, or if we did 
You would, or if you did 
They would, or if they did 



' love. 



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VERBS. 



139 



The -nga- form is used with monosyllabic verbs-*- 
angawa — though he be, or he would be. 

The two branches of the contingency cannot in 
English be represented by the same tense, as they are 
in Swahili. The pair would stand in English, (1) If I 
did— (2) I should, &c. (1) If it were— (2) it would 
be, &c. Or they might stand, (1) Though I did — 
(2) yet I should, &c. 

The second ^branch is sometimes represented in 
English by a past tense ; sometimes both are. 

Kama ungekuwa na akUi, malt yako ungedumu vmyo^ [If you 
were with wits, your property you would continue with itj 
If you were a man of understanding, your property would 
be (or would have been) yours still. 

Past Contingent. 
This tense is made with the prefix -ngali'. It .sup- 
poses something at a past time, and concludes that 
something else would then have happened, also at a 
past time. It represents the English — If this had 
happened, that would have happened. It supposes that 
neither condition nor contingency did ever in fact 
occur. In English a past tense is often used to express 
a present contingency, but the Swahili seem to dis- 
tinguish them more carefully. 

Had I, or I should have 
Hadst thou, or thou 

wouldest have 
Had he, she, or it, or he, 
she, or it would have 
Had we, or we should \ loved. 

have 
Had you, or you would 

liave 
Had they, or they would 
have 



Ni' ^ 




U- 




A- 




U: I-, Ki- 




Li', Pa-, Ku- 


ngali'penda 


Tu- 




M- 




Wa- 




I;Zi',Vi-, Ya-} 





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140 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

Thete is always an accent on the personal prefix and 

none on the tense prefix, thus dngdlikuja, d^gaUSna, &c. 

Kcma ungaltkuiMipo hapd^ ndugu yangu angalipona. If you 
had been here, my brother would have got well. 

The Imperative. 

It has been mentioned «vbove that the simplest form 

of the verb may be used for the Imperative as in 

English. The final letter of verbs in -a is frequently 

changed into e-. The plural is made by adding -»«. 

Pendct, or Pende, love thou. Pendaniy or Pendent, love ye. 

Twcui, or Tuoae, take thou. TtMani, or Ttoaenit take ye. 

8ifu, praise thou. Siftmi, praise ye. 

Fikiri, consider thou. Fikirini, consider ye. 

The form ending in -e is the more commonly used in 
Zanzibar. The other persons are supplied by the use 
of the Subjunctive. 

Ka- may be prefixed to the Imperative to connect it 
with a preceding verb. 

Kajificheni, and hide yourselves. 

The Subjunctive. 
The Subjunctive is made by prefixing the personal 
sign, and when the verb ends in -a changing that 
letter into -e. It may be translated into a variety of 
English forms. It may be used as an imperative or 
jussive, and is the only form that can be so used in the 
first and third persons. 

Nipendey let me love. 
When used with an interrogative it may be translated 
— am I to — is he to, &c. 

Nifanyeje ? What am I to do ? 



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VEBBJS. 



141 



It is the proper form to express purpose or object — ^tiiat 
I may, &o. — and must be used in many oases where in 
English the infinitive is employed. 

MwarMe akusayidie, tell him to help you, or speak to him 
that he may help you. 

Where no purpose is implied the infinitive is used as 
in English. 

I want to sleep, nataha kuiala. 

The force of the conjunction and may be expressed 
by inserting -A;a- after the personal prefix. And is used 
in English in many cases where the second action is 
more or less the object with which the first is to be 
done, as in — ^try and find, &o. In such cases -ko' must 
not be used, but only the subjunctive in its simple 
form. 



may. love. 



Verbs which end in -», -e, or -tt, keep the same final 
letter in the subjunctive. 

The Infinitivk. 
The Infinitive is made in all cases by prefixing -ku. 

Ku-penda, to love. 
KtHmti, to see. 



U- 

A-, U; I- 
Ki; Li; Pa- 
KVr 


peade. That 


I 

thou 
he or i^e 
it 


Tu- 




we 


rn- 

TTa-, I-, Zi- 




you 
.they 


Ft-, YOr 







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142 SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

The -w- becomes -w- before a, e, and «, and often 

disappears before o. 

Kw-ambiay to tell. 
Kw-enday to go. 
Kw-isha, to finish. 
K-oga, to bathe. 

The Infinitive may always be used to express the 
action denoted by the verb. 

Kwenda, going. 
Kufaf dying. 
« Kupendana, mutual loving. 

[There are two idiomatic uses of the Infinitive Mood, 
which are common, and may be mentioned here, the 
one a logical, the other a grammatical, contrivance. 

Any finite form of a verb may be preceded by the 
infinitive of the same verb, the effect being rather to 
particularize and give prominence to the idea conveyed 
by the verb, than to emphasize the mode of an action. 

Thus hufa utakufa^ as to dying, you will die. Dying, 
that is what will happen to you. Not, you will 
certainly die. 

Again, when any finite form of the verb, and espe- 
cially a long form, would be closely followed by another 
verb in the same form, connected with the former verb 
by (at most) the simple copula * wa,' the second verb 
may be put in the infinitive mood. By this device the 
cumbrous repetition of a series of personal and other 
prefixes in a number of successive verbs is neatly 
avoided. 

Thus, " anayeahudiwa na kutukuzway^* for anayetukiizwa^ 
" who is worshipped and glorified." — A. C. M.] 



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VERBS, 143 

Participles. 

There are properly no Participles in Swahili. The 
present participle in -ing may be represented by the 
-ana- tense of ^n incomplete action, by the -A;t- tense 
of a state of continued action, or by the use of the 
relative. 

TheTdan sitting yonder, mtu akaaye kule. 

The past participle may be represented by the -me- 
tense of a completed action, or by the relative when 
used adjectivally. 

Nimekiona kisu kilichopotea, I have found the lost knife. 

The Negative Conjugation. 

All Swahili verbs may be employed with negative 
prefixes to denote the reverse of their affirmative 
meaning. It must be observed that the negative forms 
do not simply deny the affirmative forms but rather 
reverse them. 

Napenda kwenda, I like going. 
Nataka kwenda, I want to go. 
Sipendi kwenda, I dislike going, 
Sitaki kwenda, I want not to go. 

In English I do not want is not so strong dj& I do not 
likej but in Swahili sitahi is stronger than 8vpendi. 

The negative t,enses are formed by negative personal 
prefixes, which, except in the first person singular, are 
made from the affirmative forms by prefixing ha-. 

For the negative combined with the relative, see 
p. 120. 



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144 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



I 




Thou 




He or she 


love not 


It 


or 


We 


do uot love. 


You 




They > 





Negative Present. 
In this tense verbs ending in -a cliange that letter 
into 4 ; other final letters remain unchanged. 

Si- 

Hu- 
Ha-y Rau-y Hai- 
Haki-y HcUi-, Hapa- 
Hdkth ) pendi 

Hatu- 

Ham- 
Mawa-, Hai'y Hazir 
Havi-y Haya- 

This tense is a more general negative than the 
English do not tense. It is used for both past and 
future wherever the negative depends upon some cause 
which is not affected by the time referred to. 

The -» of si- in this and other tenses often disappears 
,l>efore a vowel. 

Sogopi, I do not fear. 

Negative Past. 
There is one negative form referring to past time 
generally ; it is made by the negative prefixes followed * 
by -hur. 



8i' •] 








Hu- 




I 




Ha-, Bau-y Mai- 




Thou 




Haki-j HaZi- 




He or she 


did not love 


Eapa-, Rakur 


ku-penda 


It 


or 


Baiu- 




We 


have not lovrd. 


Ram- 




You 




Hawa-y Hai-, Hazi- 




.They 




Eam-y Rayor ^ 




In a few rare instances negative prefixes may be 


followed by -me- or -li-. 


Simekuwa mtoo 


ngof Hav 


9 1 not becon 


lealiar? 



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VERBS. 



145 



The not yet Tense. 
There is a negative tense made by the use of the 
negative prefixes followed by -ja-^ which is a sort of 
negative present perfect, denying the action up to the 
time of speaking. 
8i- ^ 

Ea-, Hau-f Hap- Thou 

Haki; Halt' He w she 

Mapa-,Haku- ja-penda 1* have not yet loved. 

Satu- We 

JSam^ You 

Hawa-, Hai-j HazU They 
Mavi-t JSaycL- J 

The word hado is often used with this tense where 

it is intended rather to imply that what has not yet 

happened will some day oome to pass. 

Hajaja, he is not yet oome, he is not come even now. 
Hajaja bado, he is not oome, at least not yet. 

The -a- of -^'o- coalesces with i and e into a long -6- 
sound. 

Hajesha = MaJaUha =7 He has not yet finished. 

Negative Eutuke. 
The negative future is made from the affirmative 
future by merely using negative instead of affirmative 
personal prefixes. 



Si- 

Hor, Hau-, Hai' 
Hdki', Halir 
HapO', Hdku- 

HatU' 

Mam- 
Hawor, Sai-, Hazi- 
Havi'y Saya- 



fta-penda < 



I shail not 
Thou wilt not 
He, she, or it 

will not 
We shall not 
You will not 
They will not 



> love. 



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146 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



C!o9DinoHAL Tenses. 
The case of mA being or not doing is put by a tetise 
formed by the affirmative prefixes followed by -9^^ ; 
it may be translated by the present participle with a 
negative, or by as, if^ when, thongh, since, or any other 
word by which the case of not heingy having^ or doing, 
may be introduced. 
Ni- 



A', U-, I-, KU 
Li-, Par, KUr 
Tu- 

Wa-f I-, Zi-y Vir 
Ya 



' tipo-penda 1 




not loving. 



This tense mij be also used to translate an Englii^ 

affirmative preceded by except at unless. 

Agipcjuoy nnlett be knows. 
Anpdkmoa ^LddoSa^excepfc Abdallah. 

Contingent Tenses. 
The negative contingent tenses, present and past^ 
are made from the affirmative forms by merely using 
negative instead of affirmative personal prefixes. 

Did I or I should 



6i- 

JBu- 
Hor. Hau-, Hai- 
Maki-f Hali- 
Hapa-, Haku- 

Hatvr 

Mam- 
Hdwor, Hai-, Hiui» 
Havi-^ Hayor 



nge-penda 



Didst thou or Thou 

wouldest 
Did he, she, or % 

or He, she, or it 

would 
Did we or We 

should 
Did you or you 

would 
Did they or They 

would 



not love. 



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VEBB8. 



147 



Ha-, Hati-, Hai- 
Haki-y Mali- 
Hapor, Hdkth 

HaJtvr 

Ham- 
Hawa-, Hai- 
Mcui'f Havt" 
Eayor 



ngali-penda 



Had I or I should 

have 
Hadst thon or Thon 

wonldest have 
Had he, she, or it, 

or He, she, or it 

would have ) not loved. 

Had we or We should 

have 
Had you or You 

would have 
Had they or They 

would have 



Negative Imperative. 

The negative imperative is made by the use of at 
(not), with the affbrmative forms. 



Si penda, love not. 
8i sifuy praise not. 



8i pendeni, love ye not. 
8i sifuni, praise ye not 



The negative subjunctive is more often used in this 
sense than the imperative form. 

Negativb Subjunctive. 

The negative subjunctive is made from the affirma- 
tive form by inserting -m- between the affirmative 
personal prefbc and the verb. 



not love. 



A',U',I^ 
Ki', Li', 




I may 

thou mayest 
he, die, or 


POr.KUr 

Tu- 




it may 
we may 


rn' 

War,I',Zi. 

Ft-, YOr 




yon may 
they may 



L 2 



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148 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



The -» of -«i- often disappears before a vowel. 
fuende, that he ii^ay not go. 

The negative subjunctive may be Englished in 
several different ways. It may be used as above of a 
purpose not to do, or it may be used of a purpose to do 
which fails. 

Ahamtafuta asimwone, he looked for him, but did not see him, 
OTy without seeing him. 

This form is commonly used for the negative 
imperative. 

Niaende, let me not go. Usende^ don't go. 

A form of subjunctive connected with the not yet 
tense is made by the use of -sije- with the affirmative 
prefixes. 



not have already 
loved. 



This tense may often be translated by "before, 
Utampata asijelalaf you will oatoh him before he goes to sleep. 

'Sije with the personal prefixes may be used as a 
complete word followed by the -A:a- tense. 

Nisije nikafa, that I may not be already dead, aty that I may not 
die before, &c. 



Ni. -] 






U- 




I may 


A-yV^yl- 




thou mayest 


Ki; Li- 




he, she, or it 


Pa-y Ku; 


tije-pendoy That 


may 


Tu- 




we may 


M- 




you may 


Wa-,I-,Zi- 




they may 


Ft-, Var 







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VERBS. 14£> 

Negative Infinitive. 

The negative infinitive is made by tlie use of kutoa 
(to put out), often contracted into hato- and used as a 
prefix* 

Ktdoa hupendOy or Kuiopenda^ not to love, or not loving, to 
dislike, or disliking. 

The Passive Voice. 

The Passive is made from the Active by merely 
inserting -to- before the final vov^el. 

Napenda^ I love. Napendwa^ I am loved. 

Sipendiy I do not love. Sipendwi^ I am not loved. 

Nimependa^ I have loved. Nimependwa, I have been loved. 

Kupenda, to love. Kupendwa, to be loved. 

Verbs ending in two vowels often use the passive of 
their applied form. See pp. 161, 161. 

The Passive is used in a sort of impersonal way to 
denote what is intended to be done. 

Maji yamekwenda kuUttua^ some one has gone to get water. 
Pesa zimekwenda kuvunjvHi^ some one has gone to get pice in 
exchange for silver. 

AUXILIART AND IbREQULAB VeRBS. 

As the Auxiliary verbs are mostly also irregular, it 
will be best to speak of their irregularities first, and 
afterwards of their use in making compound tenses. 

Monosyllabic verbs and most dissyllabic words be- 
ginning with a vowel, retain the hu- of the infinitive 
in those tenses in which the tense prefix ends in a 



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150 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

syllable incapable of bearing tbe accent. These tense 
prefixes are -na-, -ame-y -ali-, -ta-, -japo-, -nge-^ -ngali-^ 
and -«tye-. The other prefixes, -a-, -!»-, -A;*-, -nga-, -ifcw-, 
-ja-, -M-, are capable of bearing the accent, and the hi- 
is not retained when they are used. The personal 
signs, both subjective and objective, can bear the 
accent, the relative signs cannot. 

Thus, from kujay to come, we have : — 

Naja, I come. Ninakuja, I am coming. 

Nikaja, and I came. Nimekuja, I have come. 

Nikija, I coming. Nalikuja^ I came. 

8tji<, I come not. Nitakuja, I shall come. 

Sikujaj I did not come. Nijapokuja, even if I come. 

Sijaja, I am not yet come. Ningekuja, I should come. 

Nisije, let me not come. Ningalikuja, I should have come. 

NUiJekt^a, before I come. 

Nysy let me not come. Nisipokuja, when I come not. 

AjayCy he who comes. Aliyekvja, he who came. 
Nijaye, I who come. 

It is shown that this irregularity depends upon the 

power of certain syllables to support the accent by 

the changes which occur when an objective prefix is 

inserted. 

Amehda, he has eaten. 
Ame'mla, he has eaten him. 

The verb hupa, to give to, is peculiar in always re- 
quiring an objective prefix, and therefore never having 
occasion to be irregular. 

With dissyllables beginning with a vowel it is gene- 
rally indifferent whether the ku- is retained or not. 

Amekwisha or Ameisha, he has finished. 
Amekwanza or Ameanza^ he has begun. 



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VEBBS. 151 

Many verbs occur with or without a w-, which seems 

to be a relic of the -hu-. 

Kuiva or Kwciwi^ to ripen. 
Kuaza or Kuwazck, to consider. 

The word Imja, to come, stands alone in haying an 
irregular imperative. 

Njoo^ come. NJooni, come ye. 

Monosyllabic verbs and some dissyllables make their 
passives in a more or less irregular way. The follow- 
ing is a list of the monosyllabic verbs with their 
passives : — 

Kucha, to fear. Kuehwa, to be feared. 

KtUa, to eat. Kidiwa, to be eaten. 

Kunywa, to drink. Kunyweuxi, to be drunk. 

Kupa, to give to. Kupatea or Kupewa, to receive. 

Kucha is used in the dialect of Lamoo for to fear, the 
word used at Zanzibar being kuogopa, Kucha means 
at Zanzibar to rise (of the sun), and huchwa (or, in the 
dialect of Mombas, kutwa) means to set. The other 
monosyllabic verbs, hufa, to die, Jeuja, to come, kunya,^ 
to fall like rain, . Arwtca, to be, being neuters, do not 
make a passive. 

Two dissyllabic verbs make their passive by merely 

adding "wa to the active form. 

Kuua, to kill. Kuuomo, to be killed. 

Kufua, to beat KUftiawa, to be beaten. 

Verbs ending in two vowels often insert an -U in 
making their passive. See under Applied Forms, pp. 
168-169. 

Kuzaa, to bear. Kuzoiva or Kuzaliuxi, to be bom. 

Kukomboa, to ransom. Kuhombolevjaj to be ransomed. 

Kvfungua, to open. Kufunguliwa, to be opened. 



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152 8WAHILI HANDBOOK, 

The origin of this use lies probably in the difficulty 
of pronouncing distinctly the regular passive forms. 
Verbs ending in -e make their passive in -ewa, 

Kwamehe, to pardon. KuMtnehevja, to be pardoned. 

Verbs ending in 4 make their passives in -iwa. 

Kukiri, to confess. Kukiriwa^ to be confessed. 

Verbs in -u generally make their passive in -ttra. 

Kuharibu, to destroy. Kuhcmbtwa, to be destroyed. 

Where the -u is preceded by a vowel the passive is 
made in -vfiwa. 

Kusahau, to forget. KusahauUtoa, to be forgotten. 

The verb kuwa, to be, has several peculiarities. The 
Present teaase is very seldom used in its regular fcarm. 
For the Present tense ni (or, in the negative, si) may 
be used for all persons and both numbers, or the per- 
sonal prefix appropriate to the subject of the verb may 
stand alone. Ni is apparently preferred where being 
is the important part of the idea ; the personal prefix 
is used where the being of that particular thing is 
intended specially to be noticed. Tu (not A) is used 
for he or she is. 

Si hweli, ni huHfu tu, it is not true, it is only flattery. 
2\* tayari, we are ready. 

When joined with a relative the regular form has 
the meaning of who may be. 

Awaye yote, whoeyer it be. 

Where no stress is intended to be laid on the being, 
the verb to be, when joined with a relative pronoun, is 



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VERB8. 153 

represented by the syllable -Z«-. See Relatives, p. 118. 
Li is used, though but rarely, with the personal signs 
to form a tense with the meaning— continuing to be. 
A narative past is also formed with it in the sense of — 
I have continued to be. 

NUi halt ya kuwajuu yoke,, I being on his back. 
Nikali nihipotea, ^d I go on wandering. 

In many cases where the verb to he is used in English 
merely to connect the parts of the sentence it is in 
Swahili omitted altogether. 

Kwa nini weye hutoa ktwnekana hizi siku nyingif why [have] 
you [been] invisible, i.e,. Why have you kept out of sight so 
long? 

Tupi mkuu waoi who [is] their chief? 

Nyama ya kifaro ngumu mnOy rhinoceros meat [is] very tough. 

The Present Perfect has the meaning of has become, 

Manenoye yamekuwa uwango, his words are become false. 
The Past Perfect must be used to translate was and 

were. 

Nilipohuioa Sultani, when I was Sultan. 

The English has or have been must be translated by 
a present. \ 

Nipo hapa eiku nyingi, I have been here many days. 
The Imperative is used with an i prefixed. 
Iwe, be thou. Iweniy be ye.* 

In the negative present and with relatives si is used 
as ni and -li- are in the affirmative tense. The regular 
forms are also used, though but rarely. 

♦ The subjunctive forms uwe, mwe are commonly preferred in 
Zaniibar.~A. 0. M. 



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154 8WABILI HANDBOOK. 

The verb to he is used in English sometimes to 
denote existence viewed as an ultimate faot, sometimes 
to denote existence in place and time, sometimes to 
denote existence as the possessor of certain qualities, 
or the doer or sufferer of certain acts. In Swahili these 
three uses are distinguished by the employment of 
different forms. 

The simple form of the verb is used only to denote 
existence as the possessor of qualities, or the doer or 
sufferer of acts. 

Existence merely in place and time, whether the 
place and time are in English expressed or no, is 
denoted in Swahili by the addition to the verb of -po, 
-TOO, or -A», as the case may be. See Kelatives, p. 120^ 

He is at mj house, Yuko kwangu. 
He is here, Yupo Tiapa, 
He is in the house, Yumo nyumbani. 
When he was here, Alipohutoapo hapcL 
Where are they ? Ziko wapif 

Existence viewed as a fact in itself is denoted by the 
addition of na to the verb, being the same form as is 
used for the verb to have. Na is joined to the personal 
prefixes to make the present tense, in all other tenses 
it is treated as a separate word, and has generally the 
appropriate relative sign suffixed to it. 

Kuna mtu, there is a man. 
Kulihuwa na mtu, there was a man. 
ZinazOf they are. 
Zilikuwa nazo^ they were. 

In Swahili there is properly no verb to have. They 
employ for it huwa na, to be with. 



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VERBS. 155 

Nina, I have. 
Nalikuwa na^ I had. 
Nitakuwa no, I shall have. 
Niwe na, Ihat I may have. 

Where the objective prefix would be need with an 

ordinary, verb, the appropriate relative particle mnst 

be suffixed to the na as well as to the tense prefix. 

NinazOj I have them. 
AUyekwjoa nazo, who had them. 
AUzokutoa naxa, which he had. 

Auxiliary Verbs. 

The Verbs used as Auxiliaries are, kuway to be, hutoa^ 
to take out, huja, to come, imsha, to come to an end. 

Can is represented by the appropriate tenses of 

kuwezay to be able. Mmt is expressed by sharti, of 

necessity, or by the negative tenses of huwa na huddi, 

to have an escape from. 

Bina huddi, I must. 

Anufe na huddi, that he may be obliged. 

After huioa na huddi either the infinitive or subjunc- 
tive may be employed. 

Otight may be represented by the tenses of kupaaaj to 

concern, or, to come to concern. Should is expressed 

in the same way when it implies obligation, and by the 

contingent tenses when it expresses a contingency. 

IfAeHtpoia hwendct, it concerns me to go, <.«., I ought to go. 
inentpoBa niiend€f it concerns me that I go not, t.e., I ought not 
to go. 

Ettjpflwa is also used as follows : — 

Haikunipcua mimi, it is no business of mine. 
Imekupatani f What have you to do with it ? 
AmenipoM mimi^ he is a connection of mine. 



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156 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

May and might may be represeinted by haweza where 
they imply power, by Tialalij lawful, where they imply 
lawfulness, and by the subjunctive where they imply a 
purpose. 

. The use of huja as an auxiliary has been mentioned 
under the -jajfx)', -ja-, and -aije- tense§, pp. 138, 145, 148. 

Kutoa is used to convey a negation in eases where 
the regular negative tenses cannot conveniently be 
used. 

With the infinitive it is frequently contracted into 
"to-f and used as a mere formative. 

* Kutoa huja, or Kutohuja, not to come. 

Kutoa kwpendoy or KutopencUiy not to love. 

The meaning of these negative infinitives may be 
given as, putting out coming, barring coming, coming 
not happening. A transitive form may be made by the 
use of kutoaha, to make to go out. 

Kutotha kufMDuliza^ to dzolude asking him. 

In many cases kutoa may be translated by, to forbear, 
or, to neglect. 

Ametoa hufa^ he has neglected coming, he has not come. 
Nikitoa ^'a, if I forbear from coming, oTf so long as I do not 
oome. 

The negative tenses do not furnish a true present 
perfect. The past, hakujay is, he did not oome; the 
present, haji, implies rather that he never will, that 
coming is not to be predicated of him at alL The 
difference between nisipokuja and nikitoa kuja is repre- 
sented in English by that between, if I come not, and, 
while I oome not. In all cases the use of tea connects 



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VEBB8. 157 

the negation with the tense only ; the negative tenses 
imply that the opposite of the verb might be affirmed. 
Kwisha may often be translated* by already. 

AvMikwisha kuja, he has already come. 
Nifnekwiaha hula, I have done eating. 

It is nsed to strengthen the present perfect, convey- 
ing the meaning that something is not merely done, 
bnt fully done and over. 

A somewhat similar effect is produced on the present 
by UBiagJcatika hmsha. 

Ni ka/tika kwifiha ktUa, I am finishing eating, I am just leaving 
off, I have very nearly done. 

Kuway to be, is used in Swahili very much as it is in 
English, the -hi- and -me- tenses of the principal verb 
being used as present and past participles. 

. NUi nikienday I continuing to be going. 
NikcUi nikienda^ and I am still going. 
Nikiwa^ nikienday I being going, while going. 
Nihiwa nimekwenda, I being gone, having gone. 
Nikiwa nimekvnaha kwenda, having already gone. 
Nalikuwa ntkienda, I was going. 
Nalikuwa nimekioenda, I was gone, I had gone. 
Nalikuioa nimekwisha kwenda^ I had already gone. 
Nitdkuwa nikienda, I shall be in the act of going. 
Nitakuwa nimekwenda, I shall be gone. 
NUakuwa nimekwisha kwenda, I shall have already gone. 
Nitdkuwa nUiokwenda, I shall be who has gone, I shall have 
gone, I shall have gone to or been at. 

Kmoa na^ to have, is not used as an auxiliary. 

Derivative Verbs. 

There are four derivative forms which may be con- 
structed out of any Swahili verb, where in English 



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'JL58 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

we miist use either another verb or some componiid 
expression. 

1. What may be caUed the applied form is nised in 
cases where in English a preposition would be em- 
ployed to connect the verb with its object. By the use 
of this form verbs which have things for tilieir objects 
may be made to apply to persons. 

This form is made by inserting % or e before the final 
ra of the simple verb.* I is used when tilie vowel of the 
preceding syllable is a, », or u. E \s used when tho 
vowel of the preceding syllable is e or o* 

Ku/cmyd, to make. Kufanyia^ to make for. 

fifdeta^ to bring. Kuletea, to bring for. 

Kimkitika, to be sorry. KusikitikiOt to be sorry for, to pity. 

iKuokdj to bake. Kuokea, to bake for. 

Kuanguka, to fall down. Kvtangtikia, to fall down to. 

Where the simple verb ends in two vowels the sup- 
pressed I appears in the applied form. 

Kuzaa^ to bear. Kuzalia^ to bear to. 

KukweOy to dimb. - KukweUa^ to climb for. 

Kutikiay to hear. Kusikilia, to listen to. 

Kiikomboa, to redeem. Kukombolect, to redeem for. 

Kununiia, to bny. KununuXiOf to buy for. 

The following is a list of the monosyllabio verbs 
with their applied forms : — 

Kucha, to fear. Kuehelea, to fear for. 

Ku/a, to die. Kufia, to die to. 

Kt^a, to come. Kujia, to come to. 

Kula, to eat. Kulia, to eat with. 

KunyOt to fall (like rain). KunyeOy to fall upon. 

Kunyvsa, to drinlc. Kunywea^ to drink with. 

Kuioc^ to he, Kutna, to he to. 

' Kuza, to sell, makes Kuliza, to sell to. 



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VERB8. 159 

. ' Knjpa^ to give to, haying already an applied meaning, 

has no applied form. There is a dif&onlty in expressing 

what would have been the meaning of the simple form. 

K^iUoa is used for*to give, in the sense of parting with« 

Such expressions as, which was given you, must bo 

rendered by a change of person — uliopeway which you 

had given to you, or, which you received. Which he 

gave me, is very commonly rendered niliopewa naye. 

Yetbs ending in -t ahd -u make their applied forms 

in -ta. 

Kufasirty to explain. KufoHria, to explain to. 

KuharibUj to destroy. Kuhartbia, to destroy for. 

The great paucit}' of prepositions in Swahili brings 
the applied forms of verbs into constant use. The 
only difficulty in their application lies in the exact 
discrimination of the meaning of the simple word. 
MMQiy Swahili verbs imply in their simple form what 
can only be expressed in English by the use of a pre^ 
position. Whenever a really good dictionary shall have 
been compiled it will supply all the necessary informa- 
tion. The applied form may be rendered by iniserting 
any preposition which will suit the x^ontext. Thusy 
hishuhudia is, to bear witness about, for, or against, as 
the case may be, aM Mhenehj whidh- means to speak 
about, may have to be translated by, to recommend, or 
to decry, to scold, or to describe. The simple word 
nena has in itself the force of to mention, so that it is. 
not necessary to use the applied form as a translation 
of to speak of, where it means no more than to 
mention. 

Sometimes the shape of the word will be a useful 



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160 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

reminder to foreigners of its exact meaning; thus, 
hupotecL, which may be roughly translated to lose, is in 
the shape of an applied form, and really is one, its 
exact meaning being, to become lost to. If, therefore, 
we want to say, I have lost my knife, the construction 
must, be altered into, my knife has become lost to me 
(him changu himenipotea)^ the subject and object havuiig 
to change places. * 

Where in English a preposition connected with the 
verb can stand by itself at the end of the sentence, the 
applied form must be used in Swahili. 

A knife to cut with, kisu cha ktikaiia. 

Stones to grind wheat with, maioe ye husagia ngano, 

A place to come out at, mahali pa leatohea, 

A bag to put money in, mfuko toa htUiliafetha^ 

In these sentences the use of the possessive particle 
-a for the English to, denoting a purpose or employ- 
ment, must be observed and remembered. This particle 
turns what follows into a sort of adjective in this, as 
in all other cases in which it is followed by a word 
which is capable of denoting a quality. It is somewhat 
like the English expressions, a man of aetwe, a Jmilding 
of great solidity, dc. 

When an applied form is followed by mhali it conveys 
the idea that as a consequence of the action denoted by 
the simple verl something is put out of the way, or 
got rid of. 

Aflle, or Afie mbali, that he may die out of our way. 
Tumundie mbaU, let us kill him and done with it 
Potelea mbali, perish out of my way = go and be hanged. 

The passive of the applied form has a meaning which 



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VSBB8. 161 

it requires some attention to remember and apply 
rightly, though it is strictly according to the rule that 
the object of the active becomes the subject of the 
passive voice. 

KuUteay to bring to. KuLetewa^ to have brought to one. 

Kufanyia, to make for. Kufanyivoa, to have made for one. 

It is often difficult in English to express this passive 
without using an altogether different word. What 
suggests itself at first to an l^nglish ear, that the 
passive of to bring to would be to he brought to, is wrong, 
and must be carefally avoided. Sometimes a change 
of prepositions will suffice to render the passive cor- 
rectly ; kupa may be translated to present to, and then 
hupewa is not to he presented to, but to he presented vnth. 

Passives made in 4iwa and -lewa are used as the 
passives of both the simple and the applied form. 
Kufunguliwa may be used as the passive of hufungua, 
meaning, te be unfastened, or as the passive of hufun- 
gulm, meaning then, to have unfastened for one. It 
can never mean, to be unfastened for. If it is necessary 
to express a passive in that form it must be done by 
changing the construction. 

A cry was made at him, alipigiwa ukelde [he had made at him 

a cry]. 
The door .was opened for him, alifungtdiipa mUmgo [he had 

opened for him the door]. 

2. The Causative form is made by changing the final 
-a into -ska or -«a. 

Kwpwngua^ to grow less. Kupunguza, to make to grow less. 
Kuzidi, to grow greater. Kuzidisha, to make greater. 

M 



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162 SWAEILl HANDBOOK, 

When the final -a is preceded by a consonant ther 
general rale is to use the applied form as the basis of 
flie causative. 

Kwpenda, to like. Kupendeza, to pleafie. 

Kufanya, to make. Kufanyiza, to cause to make. 

Kupanda, to go up. Kupandid?id, to make to go up. 

Verbs which end in the simple form in -ta end in 
the causative form in -«a. 

KutaJcata, to be clean. Kutakata, to make clean. 

Verbs which end in -ha inay be turned into causa- 
tives by changing -ha into -sha. 

Kuwaka^ to be on fire. Kuwcuhay to set on fire. 

Kulainika, to be soft. KtdainUha, to make soft 

Kutoka, to go out. Kuto8h<it to make to go out 

Kushuka, to go down. Ktishuaha, to let down. 

The causatives of verbs ending in -e, -i, or -u are 
constructed on the applied form. 

KukartbUf to come near. Kukaribi$h(\ to make to come near. 

3. The Neuter, or quasi passive form is made by 
changing the final -a into -ha. 

Kufungua, to unfasten. Kufunguka, to be unfastened. 

Kuokoa, to save. Kuokoka^ to be saved. 

Where the final -a is preceded by a consonant the 
neuter is constructed from the applied form. 

Kuvunja, to break. Kuvunjika, to be broken. 

Kukata^ to cut. Kukabika, to be cut. 



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VERBS. 163 

Causatiyes in -shd may be turned into neuters by 
changing -sha into -lea. 

Kustusha, to startle. Kuetvka, to be startled. 

Verbs in -e, -t, and -u, construct their neuters on the 
applied fonns, 

Ktuamehe, to forgave. Kusameheka, to be forgiven. 

Kufasiri, to explain. Kufasirika, to be explained. 

KtiharibUf to destroy. Kvharibikci^ to be destroyed. 

The 'Jca form is used (like the English passive) to 
denote what is generally done or doable. 

KuHka^ to be eaten, or, to be eatable. 

4. Eeciprocal forms are made by changing -a into 
-ana. 

Kupenda, to love. Kupendana, to love one another. 
Kupiga^ to beat. Kupigana, to beat one another, to flgbt. 

Verbs in -e, -t, and -u construct their reciprocals 
upon the applied forms. 

Kukartbu, to come near. Kukaribiana^ to come near to one 
another. 

The reciprocal form of the -ha form may be translated 
by to be to be, <fec. 

Kupaiikanaf to be to be got. 

Kujulikcma, to be to be known, to be knowable. 

Kuoekoma, to be to be seen, to be visible. 

The derived forms are conjugated and ti'eated in 
every way as though they were original woi*ds, and 
other derived forms may be made from them to any 
extent that may be required. 

M 2 



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164 8WAEILI HANDBOOK 

The applied form of an applied form generally sig- 
nifies to do a thing to or for a person for a purpose. 
Doubling t^e verb gives an idea of thoroughness. 

KukcUa, to cut. KukcUakcUay to cut up. 

Kutafuta, to seek. Kutafutatafutay to seek all about. 

Kuchafukay to be ia! a mess. Kuchafukachafuka, to be all in a 

mess. 
Kupoiuka, to uc torn. Kupasukapasukaf to be torn to 

shreds. 
Xtt^t^ to be cut Kukatikakalikay to be all out 

about 



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( 165 ) 



LIST OF YERBS. 



As it is necessary to put to before the English Verb to make the Infinitive, 
so it is necessary to prefix ku- to make the Infinitive in Swahili, Before 
Monbsyllabic Verbs the kv^ bears the accent, and is retained in several of ^ 
the tenses. See p. 149. 



Ahasey thili. 

Abhor, chnkla. 

be AbUy weza. 

Abolish, batili, tangua, ondosha. 

Abound toithy jaa. 

Absorb, nwa, pass, nwewa. 

Abstain from, epuka, eposhwa (to 
be Tcept/rom). 

Abuse (by words), tukana. 

Accept, kaball, takabali, pokea (re- 
ceive)., 
be acceptable or accepted^ kuba- 
lika. 

Accompany, fuataDa na, andamana. 
(part of the way), sindikiza, adi 

Aeeu»e, tohumu, shtaki. 

Accustom, zoeza. 
become a^scustomed, zoea. 

Ache, mna. 
My head aches, kitwa chauma or 
kinaninma. 

Acknowledge, ungama, knbali, kiri. 

Acquiesce, liyamaa, rithia. 

Acquit, acha. 
be acquitted, toka. 



Act, tenda. 

Adapt, fanya. 

Add to, ongeza, zidisba. 

Add up, jumlislia. 
Adjoin, tangamana. 
Adjourn, aMrisba. * 

stand over, akiri. 
be Adjudged, fetiwa. 
Adjure, apisba. 
Admire, peiida. 

I admire him, amenipendeza. 
Admit, ingiza, aoba kuingia. 
Adorn, pamba. 

Adorn onesdf, fanya uzuri. 
Adulterate, ghosbi. 
commit AduUery, zini, zinga. 
Advance, endelea mbele. 

Advance Tnoney to a trader, ko- 
pesba. 
be Adverse, gomha^ teta. 
Advise, pa sbauri. 
Adze, obonga. 
Affect to be, jifanya, jiona. 
Afflict, tesa. 

be Afraid, ogopa, cha (A.). 
Agitate, sukasoka. 



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166 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Agree (come to an agreement), patana, 
afikana, tuliliana, lekezanya, 
tuzanya (A.). 
(he mutually satisfied), rathiana. 
(be alike), elekea, lingana. 
Aim, twaa shabaha. 
Alarm, ogofieiba, ogofya, tisha. 
be alarmed [kii-]wa na khofd, 
iugiwa Da khofxL 
Alienate, farakiBha. 

be alienated, farakana. 
Allege a defect in, iimbua. 
Allot amongst many, awaza. 
Allow, acha, pa niksa, rahusu. 
Alter, (neut.) badili, badilika, geoka. 

(act.) geuza, badilL 
Amaze, ajaabisha. 

be amazed, tosbea. 
Amend, fanyiza, tengeneza. 

(of a person reforming), tulia. 
Arquse, zumgumza. 
Anchor, tia nanga. 
Anger, tia basira, gbatbabisha. 
be Angry, [kt(-]wa na basira, gba- 

tbabika. 
be Angular, [kii-]wa na pembe- 

pembe. 
Announoe, bublri. 
Annoy, sumbua, sumbusha, taa- 

bisba, batiki (A.). 
Annul, tangua, batili, gbairi. 

be Annulled, tangnka. 
Answer, jibu. 

Answer when eaUed, itika, itikia. 
Anticipate for, onea. 
be Anxious, tabaruki, taabika. 
make Anxious, tabarakisba, taa- 
bisha. 
Apotstaiize (become an infidd), kn- 

furu. 
Appear, onekana (become visttleX 
tokea (come out to). \ 



Apply oneself to, tenda. 

Appoint, nasibo, aini, cbagua or 

teua (select). 
Approach, karibia, jongea. 
Approach one another, karibiana. 
Bring near, jongeza, karibisba. 
Approve, knbali, penda, rathi. 
Argue, jadiliana, sbindana (dispute 

together). 
Arise, ondoka. 
Arm, pa selaba. 

Arm oneself, twaa selaha. 
Arrartge, panga, andika, pangiflba, 

ratibn, fanya. 
be Arrogant, gburika. 
Arrive, fika, wasili 
arrive at one^s destination, koma. 
make to arrive, fikisba, wasilisba. 
reaeh a person, fikia, wasilia. 
Ascend, paa, kwea, panda. 
Ascertain, bakiki, uyuzi. 
be ascertained, kinika. 
be Ashamed, ona baya, tabayari. 
m£^ke ashamed, tia baya, tabaya- 
risba. 
Ask, nliza, uza, sailL 
Ask for, taka. 
MaJce inquiries on behalf of any- 

one, iilizia, unzia, sailia. 
Ask how one does, uliza ball. 
Ask in marriage, poea. 
Assemble, (act.) kusanya, kntanisha. 
(neut.) kutana, kusanyika, kusa* 
nyana. 
Assent, kubali, itikiza, afikana, ra- 

tbiana. 
Assert, sema. 
He asserts that he saw a ship, 

kamma aliona jabasi. 
He asserts that he walked on the 
waAer, kamma alikwenda mtoni 
kwa mgau. 



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LIST OF VERBS. 



167 



AsUmish, ajabisha, taajabisha. 

he astonished^ toshea, shangaa, 
taajabika, toshewa, staajabu. 
Astound^ ahangaza. 
Atone foTy setiri. 

Attach, gandamia, gandamiza, am- 
bisa. 

he attachedy ambatana (of things), 
ambisana (of people). 
Attach, shambulia. 

Atta^ people wantonly, [kii-]wa 
na jeuri. 
Attend (wait upon), ngojea, faata. 

Attend to, sikia, pulika (A.)» si- 
kilia. 

not to attend, ghafalika. 

refuse to attend, jipumknsha. 
he Audible, siMliana, sikizaDa. 
Avail, faa. 
Avoid, epuka. 

get out of the way of, epa. 

he avoidable, epeka, epukika. 
Avow, kubali. 
Awake (neut), amka. 

waken (a<^.), amsha. 



Backbite, chongeleza. 
Betray, khini , 

Bake, oka. 

(pottery), tomea, chomea. 
Bale out water, vuta maji, teka 

maji. 
Banish, fukuza (drive away), ondo- 

sha (make to go away), hamisha 

or tamisha (M.) or gurisha (A.). 

(to make to remove). 
Bar (a door), pingia. 
Bargain, fanya ubazazi. 
Bark (like a dog), lia. 
Barter, badili, awithL 



Batter (bruise), chubuachubua. 
be battered (like an old copper 
pot), chubnkachubuka. 
Bathe, oga. 

Be, wa. See Irregular Verbs, p. 152. 
(to stay), kaa. 
he on one*8 guard, [kt[-]wa na 

bathari. 
he off one*s guard, taghafali. 
Bear (fruit, children, &c.), zaa, 
vyaa. 
(carry), chukua, bimili. 
(toleraie), vumilia, stahimili. 
bear with another person, chuku- 

liana. 
Bear with me, niwie ratbi. 
bear witness, shubudu. 

about, for or against, sb)ihudia. 
Beat, piga, pnta, menya (Eiyao). 
Beat up together, funda. 
Beat to pieces, ponda. 
Beat a roof or floor, pigilia. 
he well beaten, putika. 
he beaten upon (as a wreck by the 

waves), fuawa. 

See Conquer, Thresh, 

Beckon to, pungia nguo. 

The usual sign to beckon a person 
to corns is to wave a doth up 
and doum. 
Become (befitting), sulibi. 
Nimekuwa, I am become. 
Simekuwa, am I not become. 
The act of becoming is generaUy 
expressed by the present tense of 
the verb expressing the being in 
the stale or possessing the quality. 
Become a fool, pumbazika. 
Beg, omba, bembeleza. . 
(entreat), sihi, nasibi. 
I beg of you, tafdthal. 
Beget, zaa. 



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168 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Begin, aoza. 
Begin upon, anziliza. 
Btgin a work, malikL 
Behave, tenda. 
Behave weU, tenda yema. 
Behave ill, tenda vibaya. 
Behave like an invalid, jigo- 
njweza. 
Belch, ongulia. 

BeUh out, kokomoka. 
Believe, sadiki. 

Believe in, amini. 
Bend, (act.) pinda, (neut.) pindfMia. 
Bend round, (aet.) peta, (neut.) 

petana, petemana. 
Bend down/aet.) inamisha, (neut) 
. inama. 
Benumb, faganza. 
Bequeath, wasia, achia. 
Besiege, hufinrn (Ar.). 
Bet, shindania. 
Beware, angalia, [kil-]wa na ha- 

thari. 
Bewilder, tekea. 

Bewitch, fanyia uchawi, loga (Mer.). 
Bicker, papuriana. 
Bid. See Command. 

Make a first hid, riBimn. 
Bind, funga. 
Bind books, jelidi. 
Bind oneself, fanya sharti. 
Bind round (as when a stick is 
. sprung), ganga. 
Bite, lima. 
Blab, pajmka. 

Blame, laumn, tia hatiyani, nenea 
(scold), patiliza (visit upon), 
karipia (caU out ai). 
Blaze, waka. 
Bleed, toka damn. 
(copiously), chnruzika damn, toza 
damn (M.). 



Bless, bariki (see Copulate), barikia, 

jalia. 
BHnd, povua. 

become blind, poYuka. 
Block, kingamisha, pinga. 
Blossofn,toek maua (putforthflowers), 

funnka (to open). 
Blow (as the udnd), Tuina, vuTia. 
(with the mouth), puzia, pnMza. 
(a hom^ Ac), piga zomari, &o. 
(the nose), fata kamasL 
(bellows), ynkuta. 
Blow away, pepenuha. 
Blunder, kosa. 
Blunt. 
The knife is Uunt, kisu hakipati, 
kisu ni kivivu (A.). 
Blurt out, kokomoka. 
Blush, genka (change colour). 

put to the blush, hizika. 
Boast, jiflifu, jigamba, tamba. 
Boil (bubble up), che'mka, tutuma. 
cook by boiling, tokosflt. 
be cooked by boiling, tokota. 
be well boiled, tokoseka. 
boU^over, forika. 
Bore through, zua, pekeoba (used 
also of boring v)Uh talk), 
toith an awl, didimikia. 
Border, pa^na. 
be Bom, zawa, vyawa, zaliwa, yya- 

liwa, pathiwa. 
Borrow, azimwa, kirithL 
Bother, sumbua, batika (A.). 
Bow, (aet.) inamisha, (neut.) inama. 
Box the ears, piga kofi. 
Braise, kaanga. 
Bray (like an ass), lia. 
pound in a mortar, ponda. 
clean com by pounding, twanga. 
Break, vunja, vunda (M.)» (neut,) 
vunjika, katika. 



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LIST OF VERBS. 



169 



{JBreak'\ through^ toboa. 
into fragmenU, setaseta. 
, by henddng^ ekua. 

to he tprung^ ekuka. 
off (he cobs of Indi<m com, goboa, 

loDyoa. 
doum (he branches of a tree^ kwa- 

nua, pass, kwauyuka. 
wind, Jamba, ODgulia. 
Br^(he, pumua, puzia, tanafugi. 
inspire^ paaza, pumzi. 
. expirey ^usba pumzi 
hardy kokota roho, tweta (pan£). 
hrecUhe oneself (res()f pumzika. 
Breedy zaa, lia (M.). 
he BriUianty Dg'ara. 
firing^ leta. 
to or for y letea. 
Bring up, lea. 
Bring together^ pambaoa. 
Bring near^ jougeza. 
Bring to an agreement^ patanisha. 
Bring to life again, fufoa, huiBba. 
Bring ano(her t Na ije ngine 1 
Brighten (act), katua. 

he bright, katuka (polished)jn^saA 
(glistening). 
Bruise, chubua. 
he bruised, chubnka. 
(batter), chubuachubua. 
Brush (clean), sngua. 

Brush off, epua. 
Bubble up, che'mka, tutuma. 
Bud, chupuza (spring), ohanua (put 

forth leaves), mea (grow). 
Build, jenga. 
in stone, aka. 
to point by putting in sfmaJl 
stones, tomea. 
{ships), unda. 
BvXly, onea. 
he a Burden to, lemea. 



Bum, waka (to he on fire), teketea 
(to be consumed), washa (to set 
on fire), tek^eza (to consume), 
choma or chcouea (to apply fire 
to), onguza (to produce a feeling 
of burning, to sooreh). 

Burrow, fokuaftikiia. 

Bursty pasuka, tumbuka. 

Burst out, bubujika. 
Burst into tears, bubujika ma- 
chozL 

Bury, zika. 

Buy, uunua, zabuni 
Purchase for, nuuulia. 
Buy back, komhotL 

Buzz, like a bee, vuma. 

C. 

Cackle, like a hen, tetea. 
Call, ita, nena, taja (nams), amkua 
(invite), lingana (A.)* 
CaU out to, pigia ukelele, pigia 

ukemi (Mer.). 
CaU for help, piga yowe. 
CaU to prayers, athini 
become Callow, faganza. 
CcUm, tuliza. 

be very calm, zizim& 
Can (kuweza, to he able), 
Siwezi, I cannot 
Nawe7a, I can. 
Canter (of a horse), kwenka kwa 
mghad ; (of a donkey) kweuda 
kwa t^el^. 
Capitulate, selimu, sellim. 
Care (take care), angalia [kii-]wa 
na hathari. 
take care of, tuDza. 
consider, waza, tafakari. 
be careless, Pnl]wa mzembe. 
I don*t care, haitburu, mamoja 
pia. 



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8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Garry ^ ohukus. 
for^ clmkiilia. 
on a pole over the thouldery chu- 

kua mpikoni 
on the hecid or shoulders^ pagaa. 
a child on the hcusk^ beba. 
astride on the hip or &ao^, eleka. 
in front or on the lap, pakata. 
in a bundle or faggot, titika. 
off as spoil, teka. 
ae cargo, pakia. 
on freight, takabathi. 
Carve uTobd, &c,, kata nakshL 
chora (adorn with carving), 
he carved, nakishiwa. 
Cast, tapa. 
upon or at, tupia. 
a glance, tupa nathiri. 
one's eyes, tupa macho. 
(in a mofdd), ita. 
off aU shame, jipujua. 
east lots, piga or &nya kura. 
Castrate, hasL 
Catch, daka, nyaka. 
in a trap, nasa, tega. 
fish, vua samaki 
put something to catch rain^vfoter, 

kinga mvtia. 
(see one who thinks himself unseen}, 

fathehi, gundua. 
he in time to meet with, diriki. 
Caulk, kalafatL 
Ckive in, pomoka. 
Cease, koma. 
make to ceoM, ^omesha. 
talking, nyamaza. 
(of pain), nyamaza. 
CeMC, fuMza (uadi, &c.). 
he Certain about, kinika, tasawari. 
Change, (act.) geusha, geuza, badili, 
badiliaha, (neuL) genka, badi- 
lika. 



be changeable, badilibadili, ba- 

dilika. 
change ow^s mind about, gbairi. 
change (a piece of money), Tuoja. 
Charge (direct), agiza, sisitiza (M.). 
Cfiase, winda, wiaga. 

avjay, fukoza. 
Chastise, athibu. 
(Matter, puza. 

(of the teeth), tetemeka. 
Cheapen, rakhisisha. 
Cheat, danganya, hadaa, ghusubu. 
be cheated, danganyika, hadaika. 
Cheer, ondolea, huzuni. 
Chew, tafuna. 

Chirrup (as to a bird), fionya. Both 
word and tiling are used in 
Zanzibar to express contempt. 
Choke (throttle), kaba, sama. 
choke oneself with drink or spittU, 

palianamate, &o., &c. 
irritate the throat, kereketa. 
Choose, chagua, teua, khitari, penda, 
io&(send). 
as you choose, ikhtiari yako, upe- 
ndavyo. 
(Jhop, chanja (cut up), chiiya or 
(M.) tinda (cut), tema (slashX 
chonga or tonga (ctU to a pointy, 
katakata (chop up smaU). 
Circulate (intelligence), tangaza. 
Circumcise, tahirL 
Claim, dai. 

Clap the hands, piga makofi. 
Clasp in the hand, sbikana, kamata. 
in the arms, kumbatia, kumba* 
tiana. 
Claw, papura. 

Clean, takasa, fanya safi, safisha. 
he clean, takata, safika, takasika. 
clean com by pounding, twanga. 
clean a second time, pwaya. 



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171 



[CZeon] he quite clear of huska and 
dirt, pwayika. 

I eotUm, cloves, Ac, chambua. 

cocoa-nuts from the husk, fua. 

hy scraping, paa. 

elea/nse by ceremonial ablutions, 
tohara. 

c^n out from within a shell, 
komba. 

dean out a man (get all his 
money), komba. 

he cleaned out (lose aU one's 
money), kombeka. 
Cleanse, See Clean, 
Clear, See Clean. 

the sky is cZear,uwingu umetakata. 

(make clear or plain), eleza, ynza, 
fafaaua, fafadulia. 

(he dear), ejea, fafanuka, fafanu- 
kia. 

ground in a forest, fieka mwitu. 
Cleave, (split), pasua, chenga. 

deave to, gandama, ambatana. 
(Jlick, alika, (act.) alisha. 
Climb, panda, kwea. 

a tree, para|;a. 
Cling, ambata. 

together, guiana, ambatana, fu- 
ngamana, shikamana. 
Clip, kata. 
Close the eyes, Ac, fumba. 

the fist, iTHsihdAA. 

a door, shindika. 

a hook, funika. 
Clothe, vika. 
Coagulate, gandamana. 
Coax into, shawishi. 
Cock (a gun), panza mtambo. 
(hddle, engaenga. 
Cohabit with, ingiliza. 
Ck)ld. See Cool. 

be very cold, zizima. 



I have a cold in His head, siwezi 

kamaai. 
CoUect, kusanya, jamaa, (netU.) ku- 

8anyika,4bitana. 
Comb, chana, chauia. 
Come, ja, imp. njoo, pi. njooni. 
hy,for, to, d;c.,jia. 
to a person on a business, jilia. 
(arrive), fika, wasili. 
out, toka. 
in, ingia. 

upon (meet toith), kata. 
near, karibu, karibia, jongea, &• 

kilia. 
Come near ! or CJome in I Earib I 
Come no further I Eoma usije ! 
close to, wasili, wasilia. 
together. See AssembU. 
to life again, fofuka, hui, huika. 
to an end, isha, koma, tekeza. 
be fully come (of time), wadia. 
come to light, fiinuka, fombnka. 
come to nothing (of plants, fruity 

Ac), fifia, pooza. 
coTne apart, katika. 
come out in a rash, tutuka, tuta- 

mka, tntusika. 
Comfort, fariji, tulizia roho (calm 

the soul), ondolea hnzuni (take 

away grief). 
Phrases used by way of comfort' 

ing."— 

Shukura Mnungu, thank Ood, 

Hemdi Mnungu, praise Qod, 

Itoe huzuni, pui away sorrow, 

Ualwe na huzuni, donH grieve, 
be comforted, farajika, shukura 

Mnungu, pendezewa, tawakaii 

(trust in Qod and take courage), 
be Cmnfortable, tengenea. 
I cannot be comfortable in the 

house, nyumba hainiwekL 



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8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Command^ a'mnz, ambia (tdl), 
Cknnmission, agiza. [amrisha. 

Co^Vfiit, See Adultery. 
Compare^ angalia kwamba ni sawa, 
pambanisha (bring together), 
pambanua (dutmguuh), linga- 
nisha (match), fa&nisha (make 
Uke), 
Compel, JQbuni, lazimisha. 
Complete, timiza, timiliza, khati- 
misha, maliza (finish), 
complete one*$ education, hitimu« 
be complete, timia, tinnilift.^ isha 
(end). 
Comprehend. See Understand. 
jua (know). 
kutana (take in), 
be comprehended tn/ingia. 
Conceal, setiri, ficha. 

be concealed, Btirika. 
Concern, pajsa. 
Conciliate, patanisha. 
Condemn, laani (damn). 
Amefetiwa kuuawa, lie was ad- 
judged to be killed. 
Imempasa kuuawa, he ought to be 
MUed. 
Condescend, noiyekea. 
Condole, hana (Join in a formal 

mourning). 
Conduct, peleka, leta, ohukua. 
Confess, kiri, ungama, lalama. 
b^ Confident, tumaini. 

have confidence, staamani. 
Confide in, amini, tumania. 
Confound, chang^nya (mix), batili 
(annvX). 
be in Confusion, fathaika (of 
persons), ohafuka (of things). 
Confuse, cbanganisha. 
put into confusion, fathehi. 
become confused, fathaika! 



Con^^ gandamana. 
Congratulate, furahisha, shangilia. 
Connect, fungamana (tie together)^ 

nngana, ungamana. 
Conquer, ahinda. 
Consecrate, fanya wakf. 
Consent, kubali, rithia, penda, ra- 

thiana. 
Consider, fikiri, tafakari, waza. 
Console (see Comfort), tuliza, tulizia 

roho. 
Conspire, wafikana.- 
Construct, jenga, jenzi. 
Consult, taka shauri, (ask advice), 

fanya shauri (consult together). 
Consume, la, teketeza (by fire), 
be consumed, isha, lika, teketea 

(byfire),- 
Contain, ohukua (contain as a bag 

does rice), 
be contained tn,ingia* [kn-]wamo, 

'mna (it is contained in it). 
Contend with, 8hiQdaiiana,hu8uma. 
Content, rithika. 

be content, [kii-]wa rathi, Mnayi. 
Continue, dumu, kaa,' shiuda (stay 

at work, &c.). 
make to continue, dumiaha. 
Contract, punguza (fessm), fupiza. 

(shorten), fanya ndogo (make 

small), kaza (press togethw). 
Contract, fanya aharti (m^ike a con- 

traxst), fan) a ubazazi (make a 



Contradict, kanya waaa. 
Control, af^abitisha, zuia. 
Converse, zumgumza. 
Convert, geuza, fanya. 
Mwenyiezi Muungu amemwo- 

ngoa, God has tumSd him from 

his evU toay. 
to be converted, ongoka. 



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LIST OF VERBS. 



173 



Convinoe, ^ubatisfaa, ttunainisha. 

become convinced, ttunaini. 
Choky pika, andaa. 

cook toith fatf kaanga. 

oook without fat, okBL, 

cook muhogo cut into tmaU pieces, 
pwaza. 

to become cooked enough, iva. 
Cool, (neut,) poa, poroa, {act,) poza 
(to coot by powring backward 
and forward), zimua (cool hot 
water by pouring in cold), 
Ooputate, jami, tomba (vulgar), 

for the first time, bariki. 
Copy, nakiU, fanya nakl. 

copy from, twaa ya. 
Correct, saMlii, sahihisha, rndi 
Correspond (write to one another), 

andikiana. 
Corrupt, haribu. 

go bad, oza, haribika. 
Cost, wakifu, simama. 

cost to, wakifia, simamia. 
Cough, kohoa. 

Count, hesabu, wanga (Mer.), ba- 
Cover, fanika, setirL [zibu. 

cu mth a flood, fvadnksL, 

cover, with leaves, put into em^bers, 
&c^, vumbika. 

be covered, stirika. 
Covet, tamani. 
Crack, tia ufa. 

as the earth does in dry weather, 
atuka. 

become cracked, ufa. 
Crash, fanya kishindo. 
Crawl, tambaa. 
be Crazy, ZTilu. 
Crease f kunjia. 

be creasedt kunjika. 
Create, umba, 

be created, huluMwa. 



Creep, tambaa. 

Crinkle up^finyaDa. 

be Crooked, potoka, komboka. 

Cross (lie across), pandana. 

(cross a river), yuka, kwenda 
ng*ambo ya pili. 

(cross a room), k^wenda uj^ande 
wa pili. 

get cross, vana. 

be cross at having anything fo do, 
kimwa. 
Crow, wika. 

Crucifyj sulibi, sulibisha. 
Cruite, Tinjari. 

Crumble, (act.) fikicha, (neut,) fu- 
Crush, seta, ponda. [jika. 

crush and bruise one another, 
pondekana. 

crush up, setaseta. 

crush in, (act.) bonye«ha» (neut,) 
bonyeka. . 
Cry, lia: 

cry about, lilia. 

cry out at, pigia, ukelele, karipia. 

cry for help, piga yowe. 

cry for mercy, lalama. 
Cultivate, lima. 
Cup, mnika. 
Curdle, gandamana. 

curdled miUc, maziwa mabivn. 
Cure, ponya, poza, ponyesha. 

make better, fanya ashekali. 

be cured, poa, pona. 

cure fish, Ac, ng'onda. 
Curse, laani, tukana. 
Cut, kata. 

cut obliquely, kata hanamu. 

cut for, cut out for, katia. 

cut up, obanja, ohenga. 

cut to shreds, paBukapasuka. 

be cut off from one another, ti- 
ndikiana. 



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8WAEILI HANDBOOK, 



Dab, cliachaga. 
Damage, haribu. 
Damn, laani, l aa ai sha. 
Dance, cheza. 

dance for joy, randa. 
Dare, thnhnta, weza, jasirLiha. 
Darken, tia giza. 
Darn, tililia. 
Dash, cbupia. 
Daub, paka. 
Daton. 

kiina kweupe, to he grey dawn, 

pambazuka or pambauka, become 
light. 
Dazzle, choma. 

(he eyes are dazzled, macho yame- 
fanya kiwi. 
Deal in (trade in), ftEbnya biashara 
ya, &a 

Deal cards, gawa karata. 
Decay, haribika, oza. 
Decease, fariki. 
Deceive, danganya, padaa. 

deceive .hy promises, ongofya. 
' he deceived, hadaika. 
Decide, kata maneno. 
Deck out, hamba. 
Declare, thihirisba, yuza. 
Decoy, patia or twalia kwa che- 

revu. 
Decrease, pungua, poDguza, pu- 

Dgnka. 
Dedicate, fanya or wekea wakf. 
Defeat, Ytmja,. kimbiza (put to 

• fligM). 

to he defeated, vanjika, kimbia. 
Defend, lind& 

guard oneself, kinga. 
Deflower, hUdii, yunja ungo. 
Defraud, thalimu. 
Deign, kubali, nenyekea. 



Delay, (neut.) kawia, kawa, fawitL 

(act,) weka, kawisha. 
he Delirious, papajruka. 
Deliver, okoa, yoa, tea. 

he delivered, vuka, okoka. 
Demand, taka. 

demand in marriage, poea. 
Demolish, yunja, haribu.. 
Deny, kana, kanisha. 

deny to a person, n3rima, hini 

(refuse), kataa. 

deny dU credence to, katalia. 
Depart, ondoka, toka, enda zanga, 
zako, &o. 

Depart from me! Ondoka mbele 
yangul 

depoH from (be alienated from), 
farakana. 
Depend upon, [kii-]wa na. 

Eunaye, depending upon him, 

fungamana na, be connected with. 

foata, he a dependant 

tnngikwa, hang from. 
Depose, uzulu, uzulia. 
Depreciate (acL), khasliifti, umbua. 
Deprive of, twalia. 
Deride, oheka, chekea, knfaru, 

fanyizia mzaha. 
Descend; shuka. 

Describe, andika,fafana1ia(&^7i/c«n- 
ing), pambanulia (hy distin- 
Desert, acha, hujuru. [guishing. 
Deserve, stahili. 

deserve weU of, fathili 
Desire, taka, ipa, tamani (long for), 

penda (like). 
Desolate, ynnja, haribu. 
Despair, kata tamaa. ~ 
Despise, tweza, tharau (pass, tha- 

rauliwa), hakirisha. / ^ 

Destroy, haribu, yunja. 

he destroyed, haribika, yunjika. 



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LIST OF VERBS. 



175 



Detain^ kawisha, weka: 

Deter^ kataza, zuia. 

Determine^ yakinia, dzimu, Juiza. 

determine a matter, kata maneno. 
Devise^ fanya shauri. 
Die, fa, fakiri, oudoka katika uli- 
mwengc, toweka (A.)> tekeza. 
make to die, fisha. * 
lose hy death, fiwa na. 
Dig, chimba. 
dig out or away, chimbua. 
fukna, cut a small hole fit to 
receive a post. 
Dignify t tukuza. 
become dignified, or he raised to 
dignity, tukuka. 
Dilute, tia maji. 
Dim, tia giza. 

Diminish, (neut) pnngua, punguka, 

tilifika, (act), punguza, tilifi- 

Dip, chovya. * [aha. 

dip and leave in, ohoveka. 
Direct, agiza (commission), ambia 
(tdl), amuru (order), fundiaha 
(instrttct), yuaha (put into the 
right way). 
Disagree, gombana, tetana. 
Disappear, toweka. 

(as a scar, Ac), fifia. 
Disarrange, chaf aa. 
Discharge from an obligation, feleti. 
Discover, vumbua. 
Discriminate^ pambanua. 
Disembowel, tumbua, tiimbaza, 
Disg/rojce, aibiaha, hizika. 

be disgraced, aibika. 
Disgust, chukiza. 

be disgusted, chukiwa. 
Dish up, pakua. 

When you toisha meed to be served 
you should say, not pakaa, but 
lete chakala. 



Dislocate, teuka. 
Disquiet, fathaiaha. 

be disquieted, fathaika. 
Dismiss, likiza, ondoa. 
be dismissed, tolewa. 
Disobey, aai. 

Disorder (put things in disorder), 
chafua. 
put an army in disorder, fathaiaha. 
be in disorder or dishabille, cha- 

fuka. 
beaUin disorder, chafukaohafiika. 
Dissipate, tampanyatapanya. 
Distinguish, pambeuiua. 
Distort, popotoa. 

Distress (put in low spirits), kefya- 
kefya. 
be in distress, thii. 
Distribute, gawanya. 
Disturb, 

DonH disturb yourself I Starehe ! 
Disunite, farakiaha. 
be disunited, epukana, farakflina, 
aohana. 
Dive, zama. 
Divide, tenga, gawa, gawsuiya, kata, 

huaau. 
Divorce, aoha, tokana, tangua ndoa. 
Do, fanya, tenda. 
I have don^ nothing, aikufanya 

neno. 
He has done nothing at all, haku- 

fanya lo lote. 
be done or doable, tendeka. 
do (be of use), faa. 

It won't do, haifai. 
do anything slowly and carefully, 

kototeza. 
do wanUm violence, huaadu, fanya 

jeuri. 
be done (finished), iaha. 
be done (cooked), iva. 



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SWAHILl HANDBOOK. 



Dote, piswa. 
Double, radufya. 

Doubt, fanya tashwishi. [kii-Twa na 
shaka. 

There is no doiibtj hapana sbaka. 
Doze, sinzia. 

wake up suddenly from a doze, 
zinduka, zindukana* 
Drag, kokota, bumra (haul along). 

drag <mt o/ one^s fcoMwJ, ohopoa, 
kopoa. 
Drain out, chnrukiza, churazika. 
Drauj,yatBk. 

Draw water, teka maji. 

Draw together, kunyata. 

Draw near, karibu, kwibia, kari- 
biana. 

Draw a line, piga mstan. 

Draw out nails, &o,, kangoa. 

Draw breath, tanafasd. 

Draw in the breath, paaza pnmzL 

Draw up the earth round growing 
ofojM, iMklilia. 

Draw the end of the loin cloth 
between the legs and tuek it in, 
pigauwinda. 
Dread, ogopa, ogopa mno. 
Dream, oiA, 
Dress, Niksk. 

Dress in, vaa, jitia. 

Dress up, pamba, jipotoa. 

Dress ship, pamba merikebu. 

Dress vegetables for the market, 
ohambna. 
Drift, chukuliwa. 

Drink, nwa» or nywa; pass, nwewa. 
Drip, tona. 
Drive, ongoza (lead, conduct), chu- 

nga (as a shepherd), fakuza 

(drive away), fukuzia (drive away 

from), kimbizia (make to run 

away from). 



Drop (dovrnf, (neut.) anguka, (oirf.) 
angusha. 
into, (iieut.) tumbukia, (act.) tum- 

bukiza. 
(like leaves in autumn), pnkutika. 
(faU in drops), tona. 
drop from, little by little, dondoka. 
Drown (act.) tosa, (neut.) tota, fa 

maji. 
be Drunken, lewa. 

Dry, (neui.) kauka, nyauka, (aet.) 
kausba. 
become dry by water leaving it, 

pwa, pwea, pwewa. 
be left high and dry, pweleka. 
put out to dry, anika. 
dry or cure fish, ng'onda. 
Dupe, danganya. 
Dust, fiita vtimbi. 
Dwell, kaa, kaa ^tako, keti (M.). 
Dwindle, kunjaDa, punguka, anga- 

mia (go doum in the toorld). 
Dye, tia raagi. 
kutona hina, to lay on henna so 
as to dye the part reil. 

E. 

Earn, pata. 

Ease, fariji, sterehisha. 
become easy, faiujika. 
Ease oneself, kunya. 
Eat,lBL. 
in, with, for, &c., lia; 
be eaten or eatable, lika. 
have eaten enough, shiba. 
eat at the expense of each one in 

turn, la kikoa. 
eat where each contributes some^ 
thing to the feast, la kwa ku- 
obanga. 
eat all the food away from others, 
ima. 



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LIST OF VERBS. 



177 



Ametuiina, he hat eaten U aU up 

before we came, 
overeat oneself y vimbiwa. 
make a person eat too mttehf 

vimbisha. 
eat without hounds, papia. 
eat oper voraciously, la kwa pupa. 
Mibj pwa. 
be Eclipsed, patwa. 
Educate, fuiida, fundisha, alimisha, 
adibu, or tia adabu (tea^ih good 
manners), lea (bring up). 
Elongate, oDgeza urefu. 
Embalm, tia madawa asioze. 
Embark, panda (go on board), ta- 
j^ hassa (go on board with the 

intention of sailing). 
Embrace, pambaja, kumbatia, ku- 

mbatiaDa. 
Embroil, tia matata. 
Emerge, znka. 

Employ, tuma (send about), tmnia 
(make use ofy, tumika (be 
empioyed). 
Empty out, mwaga, mwaya. 
Enable^ wezesba, jalia. 
Encamp, tua (pui down loads). 
Encourage, tia moyo, ^ubutisha. 
End, (T^eut.) isha, koma, (a^st.) mali- 

za, komesba, khatimisha. 
Endow wi(h, wekea wakf. 
Endure, ishi (Jast), Yumilia (bear 

voith), stahimili. 
Enervaie, thoofisha. 
Engage, afikana, twaa, fanya sbarti. 
Engender, zaa, vyaa. 
Enjoy, f urahi, ona raha, farahiwa na. 
Enlarge, ongeza, zidisha. 
Enlist (ocf .)) tia aaikari. 
be Enough, tosha, tosbelea. 
It is enough, bassi 
have had enough food, sbiba. 



Enquire, uliza (ask), huji (enqut 

into), hakiki (make sure about), 

ulizia (enquire on account of) 
Enrage, ghatbabisba. 

be enraged, gbatbabika. 
Enrich, pa utajiri. 
Enslave, tia utumwanL 
Ensnare, tega. 
Entangle, tia matata. 
Enter, ingia. 
Entice, vuta kwa oherevu, twaa kwa 

werevu. 
Entreat, omba, sihi, nasihi. 
Entrust, wekea amana, amini mtu 

na kitu. 
be equal to (an undertaking, Ac), 

weza. 
Equalize, sawanisba, sawazisba, 

faiiya sawasawa, linganidba (by 

measurement). 
Erect, simikisha. 
Err, kosa, kwenda bapa na bapa 

(wander). 
Escape, okoka (be delivered), pona 

(to get well), vuka (to get across), 

kimbia (run away), fiatuka (to 

escape as a spring, to get free). 
Establish, tengezeka (?). 
Estimate, kadiri, kisi. 
Evaporate, nwewa. 
Exalt, inua (lift), tnknza, atbimisba. 
be exalted (great), tukuka, atbi- 

mika. 
Examine, onja (taste), tafiti, fatiiabi, 

sayili (by questions). 
Exceed, pita. 
Excel, pita. 
Except, toa, tosba. 
Exchange, badili. 
Excite, tabarrakisba, fitini. 

be excited, bangaika. 
Excuse, uthuru, samebe (pardon). 
N 



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8WAEILI HANDBOOK, 



Exercise^ zoea. 

exercise authority over, hukumtL 
Exert onetdf, fanya juhudi, jitahidi 
Exhort, onya, nabihisha. 
Exorcise by music, <fec., punga. 
Expand, tanua, kunjua (unfold), 

zidi (increase^, ftmuka or 

kunduka (become open). 
Expect, ngoja, ngojea, tmnaini 
Expel, toa, fukuza. 
expel an evU spirit by music, &c, 

punga pepo. 
Expend upon, be ai the expense of, 

gharimia. 
Explain, eleza, pambanua, fasiri, 

tafisiri, fombulia, pambannlia 

(explain to), tambulisha (maJce 

to recognise), 
Exphde, pasuka (burst), waka 

(blaze). 
Explore, fatiishi, jasisi, angalia. 
Export, toa. 
Express, thahiri, bainL 

(press out), kamua. 
Extend, (act.) nyosha, (neut.) iika 

(reach to), kunjuka, en^ (be 

spread over). 
Exterminate, ng*oa pia yote (root up 

• utterly). 
Extinguish, zima, zimia. 

to go out, zimika. 
Extort, pokonya. 
Exiol, sifu. 
Extricate from, toa na, namua 

(Mer.). 
ExuU, furahi. 



Fade, fa. kauka, fifia (pine away), 
pukutika (wither and drop), 
thoofika (grow weak and thin). 

Fail, puaguka. 



Faint, zimia roho. 
FaU, anguka. 

faU like rain, nya. 

cause rain to fall, nyesha. 

faU into, tombukia. 

letfaU into, tumbnkiza. 

faUflat on the ground, lala inohi. 

faU in (cave in), pomoka. 

fcM short, punguka, tindika (A.)- 

faUsick, ugua, 
FaUer, shanghaa, sita. 
Fan, pepea. 
Fancy, kombuka, fikiri. 

fancy oneself, jiona. 
Fast, f onga. 

break a fast, or eat after a fast, 
futum. 
Fasten, funga. 
Fatten (get fat), nona (of animals), 

nenepa (of men). 
Fatigue, chosha, taabisha. 

be fatigued, ohoka, taabika. 
Favour, pendelea. 

Fear, ogopa, cha (A.), [ku-Jwa na 
khofo. 

be fearless, peketeka. 
Feast, kerimu. 
Feed, lisha. 

cause to be fed, lishisha; 

put moTsds into a friend's mouth, 
rai. 
Feel, ona (perceive), papasa (touch). 
Feign, jifanya. 
JPeZZ,kata. 
Fence, fanya na. 
Fend off a boat, tanna mashua. 
Ferment, cbacha. 

Ferry over, vusha, vukisha, abirisha. 
Fetch, leta. 
Fight, pigana. 

set on to fight, piganisha, pigani- 
shana. 



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LIST OF VERBS. 



179 



JFVM,jaza. 
fiU in \a hole], fakia. 
become fuU, jaa. Tlte pctseive is 
used for being filled with some 
extraneous substance, Mtungi 
iunej£^ maji, the jwr is fvU of 
water, but, maji yamejawa na 
dudu, the water is fvXl of 
insects, 
be half fvU (by remaining), shi- 
nda, maji yashinda ya mtungi, 
the jar is half full of water, 
fiU up, jaliza. 
fiU ujith food, shibisha. 
to be full, to have had enough, 
shiba. 
Find, ona, zombua, vumbua, pata, 
kuta. 
be to be found, zumbukana, pati- 

kana. 
find out in a tridk, fathehi, 

gundua. 
be found otU, fetheheka. 
find fault with, tia hatiyani. 
Finish, (act.) maliza, (neut,) isha, 
koma. 
finish off, tengeneza, tengeleza. 
finish ajou'mey, koma. 
finish a scholar, hitimisha. 
Fire (set on fire), tia moto, wasba 
moto. 
(apply fire to in any way), oboma. 
a gun, &c., piga bunduki, &c. 
Fish, Tua Bamaki. 

fish a spar, &c,, ganga, tia gango. 
nit, faa (do well), 
Ni kiassi cbangn kama nalika- 
tiwa mimi, it fits as though it 
had been made for me, ■ 
Fix, kaza. 

fix the eyes upon, kodolea. 
Flame, waka, toa ndimi za moto. 



Flap, piga. 

make a sail flap by going too near 
the wind, pigiza tanga. 
Flash (lighten), piga mneme. 
Flatten, tandaza. 
Flatter, sifu, sifu mno, jipendekeza 

(ingratiate oneself with). 
Flavour, to get the right flavour 
Flay, chima, tuna (M.). [kolea> 

lose the skin, cbunika, timika (M.). 
Flee, kimbia. 

be Flexible, pindana, [kil-]wa laini. 
Flicker, sinzia. 
Flinch, jikunja, ruka. 
Fling, tupa. 
Float, elea, ogolea. 
Flog, piga. 

Flood, gbariki8ha,f urika,ta wanyika, 
fmiikiza. 

be flooded, gbariki. 
Flourish, sitawi, fana, fanikiwa. 

make to flourish, sitawisha. 
Flow, pita (flow by), toka (flow 
out), bubujika (to burst and 
bubble out). 
Flower, toa maua. 
Flurry, znlisba. 
Flutter, papatika. 
Fly, ruka. 

fiy off, puruka. 
Fold, kunja. 

fold together, kunjana. 

fold in the arms, kumbatia. 
Follow, fuata, andama (M.). 

follow a pattern, oleza. 
become Foolish, pumbazika. 
Forbid, gombeza, kataza. 
Farce (see Compel), tia nguvu. la- 
zimisha. 

He was forced to ao, alikwenda 
kwa nguvu. 

Force open, pepetua. 

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8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Foretell, agua, tabiri, bashiri. 

Mow hoB (hi8 year heen predicted 
off Mwaka bun umeac^- 
"waje? 
For/eitj lazimisbwa. 

he forfeited by, potea. 
Forge iron, Ac, foa cbuina» &o, 

weid on a new point or edge^ tam- 
bnza. 
Forget, sabatL 

he forgotten, sabauliwa. 
Forgive, samebe, acbilia, mwafa. 

Forgive me, niwie ratbi. 
Fortahe, acba. 

Fortify, tia boma (put a rampart). 
Foster, lea, llsba. 

Free (from slavery), weka or acba 
burn. 

(from prison), aoba, fongoa. 

he set free (from prison), tokana. 
Freeze, ganda, gandamana. 
Freight. 

pay freight for, takabaibisba. 

carry on freight, iakeheAhi. 
Frighten, ogofya, tia kbofu, ogo- 
fisba, kbofisba, tisba. 

heeome frightened, iogiwa na 
kbofu. 

starUe, stnsba, kntusba. , 
Froni, kabili, lekea. 

put in front of, lekeza. 
Frown, kunja ubo, kuDJa vipaji. 

He has a frowning face, nso una- 
kuDJamana. 
Frustrate, batili, yiinja. 
Fry, kaanga. 
Fulfil, timiza, timiliza. 

fulfil a promise, fikiliza abadi. 
Furl sails, ktinja matanga. 
Furnish a house, pamba nyumba. 



G. 
Gain, pata^ pata fayida, 
QaUop, piga mbio. 
Qape, piga nyi^o, fonua kinwa. 
Oarlis copal, Ac, obagua Banda^ 

msi, &0. 
Gather (fruit), dmma. 
irUo a heap, zoa. 
together (act.), knsanya, kuiani- 

sbOy jamaa^ jamilBba. 
together (neut,), kusanyika, kuta- 

xdka. 
«p into a smaU space, finyana. 
oneself up for an e^orl, jitatumiia. 
litOe hy liUle, lumbika. 
up on^s courage, piga moyo 
konde. 
Oeild,hasL 
he Genial (good-hmmowred a$id 

merry), cbanga'mka. 
(}et, pata. 
get hetter^ pona. 
get a litOe hetter, [kfi-]wa ashe- 

kalL 
get drufik, lewa^ jileyya. 
get dry, kauka. 
get fire by working one stick 

against another, pekecba. 
get for, 'paiiBk. 

get foul of one another, pambana. 
get goods on credit in order to 

trade with them, kopa. 
get into, iiigia. 
get into a weU, a scrape, Ac,, (act.) 

tnmbukiza, (neut.) tumbukia. 
get into a passion (neut), ingiwa 

na gbatbabu or basira. 
get into a quarrel (act.), vumbilia 

vita. 
get Iseeds"] into the ground, vu- 

mbikia. 
get mouldy, fanya ukungo. 



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LIST OF VERBa. 



181 



geA out, toka. 

get out of the way, jitenga. 
Out of the way J Simillal 

get out of one* 8 sight, tokomea. 

get pcUm wine, gema. 

get ripe, iva. 

get thin and watery, poroa. 

get through, (neut.) penya, (aet) 
penyesha. 

get up, ondoka. 

rise to (a person), ondokea. 

get up or upon, panda. 

get well, pona, poa. 
he Giddy, levyalevya. 
CHld, chovya. 
€Hve (a thing), toa. 

(to a person), pa, pas». pewa, to 
receive, 

give a complaint to, ambukiza. 

give a taste, an inkling, or a litUe 
specimen, dokeza. 

give back, rudisha. 

give into the hand, kabithL 

give leave to, pa ruksa or ruhusa, 
nikhusu. 

give light to, tia mwangaza. 

give mutual gifts, pana. 

give presents to, tunza, tunukia. 

give rations to, posha. 

give room or space, nafisisha. 

give to drink to, nywesha. 

give to eat to, lisha. 

give trouble, taabisha, fanya inda, 
snmbua. 

give way under one, bonyea. 

Crive way (row) ! Vuta I 
Glance, natbiri, tupa maoho or na- 
tbari (cast the eyes or a glance). 
Glare at, ng'ariza. 
Gleam, mulika, Dg'ara. 
Glide, tiririka, teleza. 
Glisten, zagaa. 



Glitter, metameta, mekameka, me- 

rimeta, mulika. 
Glorify, tukuza, sifu. 
Glow, ng'ara. 
Gnaw, guguna. 
Go, enda, enenda. 
you can go, ruksa. 
go after or for, endea. 

(follow), fuata. 
go alongside, pambana. 
go ashore (6f a ship), panda. 
he left high and dry, pweleka^ 
pwewa na maji. 
go ashore (of a person), shuka. 
go away, enda zangu, zako, zake, 
zetu, zenu, zao, according to 
the person. 
toka ondoka. 
go away from, acha, toka. 
go hack, rudi, regea. 
go backward, endelea nyuma. ' 
go had, oza. 
go before, tangulia. 
go before a judge, enda kwa 

kathi. 
go behind, fuata. 
go by, pita. 

go crooked, patoa, potoka. 
go forward, endelea mbele. 
go free, toka. 
go into, ingia. 
go marketing, enda sokoni. 
go off (like a spring), fiatuka. 
go on (not to stop), fulfza, fuza, 

fululiza. 
go on (vnth a work), sbinda. 
go on hoard, panda. 
go on board in order to sail, ta- 

hasa. 
go on with by turns, pokezana. 
go out, toka. 
(like a candle), zimika. 



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SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



He has gone out for the day, 
amekwenda shinda. 
go over, yuka. 
go pasty pita. 
go quicidy down a steep place, 

tele'mka. 
go running, enda mbio. 
go to expense about or upon, gha- 

rimia. 
go to meet, laki. 
go to meet toith shouting and joy, 

ahangilia. 
go to law with, teta. 
go up (neut.), paa. 
(act.) kwea, panda. 
be Good of its hind, fana. 
Oorcy piga pembe. 
Govern, tawala, miliki. 
Grant to, pa, jalia, ruzuku. 
Grapple, kamatana, shikana. 
Grasp, shika, fumbata. 
Grate, paruga, paruza. 
Graze, paruga, kwaruza. 

graze one another, panizana. 

become Great (of a person), tukuka. 

become great to or ha/rd for, kulia. 

be Greedy, [kil-]wa na roho or 

choyo, fanya tamaa (be greedy 

for). 

Greet, salimu, salimia, amkna, ba- 

rikia. 
Grieve, (a>ct.) slMtisha, iia huzuni. 

(neut) sikitika, iugiwa na huzuni. 
Grin, toa meno. 
Grind, saga. 

grind coarsely, paaza. 
Groan, ugua. 

groan at, zomea. 
Grope, papasa. 

Grow, ota (of plants), kua (to become 
large), mea (of plants, to grow 
or be growdble). 



What is to be grown here ? Kili- 
mo oha nini ? 

grow to its full size, pea. 

become fvU-grown, pevuka, komaa. 

grow up quickly, Yummka. 

not to grow (of seeds), fifia. 

grow large enough to bear fruit, 
auka. 

grow fat, nenepa (of persons), 
nona (of animals). 

grow thin and lean, konda. 

grow larger, kua, kithiri. 

grow less, pungna, tilifika. 

make to grow large, kuza. 
Growl, nguruma. 
Grudge, hini. 

grudge at, husudu. 
Grumble, nung'unika. 
Grunt, guna. 
GuQ/rantee payment of a debt, ha- 

a result, tadariki. [wili. 

Cruard, Irada, tunza, hami, ngojea. 

guard oneself against a blow, 
kinga. 
Guess, bahatisha, kisi, thani. 
Guide, onyesha njia (show the way), 

peleka (take). 
Gulp, gugumiza. 

gulp down, ak*ia. 

H. 

Hailt, tua (put down burdens), bi- 
mama (stamd), sita (go lame, or 
to stop), chechemea (to put one 
foot only flat on the ground). 

Hammer, gongomea (hammer in), 
fua pass, fuawa (beat as with a 
sledge-hammer). 

Hang, angika (as against a waU), 
tungika Qjie suspended), tu- 
ndika, aliki. 
(strangle), nyonga, 8onga« 



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LIST OF VEBB8. 



183 



Happen^ takia. 

Which happeried to him, kilicho- 
mpata. 
Harass, sumbua, uthi, uthia, clio- 
koza, sumbusha. 
he harassed, siimbuka, nthika. 
Harm, tburu, hasara. 

No harm ! Haithuru ! 
Harpoon, paga. 
Hasten, {act) harakisha, himiza. 

(neut.) fanya hima, haraka. 
Hatch, ongua, zaliwa, onguliwa (6e 
hatched), angua Qyreak the 
shell). 
Hate, ohukia, buothu, zira (M.). 
Have, [ktC-]wa na (see p. 154). 
(possess), miliki. 
on hoard, pakia. 
power over, weza. 
in one*s debt, wia. 
To have things done for one, is 
expressed by the passive of the 
applied form (see p. 161). 
Hawh about, tembeza. 
Heal, poza. 

he healed, poa, pona, ongoka. 
Heap up, kusanya, fanya fungu. 
Hear, sikia, pulika (A.). 
hear one another, sikllizana, pu- 

likana. 
he to he heard, sikilikana. 
Hearken, sikiliza, pulika. 
Heat (get hot), pata moto. See 

Warm, 
Heave the log, tia batli. 
he Seavy, See Weigh down. 
Help, sayidia, axmi. 
Hem, kunga. 

Hesitate, shangaa, sita, ingiwa na 
shaka (get into doubt), 
in speaking, babaika. 
Hide, ficba, settiri, sita (A.). 



You have hid the cap from me, 

nmenificha kofia. 
You have hid. my cap, umenifi- 
chia kofia. 
Hinder, zula, pinga, fawiti. 
Hint, dbkeza. 

Hire, ajiri, panga (to rent). 
Hit, piga, pata. 

iffith a spear or arrow, fuma. 
Hoard, weka, weka akiba. 
he Hoarse, pwelewa sauti. 

I am hoarse, sauti imenipwea. 
Hoe, lima. 
hoe up, palia. 

cause to he hoed, palililiza. 
Hoist, tweka. 

Hold, sbika, kamata, fumbata 
(grasp), zuia (hold in), zuilia 
(hold off from), 
hold in the m^uth, vuata. 
?u>ld one*s clothes or hands he- 

tijoeen on^s knees, fiata. 
hM a public audience, or council, 

barizi. 
hold up (not to rain), anuka. » 

hold in contempt. See Scorn. 
HoUow out, fukua. 
Honour, heshimu, pa heshima, 

jali. 
Hop, rukaruka. 

Hope, taraja, tumaini (feel con- 
fident). 
I hope, roho yatumai. 
Humble, thili, hakiri. 

he humble, nenyekea. 
Hunger, [ktf^]wa na njaa. 
he ravenously hungry, rapa, lapa. 
I am very hungry, njaa inaniu- 
ma. 
Hunt, winda, winga, saka. 
Hurry, haraka, bimiza. 
Hurtf uma, umia, umiza. 



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184 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Hutk (Itwiton corn), menya, ambua 
(M.). 
(cocoornuts), fua. 
{or afeeZZ), papatua. 



helUor unwell. Illness is expressed 
by ths use of the negative present 
of the verb kuweza, to be able. 
Siwezi, I am ill. Hawezi, he is 
illy &c. Nalikuwa siwezi, I 
was m. Alikuwa hawezi, he 
wa^ illy &c. 
I have been ill for two monthst 
Biwezi yapata miezi miwilL 

Imitate, oleza,'iga, fuata. 

Immerse, zamisha, chofya. 

Implore, pembeleza. 

he Impossible, toa kufanyika. 
It is impossible, haiyamkini. 

Imprecate against, apiza. 

Imprison, tia gerezani, fimga. 

Improve, tengeleza, silihi, sitawisha. 

Incline, {neut.) inama, {act.) ina- 
misha. 
incline to {like), penda. 

Increase, {act) ongeza, zidisha. 
{neut.) ongezeka, zidi, kithiri. 

be Indebted to, wiwa na. 

Indulge in, zoeza, jizoeza. 

Infect, ambukiza. 

Inform, arifu, hnbiri, pa habari. 
In letter-writing arifu is always 
employed, on other occasions 
kupata or kuwa na habari is 
generally used for to be in- 
formed, and ambia {tell) for to 
inform. 

Ingratiate oneself, jipendekeza. 

Inhabit, kaa, keti. 

Inherit, nlM. 



Injure, hasira, haeiri, hasirisba. 
be injured, hasirika. 

Innovate, zua. 

be Inquisitive, tafiti. 

Inspect, kagua. 

Instruct, fimdisha, funza, elemisha. 

Insult, shituma, tukana, ohokoza. 

Intend, kusndia (purpose), azimu or 
azimia, or yakinia {resolve), 
nia, or ania, or nuia {have in 
one*s mind). 

Inter, zika. 

Intercede for, ombea. 

Interpret, fasiri, tafeiri. 

Interrupt, zuia, katiza, banikiza. 
nthia (bother). 

Intoxicate, levya. 
become intoxicated, lewa. 

Intrude, fumania. 

Going into another person*s house 
for an unlawful purpose (ku- 
fisidi), or without lawftA put' 
pose (kn-fumaniana), bars by 
the law of Zanzibar any claim 
on the part of the intruder in 
respect of any assault or injury 
while there. 

Inundate, gharikisha, farika (sweU), 
tawanyika (sprecid). 

Invade, shambnlia. 

Invent, bxmi, zumbua. 

Invite, ita, alikeu 
invite to come in, karibisha. 

Irrigate, tia maji, nyweaha. 

Irritate, tia hasira, ghathabisha, 
kasirifiha, chokoza. 

Itch, — cause to itch, nyea. 
I itch, imeninyea. 

J. 

Jam, kwamisha. 
become jammed, kwsuua, sakama. 



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LIST OF VERBS. 



185 



Jar ihe teeih, like grit in food^ 

kwaza meno. 
Jerk, kutua. 
Jeit^ fanya nbislii or mzaha, thi- 

hakL 
Join, (act,) anga, (fi6uf.)iinga]iaiia. 
Judge, hukomu, hukmnia, amua. 

The original meaning of amua 

is to separate, and it is used of 

separating two persons who have 

been fighting. 
Jumble together different languages 

or dialects, goteza. 
Jump, mka. 



Keep, weka or cheleza (put away\ 
tunza (take eare of), linda 
(guard), hifathi (preserve), Bhi- 
ka (hold), faga (keep animals), 
weka or kawisba (delay), 

be kept gossiping, puzika. 

be kept tame or in a cage, fugika. 

It cannot be kept, i.e., U wHl 
either run away or die, hafu- 
giki. 

Iteep awake, (neut,) kesha, (cusL) 
kesheza. 

keep from, epnsha, zoilia. 

keep in order (a person), rudi 

be kept, or capable of being kept, 
in order, rudika. 

keep on ai, shinda. 

Keep yowr distance ! Eoma usije I 
Kick, piga teke. 

KiU, na, pass, uawa, waga (Mer,), 
^ha (to cause to die), 

kUl with, &c., ulia. 

kid for food, ohinja, tinda (M.). 
be Kind, tenda mema. 

do a kindness to, fathili 
Kindle, washa, tia moto. 



Kiss, basil. 

lift to the lips and kiss, BOgeza. 
Knead, kanda. 
Kned, piga magote. 
Knit the brows, kunja Tipaji. 
Xnocfc, gonga, gota, piga. 
at a door, or to cry Hodi! if the 
door be open, bisha. 
Know, jna. Enjna is often used in 
the sense of to know of, about^ 
how, &c, 
I know where he is, namjua aliko 

(I know of him, where he is), 
I know how to speak the language 
. of Zanzibar, naj ua kuaema kiu- 

nguja. 
I can do blacksmith* s work, najna 

kufua cbnma. 
(to recognize), tambua. 
be knowahle, julikana. 
make to know, jnlisha, juvisha. 
become known, tangaa. 
know what to do, tanababi 



lAce in the rope or matting across a 
native bedstead, tanda, wainba^ 
Lacerate, papura. 

be laceraied, papurika. 
be Lame, tegea, cbeohemea, teiea, 
kwenda chopi, tagaa (waXk with 
the legs far apart). 
Land, (neui.) shuka, (act.) sbuaba. 
La4it, isbi. 
Laugh, cbeka. 

laugh at, obekelea. 
Launch, shna/pass, sbuliwa. 
Lay, tia, weka. 

lay a wager, pioga, sbindania. 

lay by, weka akiba. 

lay down, laza. 



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lay eggs, atamia, or zaa, or nya 
mayayi 

lay hold of, shika. 

lay open, funua, weka wazi 

lay oult andika, tandika, toa. 

lay out money, gharimu, gbarimia. 

lay the beams of a roof, ikiza. 

lay the to&Ie, andika meza. 

lay upon the table, weka mezani 

lay to anyone^s charge, tuhmnu. 

lay upon some one dse, kmnbisha. 
he Lazy, [ktC-]wa mvivu. 

to he cross at having anything to 
do, kimwa. 
Lead, ongoa, ongoza, peleka, fikisha 

(make to arrive), 
. lead astray, koeesha. 

lead devotions, someaha. 
Leak, Yuja, fa*mka (to open at ihe 

seams). 
Lean upon, tegemea, eg^nea. 

lean upon a staff, jigongojea. 

hecon^e lean, konda. 

make lean or thin, kondesha. 
Leap,Tuk&, 
Learn, jifunza, pata kujua. 

learn manners, taadabu. 
Lea^e, aoha, ata (M.), toka. 

leave hy death, fia. 

leave to (bequeath), achia. 

leave go of, aeha. 

Leave off! Wachal Bass I 
Komal 

leave off fasting, fungua. 

leave till fit or ready, limbika. 

leave (cause to remain), saza. 
be left (remain), saa, salia, baki. 

ask leave, taka, niksa. 

give leave, rahusa, pa rukslw 

give leave oibout, amria. 

take leave of, aga. 
Ukke leave of one Qnoth6r, agana. 



Leaven, chaoha. • 

Lead, azima, kirithi 
Lengthen, ongeza urefu. 

make long, fiemya mrefa. 
Lessen, (act) pangoza, (newt,) pn- 

ngnka. 
Let (permit), acha, pa ruksa, kubali, 
kubalisha. 

let alone, Axihsk, 

let a house, pangisha nymnba. 

let doum, shusha, tua. 

let doum a bucket, puliza ndoa 

let free a spring, fiatna, fiatusha. 

let go an anchor, puliza. 

let loose, fangua. 

let on hire, ajiritiba. 

let water, yuja. 
Level, f&nja, sawasawa, tandaza, 



be level with, lingana na. 

make level with, linga, linga- 
nisha. 
level a gun at, lekeza bundnki. 
be Libercd to, kerimu. 
Liberate, fungua, pass, fongnliwa. 

from slavery, weka, or acha hum. 
Lick, ramba. 

Lie (teU lies), sema uwongo. 
(to he), kaa, [kii-]wako. 
lie across, kingama. 
a tree lies across the road, mti 
mnekiDgama njiani. 
lie across one another, pandana. 
lie doum, jinyosha, jilaza, lala, 

tckndawaa. 
lie heavy on, lemea. 
lie on the face, wama, fuama (Mi,), 
lie on the side, jiinika. 
lie on the back, lala kwa toni 
lie in wait for, otea. 
Lift, inua, tweka. 
lift up the voice, paliza sauti. 



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Lights washa, tia moto. 

he light, angaza. 

show a lights rnnlika. 
Lighten (lightening), piga umeme. 
JMe, penda. 

be an object of liking, tamaoika. 
Liken, fafanisha. 
Limit 

reach iU limit, pea. 
Linger, kawia, kawilia. 
Lisp, [kii-]wa na kitembe. 
Listen, sikiliza, pulikiza. 

listen secretly, dukiza. 

Live, kaa (stay or be), isbi (pontinue)^ 

[kii-]wa hayi (be alive), [ktl-] 

wako ulimwengUDi (be in this 

Load, chukuza. [world), 

a person, twika. 

a ship, pakia. 

a gun, sumiri, shindilia. 

be laden with, pakia (of a ship), 
ohukua (carry). 
Lock, fiinga. 

toith a native lock, gomea. 
Xoiter, kawilia. 
LoU, tandawaa. 
Long for, tamani. 
Look, tazama. 

look otU,orlookcareftdly,ei,nga,UA. 

Look out ! Angalia I Jipooye ! 

look (mtfor, tazamia. 

look for, tafuta. 

look after, tunza. 

look over a property, aua. 

look up to see what is going on, 
tahamaka. 
Loose, fvLugua, 

be loose, regea. 
Loosen, regeza. 
Lose (money), pata hasara. 

potea (to be lost to), [nipotea. 

Z have lost my knife, kisu Mme 



lose by having taken from one, 
twaliwa. 

lose by death, fiwa na. 

lose ow^s senses, nikwa na akili. 
Love, penda, aahiiki. 

be loved by, kora. 
Lower, shusha, tua. 
LuO, pembeza, tambuiza. 
Lurk for, otea. 
Lust after, tamani. 

M. 

Magnify, kuza, tnkuza. 

magnify oneself, jitapa. 
Make, fanya, fanyiza. 
make to do or be. See p, 162. 
make a floor or roof, sakifu. 
make a pen, chonga kalamu. 
make a sign to, ashiria. 
make a will, wasia. 
make another love one, pendeleza. 
make brilliant, ng'aza. 
make cheap, rakbisiBha. 
make clear, thihirisha, eleza, weka 

wa2i. 
make oonfidenl and hopeful, tu- 

mainitha. 
make crazy, zulisba. 
malee dear, gbalisha. 
make delirious, papayuza. 
make equal, like, Ac, sawanisha, 

sawazisba. 
make for, fanyia. 
make [clothes] for, katia [nguo]. 
make game of, tbibaki, fanyizia 

mzaba. 
make haste, fanya bima, enda 

bima. 
make ill, gonj^eza. 
make into a ring, peta. 
make lawful, balJUaba, 



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8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



make light \of a mtUtery jipnm- 
kuflha. 

make like, oleza. 

make metal things^ ftuk, folia. 

make over talkative^ pajuza. 

make poetry, andaa, andalia. 

make peace between, suluhisha. 

make plain, thahiri, el«za, thihi- 
risha, weka wazi 

make pottery, finyanga. 

m<ike raw, ohubua. 

make room for, naflsisha. 

m<ike sorry, eiMtisha. 

m(ike eure, hakiki, 

make to a^ree, pataniflha. 

make to he at peace, suluhiBha. 

make to enter, ingiza. 

make to go up, pandisha, kweza. 

make to grow lean, kondesba. 

make to hear or understand, sikiza. 

make to weep, liza, Ikana. 

make unlawful^ harimu, hara- 
misha. 

make up afire, cbochea moto. 

make up one*s mind, tanababi. 

make verses, tnnga mashain. 

make water, kojoa. 

make weak, thoofisba. 

make well, ponya, ponyesba. 

Don't make a noise I Tulia f 
Manage, amili, fanya. 
Mark, tia alama. 

Marry, oa (of the husband), olewa 
(of the wife), oana (of the 
couple), oza (of tlie parents), 

ask in marriage, posa. 
Master, gbelibu, sbinda. 

he master of, weza, tamdlaki. 
Match, lingana 

make to match, linga, linganisba. 

he a match for, weza. 
Ifeon, taka, nia, kusudia. 



Meamre, pima, twaa olieo. 

measure together, enenza. 
Mediate between, selebisba. 
Meditate, tafakari, waza. 
Meet, onana, kntana, kataiiik% ku- 
sanyika. 

meet with, kuta. 

go to meet, laki 
Mdt, (neut.) yeynka, ayika, (aet,) 

ye3ni8ba. 
Mend, fanya, fimyiza. 

(sew up), sbonea. 

(dam), tililia. 

(hind up), ganga. 
Menstruate, [kti]wa na beth. 
Mention, nena, taja. 
Mess. 

he all in a mess, cbafokacbafiika. 

make a mess of one*s work, boro- 
ngaboronga. 
Mercy Qiave or show), rebemn. 
Mildew, fanya kawa. 
MUk, kama. 

Mind, tanza (take care of), angalia 
(to^e care), knmbnka (pear in 
mind). 

Never mind, baitborn, nsitie 
shugnli. 

IdonH mind, mamoja pia. 
Mingle, cbanganya. 

he mingled, cbanganyika. 
Miscarry, bariba mimba. 
Miss, koBa. 

(to go near to without touching)^ 
ambaa. 

(not to go direct to), epea. 

to he missed (not found), koeekana. 
Mislead, poteza, koaesba. 
Mistake, koea. 
Mix, cbanganya. 

mix up by knocking and heatingy 
baraga, funda. 



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Moeky iga, thihaki, komaza, kufura. 
he Moderate^ [ku-]wa kadiri. 
Molest, Bumbua, chokoza, hasiri^ha. 
Mould (cast in a mould), ita, fianya 
kwa kalibu. 
grow mouldy^ fanya okungu. 
Moulder, fojika, furijika, huribika. 
(go into lumps like spoilt flour), 
fanya madonge. 
Mount, panda, kwea. 
Mourn (in a formal manner), kaa 
matanga. 
join in a formal mourning, 
hana. 
Move, (neut.) jongea, (act.) jongeza. 
Move into the shade, jongea 

mynlini 
(as a carpet does when a mouse is 

under it), furukuta. 
(shake), tukusa, tikisa, sukasnka. 
(change place of dwelling), liama, 

tama (M.), gura (A.). 
cause to remove, hamisha, tamiaha, 
gurisha. 
Multiply, ((Oct.) zidisha, ongeza, 

(neut,) zidi, ojigezekA, 
Murder, na, pass. uawa. 
Murmur^ nung'unika. 
Must, lazimu, sharti, hana buddi. 

See p. 155. 
Mutilate, kata. 

N. 
Name, taja, nena, ita, pa jina (give 

a name to). 
Need, taka, ibtaji, ibtajia. 
Neglect, gbafilika (not to attend to), 

achilia (^ave undone). 
I^ibhle, tafuna. 
Nod, ainzia (doze),B8hinA kwa twaka 

(as a signal). 
Notice, ona, angalia, nathiri. 



notice a defect, toa kombo. 

take no notice, taghafalL 
Nourish, lisha. 
Nurse (a child), lea, lisha. 

(a sieh person), uguza. 



Obey, Hi, fuata, sikia, tumikia. 
Olject to, kindana, shindana, rudi- 

ana. 
Oblige (compel), lazimisha, jubani, 
juzia. 
he obligatory upon, lazimu. 
I hold under an obligation to do, 
&c., juzu. 
(by kindness),t9k\Mii, tendea zema. 
Observe, angalia. 
Obstruct, kataza, pinga. 
Obtain, pata. 

Occupy (keep engaged), fawiti. 
Offend, chukiza, tia ghairi, tia 
hasira. 
be easily offended, [kil-]wa na 

chuki. 
not to be offended, ku-wa rathi. 
don*t be offended with me, niwie 

rathi, kunratbi. • 
I am not at all offended, rathi 
Sana. 
Offer to, tolea, jongeleza (fyring near 
to), 
offer for sale by auction, tembeza. 
make a first bid, rissimu. 
Omit, acha. 
Ooze, tiririka. 

ooze out, vujia, tokeza, tokea. 
Open (oAit.) fanua (uncover), fongoa 
(unfasten), panua (make wide), 
fumbua (unclose the eyes, &c.), 
sindua (set open a door), pcpe- 
tua (force open), 
(neut.) [ktC-]wa wazi (to lie clear), 



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8WAEILI HANDBOOK 



fanuka or kandaka (to open 
like a flower)^ paniika (become 
tMde), funguka {to get un- 
fastened). 
Oppose, gomba, khalifii,kataza, teta, 
shindania, ingia kati. 
he opposite, lekea, kabili, elekea, 

elekeana, kabilia. 
put opposite, lekeza, kabUisha, 
elekeza. 
Oppress, onea, lemea, thelimu. 
Order, amiiru, amrisha, ambia^ 
agiza (commission), 
arrange in order, panga, tunga. 
pat into good order, fanyiza, 
tengeneza, ganga. 
Ought See p, 155. 

ihtajia, taka, pasa. 
Overbear, by loud talking, &c., pa- 

mbanya, pambanyiza. 
Overburden, lemea. 
be Overcast, tanda [wingu]. 
Overeat oneself, vimbika, vimbiwa. 
Overfeed, vimbisha. 
Overflow, miminika, tawanyika, 

ghariki, furika. 
Oversee, siraamia, angalia. 
Overturn, pindua. 

he overturned, pinduka. 
Overtake, pata. 
Overwhelm, gharikisba. 
Owe, wiwa. 
I owe him, aniwia. 
to have in one^s debt, wia. 
Own, miliki (possess), tin (confess), 
nngama (acknowledge). 



Pack up, fiinga. 

Paddle, vuta kwa kafi or kapi. 

Pain, mna, umia. 



Paint, tia rangi. 
Pant, tweta. 
Paralyse, poozesba. 

he paralysed or paralytic, pooza. 
Pare, ambua. 

Pardon, samehe, afu, ghofira, gho- 
firia. 

Forgive ms, nipe Msa yanga. 

Ask mutual pardon and so take a 
last farewell, takana buriani. 
Parry, bekua. 
Part out, gawa, gawanya. 
Pass, pita, pisba. 

make to pass, pitisba. 

pa^s going in opposite directions, 
pishana. 

pass through, penya. 

pass over (a river), vnka. 
(a fault), acbilia. 

pass close to wifhovl touching, 
ambaa, 

he pa>ssal>le, endeka. 
Pasture, cbunga, lisha. 
Patch (thatch, &c.), chomelea. 
be Patient, vumilia, subiri. 
Paw [the ground], parapara. 
Pay^ lipa. 

pay to, lipia. 

cause to be paid, lipiza. 

pay freight for, takabatbisha. 
Peck, dona, dondoa. 
Peel, ambua, puna. 
Peep, cbungulia, tungulia (M.). 
Pelt, tupia. 
Penetrate, penya. 
Perceive, ona, sikia, fahamu. 
Perfect, kamilisba. 

he perfect, kamilika. See Com- 
plete, 
Perforate, zua, zua tunda. 
Perform a promise, fikiUza ahadi. 

ablutions, tobara. 



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LIST OF VERBS. 



191 



devotions, sali. 
a vow, ondoa nathiri. 
Perish, fa, potea, potelea, haribika. 
Perjure oneself, apa uwongo, ehu- 

hudia zuli or aziir. 
Permit, ruhusu, pa ruksa, acha. 
Perpetuate, dumisha. 
Perplex, tia matata, changanyisha. 
become perplexed, ingia matata, 
tanganyika. 
Persecute, fukuza, thulumu. * 
Persevere, dumu, dumia, dawamu. 
Perspire, taka hari. 
Persuade, shawishi, kinaisha, pa 

shaori. 
Pfc^ {as with a knife point), 
ohokora. 
(gather), chmna. 
stalks, &o., from doves, Ac, cha- 

mbua. 
pick out {select), cliagua, teua. 
pick up, okota. 
pick vp hit by bit, dondoa, lorn- 

bika. 
pick holes in one another s eha- 
raster, papuriana. 
Pickle, fanya achari. 
Pierce, zna, penyesha, penya. 
PHe up [plates, Ac."], andikanya. 
Pinch, finya. 

i>e pinched up, finyana. 
Pine atpay, fifia. 

Pity, hurumia, sikitikia, rehemu. 
Place, weka. 
an arrow on the string, a knife in 

the belt, Ac, paohika. 
There is no place for me in the 
house, nyumba hainiweki. 
Plait, suka, sokota. 
Plane, piga randa. 
Plant, panda. 
Plaeter, kandika. 



prepare a waUfor the white plasty 
by smoothing it and tapping in 
small stones, tomea. 

put on a plaster, bandika. 
Play, cheza, laabu. 

play the fool, peketeka. 

play upon an instrvment, piga 
zomari, &o. 
Please, pendeza, foiahisha. 

(tike), penda. 
as you please, upendavyo. 

Please! Tafathalil 

be pleased, pendezewa. 

make pleasing, pendekeza. 
Pledge, weka rahani 
Pludc, ohuma {gather), nyakua 
(enatcK), nyonyoa (pick off 
feathers). 

pluck up a courage, piga moyo 
Plug up, ziba. [konde. 

Plunder, teka, twaa nyara. 
Point, chonga ; fanya *nclia. 

point out, onyesha, ainisha. 
Poison, pa sumu. 
Poke, choma. 
Polish, katua. 

Ponder, fikiri, waza, tafakari. 
Possess, miliki, [kii-]wa na. 

(of an evil spirit), pagaa. 

be possessed by an evU spirit, 
pagawa na pepo. 
be Possible, [kii-]wa yamkioi, weze- 

kana, fanyika, tendeka. 
Postpone, akirisha. 
make Pottery, finyanga. 
Pound, ponda, funda. 

clean com by pounding, twanga. 
Pour, mimina. 

pour away, mwaga, mwaya. 
have Power over, weza. 
Practise, jizoeza, taala. 

practise witchcraft, fanya nohawi. 



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8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Praiie, afa, hemidi 

praise oneaelfy jisifu, jigamba. 
Prate, puza. 

Pray, omba, sali (perform the fixed 
devcliom), abndu (worship), 

pray for, taka (ask for), ombea 
(ifdercede for). 
Preach, khntubu, ayithL 
Precede, tangulia. 
he Precipitous, chongoka. 
Predict, agua, baBhiri, tabin. 
Prefer, penda, khitari, stahiba. 
he Pregnant, ohukua mimba, hamUi. 
Prepare, weka tayari. 

food, andaa, andalia. 
Present to, txinikia, pa. 

make presents to, pokufia, pa 
bashishi, tunza. 
Preserve, hifathi, afa. 

he preserved, hifiEtthika, 
Press, kaza, shibdilia, sinikiza. 

press out, kamua. 

press upon, kandamiza. 

press heavily upon, lemea. 

press with the teeth, vuata. 

make an impression (as vnth the 
fingers), bonyesha. 

press and crush food for invalids 
or children, yinyavmya. 

press against one another, like 
sheep in a flock, songanaso- 
ngana. 
Pretend to he, jifanya. 
Prevent, zuia, kataza. 
Prick, ohoma. 
Pride oneself, jisifu. 
Print, piga cbapa. 
Prize up, tekua. 
Proceed, eoenda, fuliza. 
Proclaim, tangaza, bubiri, nadi, 
Procure for, patia. [eleza. 

he procurable, patikana. 



Profess, iiDgama. 

Profit, pata fayida, fayidi, chuma. 

tuma (M.)> 
Prognosticate, basbiri. 

hy (he stars, piga falaki 
PrchtbU, kataza, gombeza. 
Project, tokeza, tuMza. 
Prolong, ongeza urefu, tuiliza, en- 

deleza. 
Promise, abidi, toa abadi. 

giive a promise to, pa ahadi. 
Pronounce, ta'mka. 
Prop up, tegemeza, ebikiza. 
he propped, tegemea. 
prop up a vessel to prevent its 
falling over when left hy the 
tide, gada. 
Propose, nena, toa shauri. 
Prosecute, Bhiaki. 
Prosper, fanikiwa, sitawi, kibali, 

jaliwa. 
Prostrate oneself, sigudo. 
hefore, to, &c., sigiidia. 
Prefect, hami, linda, hifathi, kinga 

(ward off). 
Prove, (hnhutiaha. 

he proved, thxxhuta. 
Provide, weka akiba. 
Provoke, kirihi, kirihiaha, tia baaira, 

ghathabifiha. 
Prune, ohenga, feka. 
Pry, dadiai, fatiishi. 
Puff, puliza. 
he puffed up, tuna, fura, jetea, 
jivuna. 
PuU, yniA, 
puU out, ngfoa. 
he puUed out, ng oka. 
Moyo unaning'oka, my heart has 
jumped into my throat, used of 
a person much startled. 
puU out feathers, nyonyoa. 



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pvXt out of one* 8 hand, chopoa. 
pull up \root8]y ng'oa. 
Pttmp, piga bomba. 
Funish, athibu, athibisha, tesa 
(afflict), sumbnsha (give annoy- 
ance to), patiliza (viHt upon). 
Purify, .takasa, safisha. 
by cereiMmial ablutions, tohara. 
he purified, safika, takasika. 
Purpose, kusudia, ania. 
Pursue, fuata (foOow), winda 
(chase), fnknza (drive away\ 
i&fuia. (seek for). 
Push, sukuma. 
push against, kuiuba. 
push aside, piga kikumbo, 
push off upon, kumbisha. 
Put, tia, weka. 
put across [o river\ vusha. 
put a pot on the fire, teleka. 
put an end to, komesha, ghairi* 
put away, weka. 
put down, tua. 

put forth leaves, channa. ' 

put in a line, panga. 
put in order, tonga. 
put in under anything, vumbika. 
put into, tia. 

Tia motoni, put it in the fire. 
Tia moto, set it on fire, 
put into the right way, vusha, 
put off, akirisha. 
put off upon another, sukumiza. 
put on [clothes'], vaa. 
put on his guard, tahathirisha. 
put on a turban by winding the 
cHoth round the head, piga 
kilemba* 
put out, toa. 

ptU out Ifire"], zima, zimia. 
put out of joint, shtusha, shtua. 
put ready for use, sogezea* 



put ropes to a native bedstead 
tanda wamba. 

put to (shut), shindika, 

put to flight, kimbiza. 

put to rights, tengeneza, tengeleza. 

put to straits, thjiki. 

put through, penyesha, 
Putrify, oza. 
Puzzle, tatanisba. 

be puzzled, tatana, tatazana. 

Q. 

Quake, tetemeka, tetema. 
Quarrel, gombana, nenana, nazl- 
yana. 

with, teta, gomba. 
Quarry [stone'), chimba, vnnja. 
QueU; tuliza. 
Quench, zima. 
Quicken, himiza (maJce quicker), 

be quick enough (be in time), 
diriki. 
Quiet, tuliza. 

become quiet, tulia, nyamaza, 
tolika. 
Quit, acha, toka. 
Quiver, tetema. 

B. 

Race, shindania. 
Bain, nya. 
It rain^, mvua inakunya, mvua 

yanya (M.). 
cause it to rain, nycsha. 
leave off raining, anuka. 
Raise, inua (lift), paaza (make to 
rise), tweka, kweza, pandiaha, 
imisha. 
raise the eyebrows by way of sign, 
konyeza. 





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SWAEILI HANDBOOK, 



raise the eyebrows by way of con- 
tempt, kunia. 
Bange together , pangana. 
Bansomj komboa, fidi (of (ke prioe), 

fidia (of the person). 
Bap tnih the knuckles, piga konzL 
be made Bow, ehabuka. 
Beach. See Stretch. 

(arrive at), fika, wasili, pata. 

reach a person, fikia, wasilia. 

cause to reach, fikisha, wasilisha. 

put within his reach, [mw-]eiieza. 

reach its limit, pea. 
Bead, soma, fyoma (M.). 

teach to read, someBha. 
Be^ap, ynna. 

(break off the heads of Indian 
com), goboa. 
Bear [a child], lea. 
Beason, tefua. 
Bebel, asi, kbaiifu, taghi. 
Bebuke, nenea, lanmn, lawana. 
Bebut, dakuliza. 
Beceive, pokeck, pewa, twaa. 

(accept), kabali, tidcabali. 

receive for some one ehe, pokelea. 

receive a stranger, karibittha. 
Beckon, hesabu, wanga. 
Becite, karirisha. 
Becline, jinyosba, tandawaa, pa- 

mzika. 
Becognize, tambiia, tambiilia, fafa- 
nua. 

be recognizable, fambalikana. 
BecoUect, kumbuka, fahamu. 
Becommend, nenea, agiza, arifii, 

peleka. 
Bt>concile, patanisha, selehieha. 
Bedeem, koml>oa, fidia. 
Beduce, pungnza. 
Beef a sail, puDguza tanga. 
Befer to, regea. 



Befiect (think), knmbuka, waza, 

fikiri. 
Beform, silihi, Bilihisha, sahihi, 

sahihisha. 
Befreth, borudisha, steiehisha, ta- 

buradu. 
Befuse, kataza, kataa, iza. 

refuse to, nyima, hinL 

refuse to believe, katalia. 
Befute, batiii. 
Begret, jnta, Bikitika. 
B^iearse, karirisha. 
Beign, miliki, tawala. 
Beject, kataa, kania. 
Bejoice, (neuL) furahi, furahiwa, 

rejoice in, farahia. 

make to rejoice, furahisha. 

shout and triumph, shangilia. 
Bdate, hadithia, nena, toa, pa. 
Belax, reg€za. 

be relaxed, regea. 
Belease, acha, liMsa. 

from an obligation, feleti. 
Belith, ona tamu, ona Inththa. 
Bely upon, fungamana, jetea. 
Bemain (stay), kaa, kaa kitako, 
keti (M.). 

be left, saa, salia, bakl 

remain awake, kesba. 

remain quiet, starehe. 

to remain as he wishes^ kumkalia 
tamn. 
Bemedy, poza. 
Bemember, kumbuka, fabamn. 

remember against, patiliza. 
Bemind, kumbusha, fahamieha. 
Bemit [sins'], ghofiri. 

remit to, gbofiria, ondolca. 
Bemwe, ondoa, tenga,.oiidolea, 

from an office, uzulu. 
Bend, rama, pasua. 

be rent to pieces, pasukapasuka 



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LIST OF VERBS. 



195 



Renounce, acha, kana. 

Bent, panga (hire), pangisha (let). 

Repair, fanjriza, fanya. 

Repay, lipiza. 

Repent, tubu. 

repent of, tubia. 
Reply, jibu (give an answer), itika 

(answer when caUed). 
Repay, regeza, lipa. 
Reproach, shutamu, kamia, taya. 
Reqfiest, taka. 
Rescue, toa kunako hatari, toa 

mnamo hatari, okoa. 
Resemble, fanana na. 

make to resemble, fananisha. 
Resent, fanya ghathabu, ingiwa na 

ghathabu. 
Resign, jiuzulu, jitoa katika. 
Resist, khalifu. 
Resolve, yakinia, '^zirnu. 
Rest (neut.) pumzika, tnlia, starehe. 

(a^t.) pumzi^ilia. 

He never rests, hana zituo. 

I camnot rest in the house, nyumba 
hainiweki. 
Restore, rudisha, rejeza. 
Restrain, zuia. 
Resuscitate, fufua, huisha. 
Retaliaie, twaa kasasi, lipia sawa, 

jilipiza. 
Retire (go hack), endelea nyuma. 
Return, (neta,) rudi, regea. 

(a4:t.) mdisha, regesha. 
Reveal, f unua. 
Reveng£, nahma, lipia maovu, toa 



revenge oneself, jilipiza (or lipia) 



Reverence, nenyekea. 

Reverse, pindua. 

Revile, sbntomu. 

Revive^ (neut) fufaka, hui, huika. 



Revive, as a plant in water, chupuza. 

(act.) fofua, huisha. 
Revolt (disgust), kinaisba. 

revolt at, kinai. 
Reward, jazi, jazilia, lipia, fathili 
Ride upon, panda. 
Ridicule, fanyizia mzaha, thihaki. 
Ring a heU, piga kengele. 
Rip, pasua. 
Ripen, iva. 
Rise (ascend), paa. 

(get up), ondoka. 

(stand up), simama, inuka. 

(rise to, or out of respect for), 
ondokea. 

(come to the top of the water), 
zuka. 

(of the sun), [ku-]cha. 
Roar, lia, ngumma, fanya ki^hindo 

(make a crash). 
Roast, oka. 
Rob, ibia (steal from), nyang'anya. 

(take by force), poka. 
Rock, pembeza. 
RoU, (act.) fingirisha. 

(neut.) fingirika. 

(of a river, time, &c.), pita. 
Root out, ng'oa. 
Rot, oza. 

be Rough, paruga, paruza. 
be Round, viringa. 

(spherical), viringana. 
Rouse from sleep, amsha. 
Row, Yuta makasia. 

be in rows, pangana. 

put in a row, panga. 
Rvk, sugua. 

the skin off, chnbua, tuna. 

rub to pieces, fikicha. 

rvb in ointment, d:c,, paka. 
Ruin, angamisha, poteza, vuna 
korofisha. 

2 



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SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



he ruined, angamia, tilifu, filisika 
(he sold up). 
Bute, tawala. 

rule a line, paga mstari. 
Ruminate, teuka. 
Run, piga mbto, rukhuthn. 
run a risk, hatirisha. 
run against, fulia. 
run away, kimbia. 
make to run away, kimbiza. 
run away from a master, home, 

&c.y toroka. 
run ashorey panda, tekeza. 
run down, like water, or like a 
person dovm a steep place, te- 
lem'ka. 
run down with Wood, churuzika 

damn. 
run hard, kaza mbio. 
run over, furika. 
run tuith a shuffling noi^e like a 

rat, guguruflha. 
run (in setoing), piga bandi. 
Rush along, enda kassi. 
Rust (neut), isgia kutu. 
Rustle, piga mtakaso. 

S. 
Salute, ealimu, sulimii, amkua, 
amkia, salimia. 
fire a salute, piga mizlDga ya 
Balamn. 
Salve, bandika. 
Sanction, toa ithini. 
Satisfy, rithjlka. 
be satisfied or content, [kiC-]wa 

rathi. 
satisfy with food, shibisha. 
he satisfied, shiba. 
he never satisfied, nyeta. 
be self-satisfied, kinai. 
be enough, tosha. 



be of use io, faa, 
satisfy lusU timia ngoa. 
Save, okoa, ponya, vusha. 
be saved, okoka, pona, vnka. 
(jptt< away), weka. 
Saw, kata kwa msumeno, kerezo.. 
Say, seroa. 

say lo, ambia. 
Scald, onguza, unguza, 

be scalded, ungua. 
Scare, fukuza, tia khofu. 
scare birds from corn^ &c., linda 
ndege. 
Scatter, tawanya, tapaiiya (M.), 
farakifiha. 
be scattered, tawanyika. 
scatter abmt, tawanyatawanya, 
tapanyatapanya (M.). 
Scent (put scent to), singa. 

smell out, nukiza. 
Scold, £EUiyizia ukali, nenea, laumu, 

karipia. 
Scoop up, wangua. 
Scorch, unguza, onguza. 

be scorched, ungua, ungnlia. 
Scorn, tharau, tweza, peketeka. 
Scour, BUgua. 
Scrape, kuna. 

scrape along, kwaruza. 

scrape for, mth, dtc, kunia. 

scrape into a coarse meal, paaza... 

scrape off, puna. 

scrape off bark, dirt, scales, &c., 

to clean by scraping, paa. 
scrape on the ground, para. 
scrape out, komba. 
scrape up, kwangua. 
Scratch, kuna, kunyua. 
(make a scratch), piga mtai 
scratch deeply, papura. 
scratch like a lien, pekua. 
Scream, piga kiowe, piga yowe. 



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LIST OF VERBS. 



197 



Sctvhy sugua. 

Search fovy tafuta, tefua. 

search all about, tufutat6,futa. 
Seal, tia muburi. 
Seduce woraen, tongoza. 
See, ona. 

he «een, or visible, onekana. 

see any one off, safirisha. 
Seek, taka. 

seeh advice, taka shauri. 

seek out, huji. 

seek for, tafuta, zengea. 

s6ek out for, look out for, tafutia. 
Seem, 

It seems to me, naiona. 

seem sweet to, kora. 
Seize, kamata, guia, shika. 

seize for debt, filisi. 

go quieUy and secretly up to any- 
thing in order to seize it sud- 



Select, chagua, tena. 
SeU, uza. The u- of this word is 
very unimportant, it is generally 
merged in the -u of ku-, the 
sign of the infinitive, which is 
retained in most of the tenses. 

sell to, liza. 

he ordinarily sold, uzanja. 
Send, peleka, leta. 

to a person, pelekea, letea. 

cause to reach a person, wasi- 
lisha. 

send away, ondoeha, toa. 

send hack, rudisha, rejeza. 

send upon some business, tuma. 
Separate, tenga, weka mbali. 

Qeave one another), achaua, atana 
(M.), tokana. 

(alienate), faraki&ha. 

become alienated, farakaua, ta- 
Dgukana. 



separate people who are fighting, 

amua. 
{distinguish), rambanua. 
be cut off from one another, like 

friends separated by great dis- 
tances, tindildana. 
be Serene, [kil-]wa saff, tulika, 

kunduka. 
Mojo wake umekanduka, his 

heart is at peace. 
Serve, tumikia. hudamia. 
be a servant, tumika. 
serve for, faa kwa. 
Set, weka. 
(plant), panda. 
(of the sun), chwa, twa (M.). 
The sun is not yet set,iuik hali- 

jachwa. 
set a dog on one, tomesha mbwa. 
set a trap, tega. 
set aside, tangna, ondoa. 
set fire to, tia moto, waaha, koka 

choma. 
set in order, panga, tttnga. 
set on to fight, piganisba, pigani- 

shana. 
set open [a door"], sindua. 
set out on a journey, safiri, sbika 

njia. 
set the teeth on edge, tia ganzi la 

meno. 
set up (put upwards), panza. 
(make to stand), simikisba. 
set wide apart, panulia. 
Settle, (neut.) tuana. 
settle an affair, kata maneno. 
settle down, tulia. 
settle in one*s mind, yakinia. 
Sew, sbona. 
sew through a mattress to confine 

the stuffing, tona godoro. 
Shade, tia uvuH. 



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SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Shake, (act.) tikisa. 

(neut) tikitika. 

shake of, epua, kupua. 

shake out, kuDg'uta, kumnnta 
(Mer.). 
bec(yme Shallow, punguka. 
Shame, tia haya, tabayarisha. 

he put io shame, fetheheka, aibika. 
Shampoo, kanda. 
Shape, umba. 
Share, gawanya. 

part out in shares, gawa, hussu. 
' be partners in, shariki, sharikiana. 
Sharpen on a stone, noa. 
Shave, nyoa. 

shave round the head, leaving hair 
on the crown only, kata denge. 

shave all save one long tuft, kata 
Shed, pukutika. [kiujunjuri. 

Shell, papatua. 

shell beans, &e., pua baazi, &c. 

sheU nuts, &c,, by beating, banja, 
menya. 
Shelter, tia kivuli. 
Shift a burden from one to another, 
pokezanya. 

shift over a sail to the other side, 
kisitaDga. 
Shine, ng'ara, zagaa, mekameka. 
Shiver (neut.), tapatapa, tetema, 

tetemeka, tapa. 
Shoot [with a gunj, piga [kwa 
bunduki]. 

(as a plant), chupuka, chupuza. 
Shorten, fupiza. 

be short and small, kundaa. 

faM short, punguka, tindika (A.). 
Shout, piga kelele. 
Shove out of the way, piga kikumbo. 
Show, onyeaha, onya. 

show a light, mulika. 

sh(yw one*s teeth, toa meno. 



become Shrewd and knowing, ere- 
make Shrewd, ereyusha. [yuka. 

Shriek, piga kiyowe. 
Shrink (become smaller), pungua. 
(from something), jikunja. 
shrink up, jikuuyata, fingana. 
Shrivel (neut), nyauka, finyana, 

kunjana. 
Shrug the shoulders, inua mabega. 
Shudder, tetemeka. 
Shun, epuka. 
Shuffle along, gugurusha. 

shuffle cards, tanganya karata. 
Shut (put to), shindika. 
(fasten), fuuga. 
(close), fumba. 
shut against, fuogisha. 
be Sick or ill, ugua, [kii-]wa mweli, 
[kii-]wa hawezi, &c. See III 
a7id Vomit 
He feels sick or sea-sick, moyo 
wamchafuka, moyo umemwelea 
(M.), ana ng'onga (A.). 
Sift, cbunga (py shaking), peta or 
pepeta (by tossing), pepua 
(separate large and small, whole 
and broken grain*). Sifting is 
always done by tossing and 
shaking in a round flat basket. 
Sigh, ugua, kokota roho (draw 

breath with an effort). 
Silence, nyamazisba. 
become silent, nyamaza. 
continue silent, nyamaa. 
be Silly, piswa. 
Sin, fanya thambi, kosa. 
Sing, imba, tumbuiza (luU), 
Sink (act), zamisba, tosa (drovm), 
didimisha (into a solid sub- 
stance), 
(neut.), zama, tota (drovm), didi- 
mia (sink into a solid substance)^ 



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LIST OF VERBS. 



199 



Sipy nywa funda (f to take in by 

gulps). 
Sitj kaa, kaa kitako, keti (M.). 
Take a seat, kaa kitako. 
sit like a hen^ atamia. 
Skin, chuna, tuna (M.). 
Slander, sisgizia, fitini, amba, thu- 

mu. 
Slap, piga kofl. 
Slash, tema. 

Slaughter, chinja (to kid by etUting 
ihe throat), tinda (M.). It is 
not lawful to eat any meat that 
has not been so MUed. 
Sleep, lala. 
Sleep weU J Lala unono ! 
doze, sinzia. 

I am sleepy, ninao uzingizL 
he slept upon, lalika. 
SUde, teleza. 
Sling, tupa kwa kombeo. 
Slip, teleza. 
It is slippery, pana utelezi. 
slip down a steep plaoe, poromoka, 

telem'ka. 
dip away grain by grain like 

sand or corn, dondoka. 
slip off, or out 0/ one's hand, &c., 
chopoka, ponyoka. 
Slit, pafi(aa. 
Slope, iDama. 
he Sluggish, pumbaa. 
Smart, waka. 

make to smart, nyonyota. 
Smear on, paka. 

SmeU (emit a smed), nuka, niua. 
I smeCL ambergris, inaninuka 
ambari (amhergris makes a 
smeU to me). 
Do you not smeU itf Huiaikii 
ikinuka ? (Do you not perceive 
it making a smell f) 



SmeU at, nnkiza. 

Smile, tabdssam, cheka, kunja 

midomo. 
Smoke, toka mosbi. 

wioke tobacco, vuta tumbako. 

smoke (meat, &c,), piga myiika 
Smoothe, lainisha. . 
Smoulder, vivia. 
Smuggle, iba uaburu. 
Snap, alika (neut), alisha (act). 
Snare, tega. 
Snarl, tea meno. 
Snaich, Dyakua^ pokonya. 
Sneeze, chafya, sbamna, enda or 

piga chafya. 
Snore, koroma, piga misouo (make 

a whistUng sound). 
Snort, piga pua. 
Snub, kemea. 
Soak, woweka. 
Sob, ingia na shake la kulia. 
Sober, levusha. 

become sober, levuka. 
Soften, lainisha. 
Solve, wathaisha, weka wazi, 

eleza. 
Soothe, tuliza, pembeza.. tumbuiza. 
be Sorry, sikitika, kasirika (be 
vexed), juta (regret). 

lam sorry for it, sioni vema. 
Sound, pima maji. 

It sounds hollow, panalia wazi. 
Sow seeds, panda, yaa (A.). 

sow discord, fitini 
Sparkle, merimeta, mekam^a, me- 

metuka (A.). 
Speak, nena, sema (say), tamka 
(pronounce), ambia (say to), 

speak aboiU, at, for, or against, 
nenea. 

speak against, amba. 

speak didincUy, pambazua. 



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200 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Speak out ! Sema sana 1 

make a speech, tagasa, lumba. 

speak Arabic, sema Eaarabiu 

speak a jumble of different lan- 
guages or dialects, goteza. 

not to speak, nyamaa. 
Spell, endeleza. 
Spend, tumia, khdrij. 

spend upon or about, harijia, glia- 
rimia. 

spend time, ongea. 
Spin, mwaga, mimipa. 

be spiUf miminika. 
^pin, sokota. 
Spit, tema mate. 
Splash, (act.) nuhia. 

(neuL) rukia, tawanya. 
SpUce [a rope"], unga. 

[a spar}, ganga. 
Split, (act.) pasua. 

split up, (neut.) pasnkapasiika. 

split doum (branches), (act.) 
kwaniia. 

be split down, as when any one has 
been trying to climb up by them, 
kwanuka. 
Spoil, haribu, vunja. 

(neut.), haribika, oza. 
Sport wiih, laabu. 
Spout out, ruka. 

The tohale spouis, nyamgomi 
anatoamofihi 
Sprain, shtusha mshipa, tenka. 

be sprained, shtiika mshipa. 
Spread, (neut) enea, fieurishi. 

(act.) eneza. pta. 

be opened and spread over, ktrajn- 

spread a ohfh or a bed, tandika. 

spread out, tanda. 

spread [news'], tangaza. 

(become known), taogaa. 
Sprinkle, nyuiiyiza. 



Sprout, mea, chnpnka, tokeza (thow 
itself), ohanua (ptd forth 
leaves). 
Spy out, peleleza. 
Squabble, bishana, gombana. 
Squander, fuja, tapanjatapanya. 
Squeak, Ua. 
Squeeze, IsamuA. 

(grasp), fumbata. 

squeeze together (act.), songa* 

(neut.) Bongaiia. 

squeeze oneself into a hedge or 
against a wall to let others pass, 
jibanza. 
Squint, [kil-]wa na makengeza. 
Stab, choma. 
Stagger, pepa. 

be staggered, toahea, shangaa. 

(astonish), shanganu 
Stain, tia waa, tia madoadoa (spot). 
Stalk Ian animal], nyemelea. 
Stammer, [kil-]wa na kigagumizi. 
Stamp, piga ohapa. 
Stand, simama, kaa. 

up or stm, simama (of persons). 

make to stand, simamisha, sixmki- 
sha. 

stand aghast, ghumiwa. 

stand by, simamia. 

stand in the way of, kindana. 

stand over, eMn, 

stand staring, shangaa. 
Stare at, kodolea. 
Start (be startled), shtuka, gatoka. 

(set out), ondoka, safiri. 

start out of the way, kwepa. 
Startle, shtua, stnsha, kutusha. 
Starve, (neut.) fa kwa njaa. 

(act.) fisha kwa njaa. 
Stay, kaa, kaa kitako, keti (M.). 

He stayed all day, alishinda 
kutwa. 



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LIST OF VEBB8. 



201 



(wa{t\ ngoja, subiri. 
{Jmter)i kawia, kawilia. 
(remain over long\ hajirika. 
{sUyp) {<ust.\ zuia. 
he Steady^ tongamana, tulia. 
Stedly iba, jepa (A.). 

BteoAfrom, ibia. 
8teep^ choveka, owamisha. 

he steeped., owuna. 
Steer, shika shlMo. 
Steer northwards, shika mtfjiia ya 

jaa. 
[a veMe[\, andika. 
Step over, kiuka, kia. 
Stick, (neut) shika, gandama, a- 
mbata. 
{cLct.) ambatiza, ganda. 
stick together, ambatana, ganda- 

mana, guiana (Mer.)> 
stick fast, kwama, sakama. 
stick into [the eTribers to he roasted], 

VTimbika. 
stick out, (neut) tokeza. 
(act.) bexrna. 
Stifle, zuia pumuzi. 
Still, tuliza, nyamaziaha. 

he very still, zizima. 
Stimulate, taharrakisha. 
Sting, uma. 

Stink, nuka, nuka yibaya. 
Stir, boruga, vuruga, kologa. 
stir up and knock about, tiboa. 
stir up, turn over, ar^ press 

together, sooga. 

stir up (fire, strife, Ac), choohe- 

Stoop, inama. [lezea. 

Stop, (act.) znia (hold in), komesha 

(make to cease), kiDgamisha 

(hlock). 

(neut.) simama (stand), koma 

(leave off), 
stop and stagnate, yilia. 



stop short of its purpose or per- 
fection, via. 
stop up, ziba. 
Store up, weka akiba» 
Stow, pakizai 
Straddle (toalk with the legs far 

apart), tagaa. 
Straighten, nyosha. 

he straight, nyoka. 
Strangle, nyonga, songa. 
Strain (a liquid), chuja, tuja (M.). 
See Sprain, popotoa. 
(make a violent effort), kakatnuka. 
Stray, potea, zunguka. 
Strengthen, tia nguvu. 
Stretch, nyosha. 
stretch up to reach anything, ohU'> 

ohumia. 
stretch one*s legs, kanjua mignu. 
stretch the threads for weaving, 

tenda ngao. 
stretch across an opening (act.), 
tanda, wamba. 
Strew, mwagia, nyunyiza^ 
Strike, piga. 
strike on the ground, piga na nchi. 
strike the foot against anything, 

kwaa. 
strike with the hoof, piga kwata. 
strike out (in writing), futa. 
strike a sore place, tonesha. 
String (heads, Ac), tnnga. 
Strip off, ambua, pua, menya, 
babna. 
(branches, lea/oes, Ac), pagua. 
Strive with, shindana na, teta, hu- 
sumtu 
(make an effort), fanya bidii or 

juhudL. 
strive for hreath, tweta. 
Stroke, papasa. 
StroU c^ut, ZHngukazunguka* 



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SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



he Strang and weUrknitf pirikana, 

kakawana. 
Struggle, fanya juhadi. 
Study, taali. 

meet in a class for study, durosi. 
Stumble, jikwaa. 

make to stumble, kwaza. 
Stun, 
he stunned, potea na akili, rukwa 
na akili 
Stunt, YizBk. 

he stunted, Tia. 
Stutter, (Tni-]wa na kigugumizi, 

babaika. 
Subdue, tiisha, shinda. 
Submit to, tii, foata. 
SueceedXfoUow), ja mahali pake. 
Such a one succeeded him, baada 

yake aliknja na fdllani. 
(prosper), faniMwa, kibali. 
succeed in doing, pata kufEinya. 
Suck, nyonya, amwa (M.), fyonda, 
fyonza. 
suck up, nwa. 
suck out, sonda. 

I have stieked him dry (got aU (he 
information, Ac, I can out of 
him), nimemzua. 
Suckle, nyonyesha^ amwisha (M.). 
Sue for (at law), dai. 
St^er, te8wa» taabika, mnwa. 
toTuU he suffered, mambo yalio- 

n^>ata. 
suffer loss, pata hasara. 
Suffice, tosha, tosheleza, kiftu 
Suggest, niiaiha. 

Suit, fiBA (he of use to), lingana 
(match), wafiki (he suitable to). 
Sum up, jumliflha. 
Superintend, simamia, angalia. 
Supply, iwini, ruzuku (used es- 
peeidUy of God), 



supply a trader with goods on 
credit, kopesha. 
Support, tegemeza, himili, chukua. 
he supports his parents, awachn- 
kua wazee wake. 
Suppose, thani (thinkX thania ((hink 

of), kid (guess). 
Suppurate, toa uzaha. 
become Surety, thamini. 
Surpass, pita. 

Surprize, tosbea, taajabisha. 
be surprized, taajaba, toshewa. 
(come upon suddenly), fumania, 
gundua. 
Surrender, sellim. 
Surround, zmiguka, tandaana (?), 

dura. 
Survey, aua. 

Survive, [kt[-]wa hayi baada ya. 
Suspect, thania, tuhumu, ingiaahaka. 
Swagger, tamba, wayawaya. 
SwaUow, meza. 
Sway, punga. 
sway about, like a drunkm man, 

lewalewa, umbaomba. 
suHiy backwards and forwards, 

tangatanga. 
sway like a tree loaded loiiih fruit, 

wayawaya. \ 

sway about in the wind, ymnba. 
Swear, apa. .• 

swear at, apiza. 
make to swear, afya» apisha. 
Sweat, toka had, fanya jasho. 
Sweep, fagia, pea (M.). 
siweep together, zoa. 
sweep away aU there is, knmba. 
SweU, fuia, vimba, tuna, vuna, 
rise into little sweUings, tutnka, 
tutumka, tutusika. 
Stoim (of a man), ogolea. 
(float), elea. 



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LIST OF VERBS. 



203 



moyo unaelea (M.), I feel dU- 
turhed in my inside, 

(make to floaty eleza. 
Swindle, punjeu 
^wing. See Sway (neuL\ ning'inia. 

(oc^.), uing'iniza, bembesha. 

swing the arms, which is reckoned 
an elegance in a woman's car- 
riage, punga mikono. 

sioing round the head in dancing, 
linga. 



Tocfc (in sewing), piga bandi. 

(in sailing), pindua kwa gofihini. 
Take, twaa. 
(receive), pokea, pewa. 
(to a person), pelekea. 
(to a place), peleka, chukua, fikiza. 
take a portion from the dish in 

eaiing, mega, ambua. 
take a piece in chess, la. 
take a walk, tembea, enda tembea. 
taJce across, vua, vukisha, vusha. 
take as spoil, teka. 
take away, ondosha, toa. 
take away from a person, twalia. 
take away from, or off from, epua, 

okoa. 
take away the desire of anything 

more, kmaisha. 
take hy force, nyang'anya. 
take care, angalia. 
take care of, tunza. 
take civet from the ngawa, zabidi. 
take courage, tawakali, piga moyo 

konde. 
take down, angoa. 
take leave of, aga, agana na. 
take off (clothes), vua. 

(the fire), ipua. 
take one^s due, jilipiza. 



take one's revenge, jilipiza kisasL 

take out, opoa, ondosha, toa. 

take out of a trap, oamua (Mer.). 

take out of the sun or rain, anua, 

take out of the pot, pakua. 

take suddenly and violently, poka. 

take Hie responsibility, tadariki 

take to pieces, kongoa. 

take up, tweka. 

take up a little at a time, chota, 

dokoa. 
take upon oneself the obligations 
of another, hawili. 
Talk, nena, sema, jizumgumza. 
talk about, to, of, (U,for, or against, 

nenea. 
talk against one another, nenana. 
talk a person over into doing or 

telling something, nyenya. 
talk and murmur in one^s sleep, 

weweseka. 
talk English, ike, sema Kiingrczi, 

&c. 
talk nonsense, puza, pnzika. 
talk scandal about, amba, izara. 
talk through the nose, semea puani, 
[kii-]wa na king*ong'o. 
Tangle, tia matata, tataDisha. 
be tangled, tatana, tatazana. 
Tap, gota, gonga, chapa. 
Tarry, kawa, kaa. 

Taste, onda, oiija, thokn, limbuka 
(taste a new crop, &c,, for the ' 
first time). 
Tax, fanya ushuru (?). 
Teach, fundisha, fauza, fiinda, ele- 
loisha (instruct),}\is^s^ juvisha 
or julisha (make to know). 
Tear, raroa, babua, papua, papura. 
be torn, raruka, babuka, papuka. 
tear dovm [branches, &c.], kw»- 



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204 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



he torn down and broken^ kwa- 

nyuka. 
Teaze, chokoza, kefyakefya. 
TeU^ ambia. 
tell a taUy hadithi, hadifhia, nena 

or toa hadithi. 
teU tales about, chongeleza. 
Tempt, jarlbu (try% shawishi (per- 
suade). 
Tend to, lekea. 
Tend (sheep, d:e.)j ohunga, tunga 

(M.),li8ha. 
Terrify, ogofya, tisha, khofiaha. 
Testifyj shuhndu, shuhudia, sema 

ushuhuda. 
Tether, funga. 
Thank, ambia asanti, shnkura (very 

seldom used except of Ctod). 
Thanh you, assdnt, marahaba 

(this last is the proper answer 

to a slave's salutation). 
Thatch, vimba, ezeka. 
Think (consider), aza, flkiri, tafa- 

kari, kambnka. 
(suppose), thani, thania. 
think oneself, jiona. 
think oneself a man, jipevna. 
think of, tia maanani, kumbuka 

(rem^eTnber), nia, ania, or nnia 

(tMve in on^s mind^. 
Thirst, ona kiu (feel thirst), [kil-] 

wa na kiii (have thirst). 
Threaten, ogofya, ogofisha, khofiaha, 

kamia (?). 
Thresh, piga, pura (heat out com), 

fikicha kwa miguu (tread out), 

fikioha kwa mikono (rub out). 
ThriU, tetema. 
Thrive, sitawi, fanikiwa (of persons 

only). 
Throb, puma. 
Throttle, kaba. 



Throw, tnpa. 

throw a rider, rusha. 

throw a stone, Ac, ynrmniaha. 

throw about, tawanya, tapanya 
(M.), chafua, tefoa (M.). 

throw at, tupia. 

throw away, tupa. 

throw down, angusha. 

throw overboard, tosa. 

throw up, or off, rusha. 

throw a burden off (he shoulder, 
&c., bwaga. 
Thunder, [kii-]wa na ngurumo (diS" 

tant), piga radi (near). 
Thwart, halifu. 

Tickle in the ribs, tekenya, shtua. 
Tie, funga. 

tie a knot, piga fundo. 

tie up into a bundle or faggot, 
tita. 
Tighten, (act.) kaza, tia kassi, (neut.) 

kazana, kazika. 
Tingle, ona kinyenyefu. 
Tip off the head, shoulder, &e., 

bwaga. 
be Tipsy, lewa, jilevya. 

make tipsy, levya. 
Tire, chosba, taajazi. 

become tired, choka. 

he Uresome, refuse to he plbased. 
Toast, oka. [deka. 

he Together. 

We are Together, tu sote. 
Tolerate, stahimili, Tumilia. 
Torment, athibu, uthi, athibisha. 
Toss, rusha. 

Totter, tetemeka (tremble), pepe- 
suka (he shaken)^ kongoja 
(totter in one's walk). 
Touch, gusa. 

touch gently, papasa. 

touch up, tengeneza. 



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LIST OF VERBS. 



205 



TovJbfor customy <fec., sapa. 
2W, fnngasa. 
Track, fuata nyayo, 
Trade, fanya biashara. 

trade in a tmaU way, keep a stall, 
churuza. 
Train up, adibu, lea. 
Trample, finyanga, kanyaga. 
Transcribe, nakili. 
Transform, geuza, badilL 
be Transparent, ng'ara. 
Transgress, taghi, halifu. 
Translate, tafsiri, fasiri, genza. 
Trap, tega. 
Travail (of a woman), sMkwa na 

utungn. 
Travel safiri. 

Tread, kanyaga, vioga (M.), finya- 
nga (trampUy, 
Treat, tendea. 

he treats me badly, bunitendea 
vibaya. 

he treats me weU, bunitendea zema. 
Tremble,ietemA, tetemeka,tapatapa. 
TricUe, tiririka. 
Trim, tengeneza. 

trim vegetables, &c,^for sale, oba- 

trim («atO, rausi. [mbua. 

Triumph, abinda, fanya shangwi 
Trot, enda masbindo (of a horse), 

enda matiti (of an ass). 
Trouble, taabiaba, sumbna. 

be troubled, taabika, sumbuka, 
sbugbnlika. 

be troubled in mind, fatbaika. 
Trust in, amini, jetea, tumauia. 

entrust to, aminisba, weka, amini. 

(have confidence), tumaini. 

trust in God and take courage, 
tawakali. 
Try, jaribu, onja (taste), 

try hard, jitabldi, fanya bidii. 



Tuck into the girdle, &c., futika. 
Tumble, angnka, pomoka. 

tumbukia (faU into). 
Turn or turn into, (act) genza, geua. 
(neut.) turn, turn into, turn itself, 

geuka. 
turn over, or the other way, 
pindua (act), pinduka (neut,), 
turn round sorneiihing else, zu- 
nguka (neut.), zungusba (act.)* 
He turned round, aligeuka. 
The river turns, mto UDazunguka. 
The ship turned, merikebu ilipi* 
nduka. 
turn (prevent its going on in tlie 

same direction), pinga. 
turn aside (neui.), potoa, potoka. 
turn bottom upuiards, fudikiza. 
turn in a lathe, kereza. 
turn out well for, fanikia. 
Tweak, nyukua. 

Twist, (act.) nyonga, songa, popotoa, 
(neut) potoka. 

[a rope"] eokota, 8uka» pakasa. 
(Mer.). 

U. 

Unclose, fumbua. 

be Uncomfortable, taabika, sumbuka, 

toa kuona raba. 
Uncover, funua. 
Unfasten, fungua. 
UnderstaM, sikia, jua, fafanua, 

tambua (recognize). 
I understand, yamenielca, yame* 

nitulilia. 
make to understand, sikiza. 
to be mutually intelligible, make 

one another understand, siki- 

zana. 
Undertake, tbamaini, jilazimifiba, 

tadariki. 



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206 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK, 



Undervalue, rakhisisha. 
Undo (unfasten), fangua. 

untie a knet, fandiia. 

(ruin), poteza. 
Undrew, Tua nguo. 
Unfold, kunjua. 
Unite, unga, nngana. 
Unpick or Unrip, famna. 

become unaewn, fumuka. 
Unroof, ondoa sakafu (take off a 
stone roof), ezua paa, or zu- 
mbua paa (A.), (take off thatch). 
Unsew, fumua. 

come umevm, fumuka. 
Unthatch, ezua, zumbua (A.). 
Untie, fungua. 

a knot, fandua. 
Upbraid, nenea, tnhumn, taya. 
Upset, pindua. 
Urge, sukuma, kaza. 
UHnate, kojoa. 
Use (make use of), tumia. 

To have been used for something, 
kiilikuwa na kitu. 

be of use, faa. 

be of use to one another, faana. 

use bad language to, tukana. 

use words well and correctly, 
earl fa. 
Use (accustom), zoeza. 

become used to, zoea. 
Utter, ta'mka. 



Value, tia kima (put a price upon), 
penda (Jike). 
be valuable, faa, faa saiia, [kii-] 
wa na manfaa. 
Vanish, toweka, toa knonekana, 
potea, tokoinea (get out of one's 
sight). 
Go and hide yourself! Tokomea 1 



Venture, hatiridha, ^fcubutu. 
Vex, kasirisha. 

be vexed, kasirika, cbnkiwa. 
be Visible, onekana. 
Visit, enda kuangalia, kutazama, 
or kiizum, jia (come to), endea 
(go to). 

be visited, jiwa. 

visit upon, patiliza. 
Vomit, tapika, kokomnka (belch out). 

make to vomit, tapisba. 
Void, tangua, batili. 

be made void, tanguka. 
Vow, weka natbiri (make a vow\ 
perform a vow, ondoa natbiri. 

W. 

Wail, omboleza. 

Wait, or wait /or,.ngoja, saburi, 
subiri. 

Wait a bit, ngoja kwanza. 

wait upon, ngojea. 
Wake, (neut.) a'mka. 

(a4it.) a'm&ba. 

remain awake, kesba, angaza. 

be awake, [kd-]wa macba 

wake up suddenly with a start, 
zinduka, zindukana. 
Wale, alia. 
WcUk, enda, enda kwa migun. 

(of a horse or ass), enda delki. 

walk about, tembelea. 

take a walk, tembea. 

walk up and dovm, enda masia. 

walk lame, cbecbea, enda cbopi. 
Wander, znnguka, potea. 

in mind, papayuka. 
Want (need), taka, ibtajia, ibtaji. 

(wish to have), taka, ipa. 

be wanting, ilitajiwa, pungnka. 
Ward off, kiiiga (receire on some- 
thing), bekua (knock off again). 



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LIST OF VERBS. 



207 



Warm up, kanga moto, pasba moto. 
Warn, onya, ambia, nasi, hatha- 

riflha {put on one* 6 guard). 
Warp, benuka (a« wood does in 
Wash, osha. \drying). 

wash doiheB, fua; hy dabbing 

gently only, cbachaga. 
oneself, nawa. 

wash one^s hands, nawa mikono. 
Waste, (act) tilifn, tilifisha, fiija, 
tbii, haribu, tawanya, tapanja 
(M.). 
(neut.) pnngua, tilifika. 
Watch, (act.) yizia, ngojea, angalia. 
keep watches, ngojea kwa zamu. 
watch over, linda. 
(not to ileep), kesha, angaza. 
Water, tia maji, njwesha majL 

make water, kojoa. 
Wave, (act.) punga. 

(neut.) tangatanga. 
Waver, shangaa. 
Waylay, otea. 

Weaken, tboofisha, toa nguvn. 
' become weak, tboofika. 
be Weaned, acha ziwa (leave the 

breast), sbisbwa. 
Wear, — the past tenses of kuvaa, 
to put on, are used to express 
wearing. 
He wears, amevaa. 
He wore, alivaa. 
Wear away, (neut) lika, pnngua, 
punguka. 
(act.) la, pungnza. 
Wear out, (neut.) obakaa (by age or 
use). 
He wore out my patience, alinonde- 
lea saburi. 
Wear ship, pindua kwa damalinL 
Wearij, cbosba. 
become weary, cboka. 



Weave, fnma. 
tenda nguo, to stretch the threads 

ready for weaving. 
tckrizi, weave a border on to a piece 
of doth. This is the only kind 
of weaving done in Zanzibar. 
Weed (hoe up weeds), boruga, pali- 
TTeep, lia. [lia. 

weep together, lizana. 
burst into tears, bnbujika machozi. 
Weigh, pima. 

weigh down, lemea, topeza. 
Weld on a piece of steel or iron, 

tambuza. 
Wet, tia maji, ohofya majini (dip in 

water). 
Whet, noa. 
Whisper, nong'ona, nong'onezana, 

nong'oiiia. 
Whistle, piga mbinda, miunzi, mi- 
sono, or miao. Most, if not all, 
of these refer to an involuntary 
whistling sound ; to whistle 
voluntarily is regarded in Zan- 
zibar as profane. 
Widen, panua (act.), panuka (pass.). 
Wm, taka, penda. 
If €rod wiU, insballab, Muungu 
akinijaUa (if God gives me the 
power). 
Win, pata. 

Wind (neut), zongazonga, zutigu- 
kazunguka. 
Wind thread, kunja uzi. 
Wink, kopesa, pepesa, pesa. 
Kukonyesb8^ to raise Ike eyebrows ; 
this is a sign used as winking 
is in England. 
Wipe, futa, pangusa. 

%oipe the nose, futa kamasi. 
Wish, taka, penda. 
Wither, nyauka, fa, fifia. 



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208 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Withhold from, nyima, hini. 
WUne88y ona (see), 

hear wttneas, shuhuda. 

vntnets about, for or against, shu- 
hudia. 
Wonder, taajabu, staajabu. 
Work, fanya kazi, tenda kazi, 

work in meixd, foa. 

(ferment), chacha. 
Worry, sumbua, sumbusha. 
Wor^ip, abudu, abudia. 
he Wor(k, pata kima (gd a price). 

What is it worth ? Chapataje ? 
Woundy timiza. 

he wounded, jernhi. 

wound hy striking or piercing un- 
awares, vuaza. 



Wrap, kunja. 
Wreck, vunja. 

he wrecked, vimja, vunjika. 

go on sfiore, panda. 

he on shore, pweleka. 
WresUe, pigana kwa mbayu. 
Wriggle, nyonganyonga. 
Wring, sonjoa, kiunua, popotoa. 
Wrinkle, nyeuka. 

hecome wrinkled, kunjana. 
Wriihe (like a wounded snake). 
Write, andika. [fingirika. 

Wrong, thulumu. 

Y. 

Yawn, enda, or piga miayo, funua 
kinwa. 



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( 209 ) 



ADVEBBS, 
PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS. 



Adverbs. 
Adverbs in Swahili follow the words they qualify. 

Sema «oiui, speak out. Njema sana, very good. 

Adjectives may be used as Adverbs by prefixing vi- 

Kunuka mbayOj to smell badly. 

Verbs in the Infinitive and Substantives generally 
may be made to serve as Adverbs by the use of the 
Preposition hwa, 

Kvja uvjongo, fiJsely. Kwa hujua, knowingly. 

Many English Adverbs may be translated by aana 
(very), which intensifies the action or quality expressed 
by the word to which it is subjoined. 

Vutasana! Pull hard! 
Shika eana I Hold tight ! 
Enda eana ! Go fast ! 

Prepositions. 

There are in Swahili very few Prepositions. Indeed 
there are scarcely more than four, na, ya, hwa^ and katika, 

p 



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210 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Katika has the same force as the case in -n*, it denotes 
locality in nearly every form in which locality can 
require to be expressed. Kwa denotes instrumentality 
and object. Na is and or with, and by of the agent after 
a passive Verb ; in this last sense ni is used at Mombas 
and in other dialects. Ta, of rather -a with a variable 
initial letter, denotes possession ; it is treated as a pos- 
sessive pronoun, and changes its first letter according 
to the class of the noun which precedes it, that is of the 
person or thing possessed; it can very nearly always 
be translated by of. Its forms appropriate to each class 
of substantives are : — 



Class L sing, tea, plur. toa. 

„ II. „ wa, „ ya. 

„ III. „ ya, „ za. 

„ rV. „ eJia, „ vya. 



Glass V. sing, la, plor. ya. 
„ VI. „ wa, „ za. 
„ Vn. „ pa, „ pa. 
„ Vin. „ kwa, „ kuca. 



See p. 209 in original. 

Many of our Prepositions are expressed by a Noun or 
Adverb followed by -a. Many others are expressed by 
Verbs in their simple or applied forms (p. 159). Some 
can scarcely be expressed at all. The Preposition from 
seems to be almost wholly wanting in Swahili. It is 
s(>metimes implied in the Verb, as in kutoka, to come or 
go from, or to come or go out of, but generally it is 
marked only by katika or the case in -ni, which denote 
merely the locality in which the action commenced. 
From, of time, may be translated by iangu, or by toka, 
or tokea, which do not seem to be used of space or deri- 
vation, but to be best tranolated by since or beginning 
from. 



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CONJUNCnONS. 211 

Until to, as far as, of time and space, are frequently 
translated by hatta, and (less elegantly) by mpaka, 
followed by a substantive. 

Conjunctions, 

Conjunctions are often dispensed with by the use of 
the tenses with -ha-. And, hut, or any other mere con- 
nective in a narrative, is unnecessary where the -ha- 
tense is employed, as in all ordinary cases it must be. 
The Imperative and Subjunctive may also have -ka- 
prefixed with the force of the Conjunction and. 

Katupa I And throw it away. 

Enenda sohoni Tccdeta ndizi ! Go to the market and fetch some 

bananas. 
Uonej ukasadihi, that you may see and believe. 

If and other Conjunctions introducing a state are 
generally expressed by using the -ki- tense of the Verb 
(see Verbs, p. 136). 

In order that is generally expressed only by putting 
the Verb which expresses the purpose into the sub- 
junctive. 



p 2 



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212 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



LIST OF ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, AND 
CONJUNCTIONS. 



Ahouty (near) karibu na, kama. 
(in the neighbourhood of), npande 
wa. 
Above, (cuhf.) juu. 
(prep.)iauyek. 
Abundantly, tele, sana. 
After, (adv,) nyuma, baada. 
(prep.) nynma ya, baada ya. 
Nyuma is more correcUy used of 

place, and baada, of time. 
After this, akiisha (he finishing), 
akaiaha (and he fini^d). 
Afterwards, nymnaye, baada yake, 
baadaye, tena, kiisha, halafu, 
pindL 
Again^ mara ya pili, tena. 
Against, juu ya. Against is com- 
monly expressed by the use of 
^ applied form of the verb. 
Ago. 
long agOf zamaiii za kale, zamani, 

kwanza. 
How long agof Tangu lini? 
ten days ago, leo siku kumi, kwa 
sika kumi, tangu siku kumi 



AUke, sawasawa, ginai moja, ma- 

moja. 
Almost, karibu na. 
Alone, peke yake, fto. (by himself, 
dtc), tu (only). Tu always 
follows the vjord or phrase 
qualified by it. 
Along, kandokando ya. 

along with, pamoja na. 
Alongside, mbavunL 
Ahud^ kwa sauti kubwa. 
Already, mbele (before), sasa (now). 
He is already gone away, ame- 
kwisha kwenda zake (p. 155). 
Also, na, tena. Na always precedes 

* what it is connected with. 
Although, kwamba, Ikiwa. 
Altogether, pia yote, kabisa. 
Always, sikuzote, dayima, abadan, 

kipindi, milele (for ever). 
Amidst, katikati ya. 
Among, katika. 

among themselves, wao kwa wao. 
Anciendy, zamani za kale, kwanza. 
And, na. 
And he, and 1, dte. See p. 103. 



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ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, &c. 



213 



And 18 vwy often eo^eesed by the 
use of (he -ka- teme. See p, 184 
and p. 141. 

And followed by a negative must 
be translated by wala. 

And so, and then, &c., bassi. 
Any is expressed by using the word 
ahsolutdy. 

Anywhere, po pote. 

1 don't see anything, sioni kitu. 

Anything whaiever,]divL ohochote. 
' Apart, mbali. 
Around, pande zote, mzingo wa. 
As (wJien, or if), -po-, -ki-. Seep, 136. 

(as if), kama, kana, kwamba. 

(Wee), -vyo, -vyo-, added to or 
inserted in the verb. 

As you please, upendavyo. 

As it woe formerly, yalivyokuwa 
kwanza. 

As followed by M is generally 
omitted. 

As big as a house, knbwa kama 
nyninba. 

As it stands, shelabela. 
Ashore, pwanL 

go ashore, panda (of a ship), shu- 
ka (of a person), 

be ashore (of a ship), pwelewa. 
Aside, kando. 

At, kwa, katika ; case in -m, followed 
by pronouns in p-, when it de* 
notes nearness only, but by pro- 
nouns in kw- when it is inde- 
terminate* 

At first, awali, kwanza. 

At home, kwangu, kwako, kwake, 
kwetn,kw6nu,kwao, nyumbani. 

He is not at home, hako. Haynko 
is eommonLy used by slaves in 
Zanzibar, but is wholly incorrect. 

At last, mwisho, hatima, hatta. 



At length, hatta, hatima. 

At night, usiku. 

At once, mara, maia moja. 

At the top, juu. 

At the bottom, chinL 



go away, enda zangn, zako, &c., 

according to the person going, 
come away, ja zake, &o. 
He is away, haka 

B. 
Baek, nyuma. 
He went back, alirudi nyuma. 
upon the &ac^,>kwa tani, ohali. 
Backwards, kingaligali (M.). 
Because, kwa sababu. 
because of, kwa sababu ya, kwa 
ajili ya, kwani (for). 
Before, (adv.) mbele, kwanza. 
(prep.) mbele ya or za, kabia ya. 
Kabla is used preferably of time, 
mbele of place. 
To go before, tangulia. 
Before he goes to sleep, asijelala. 
Before I die, kabla sijafe. 
Behind, (adv,) nyuma. 

(prep.) nyuma ya. 
Below, (adv.) chini. 
(prep.) chini ya. 
Beside, kando la, kandokando ya, 

zayidi ya (more than). 
Besides, tena, zayidi ; na (also), pre- 
ceding the thing mentioned. 
Better, afathali, beri or kheiri. 
You had better go, afathali uene- 

nde, u heri uenende. 
A&thali is preferably, heri means 
it would be a good thing. 
Between, katikati ya, beina. 
Beyond, (adv.) kwa kuko. 
( P*"*?.) zayidiya, juu ya. 



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214 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



beyond (of pUice), upande wa 
pili wa. 

Both — and — , na — ^na, 

Both of them, wote wawiU, zote 
mbili, &c., &c. 

But, lakini, wallakini (and however), 
illakini (except however), ilia, 
ball. J» many cases but may 
be best translated by the use of 
the -ka- tense of the verb. 

By (after a passive verb), na, ni 
(M.). 
(of an instrument), kwa. 
(riear) katika), case in -nifoUowed 
by pronouns in p-. 

C. 

Certainly, yakini, hakika, hapana 

shaka. 
I You certainly, dkc, Hakika yako, 

&c. 
CJhokefvXL, tobtob. 
Constantly, abadan, dayima. 
Crookedly, kombokombo, mifihithari. 



Baity, killa siku, 8iku kwa eiku. 
Directly, See Now, 
Distinctly, kiada. 
Down, chini. 
During, wakati wa. 

During his journey, alipokuwa 
akisafiri, akiwa akiaafirL 

E. 

Early, mapema. 

Easily, upesi. 

Either — or — , ao — ao — , ama — 

ama — . 
Elsewhere, panginepo. 
Entirely, pia, kabisa, yote, pia yote. 
Ere, kabla ya, mbele ya. See Before, 



Even, batta. 

Even if, -japa. See p. 138. 
Ever, sikiizote, dayima, kipindi. 

for ever, milele. 
Everywhere, mahali pote. 
Exactly; halisi, khassa, bawaba. 
Exceedingly, 'mno subjoined to (he 

word qualified, sana. - 
Except, ilia, ela (M.). Except may 

often be expressed by the use 

of the tense with -sipo. See 

p. 146. 
except by, \AU&. 
Excessively, 'mno subjoined to the 

word qualified, ohapa, obapara. 



Far or far off, mbali. 
First, kwanza, mbele. 

to go first, kutangulia. 
Fluently, kama maji. 
For^ (conj.) kwam. 

(prep.) kwa. For is generally 
expressed by the use of the ap- 
plied form of the verb. 

(in the place of), mahali pa. 

for the space of, muda wa. 

for the sake of, kwa ajili ya. 

for my sake, unipendavyo (as you 
love me). 
Formerly, kwanza, zamani. 
Forth, 'nje. 

to go forth, kntoka. 
Forward, mbele. 

go forward, endelea mbdie. 
Forwards (upon the face), fidiMi, 
fadifadi, kwa kofahamia (M.). 
Frequently, mara nyingi 
From, katika, case in -oi 

from among, miongoni mwa. 

from Ume to time, mara kwa mara. 

(since), tajigu, toka, tokea. 



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ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, &c. 



215 



/ Jmd it from (of) the Sheikh, 
nalipokea ya "Sheikh. 
Further, tena. 
Further on, mbele. 

G. 

Gently, polepole, taratibu, tahafifu. 

Gladly, furaha. 

Gratis, burre, attia, bilashi. 

H. 

Hard, kassi. 

to work hard, kutenda kazi sana.. 

to run hard, kaza mblo. 
Hastily, hima, kwa haraka. 
Here, hapa, huku. 

He is here, yupo. 

I am here, mimi hapa. 

Here and there, hapa na hapa. 
Hereafter, baadaye. • 
Hither, hatta hapa, hapa. 

Hither and thither, kuku na 
huku. 
Hitherto, hatta leo, hatta sasa. 
How'f -je svhjoined to the verb. 
Seep. 123. 

kama ipi ? Kwaje ? 

How is it ? Giasi gani ? 

How often ? Mara ngapi ? . 

How mtLch'^ Kassi gani ? Kadri 
gani? 
How, ginsi with 'Vyo- joined uoith 
the verb ; ginsi is often omitted. 

How he was, dc, ginsi aiivyo- 
kuwa, &c. 
However, lakini. 



If, kana, kwamba, kama; -ki- or 
-po- inserted in the verb. See 
pp. 136, 146. 



Immediately, mara, maia moja. 

now immediately, sasa hivi. 
In, katika, case in -ni followed by 

pronouns in m-. 
in the shoulder, ya bega. 
in front, pambele, mbele. 
[J] in going, nikienda, nikiwa 

uikienda. 
in good time, at its proper time, 

tahafifu. 
in heaps, ohungu chungu. 
in order that, illi. See p. 141. 
in place of, mahali pa. 
in the middle, katinakati, kati, 

katikati. 
in the middle of, kati ya, katikati 
in the morning, assubui. [ya. 

Indeed, kusema kweli. 

great indeed, kubwa sana. 
Inside, ndani. 
inside of, ndani ya, case in -ni 

followed by pronouns in m-. 
He is inside, yumo ndani. 
Into, katika, case in -ni followed by 

pronouns in m-. 



Just, see p. 116, halisi. 
That is just it, ndiyo yalio. 

L. 

Lastly, kwa mwisho, mwisho. 

at last, hatima, mwisho. 
Late, kasiri. 
Less, duDi. 

to become less, kupungua. 

Less by, kassa. 
Like, kama, methili, hesabu ya. 

People like us, kina sisi. 
Little, kidogo. 

a little more, punde. 

a little longer, -rofu punde. 



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216 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



M. 

3fereZy,tti,bas8i. Bo(h words fdhw 
the word or phrase they qualify. 
ModercUely, kadiri. 
More, zayidi. 
more than, zayidi ya. 
a little more, punde. 
Moreover, tena, na. 
Much more, or much less, sembtise, 
seuze. 

N. 

Near (adv.\ karibu. 

Near to, kariba na, kariba ya. 

Nearly^ karibu na or ya, kadri ya. 

Necessarily, of necessity, kanuni la- 
zim, ukwasefa. 

Neither — nor — , wala— wala— . 

Never, kabisa (with a negative pre- 
ceding), kamwi (M.). 

Next,^9k pili yake, kiisha. 
next to, -a pili ya. 

No, abaa, bah^ la, siyo, bakuna, 
bapana, hamna. These hut 
three words mean, tbere is not, 
or tbere is none. 
No, by no means, basba. 

Nor, wala. 

Not, si. See Negative Tenses of Verbs, 
p. 143. 

Not only — , hut also — ; si — ^bassi, 
— ^lakini tena; si — to, ilia — . 

Not yet, bado, asitasa, haitassa, &c. 
(M.). Hiese words are used to 
denote incompleteness, whatever 
the subject referred to may be. 
Not yet may generaHy be ex- 
pressed by the negative tense 
with -ja- (seep. 145), after which 
tense bado is generally added. 

Now, sasa, leo (to-day), wakati ban 
(at this time), zamani bizi (in 



these times), zamani zetn (in our 
times), sikn bizi (in these days). 
Now directly, sasa hivi. 

O. 

Obliquely, banamu. 
Of, -a, vuith a first letter varying 
according to the doss of the 
preceding word, that is of the 
thing possessed. 
L Mtn wa Ali, Al^s man, 
Watn wa Ali, Alfs people. 
Mbnzi wa Ali, AWs goat 
Mbnzi wa Ali, AlCs goats. 
u. Mnazi wa Ali, AlCs cocoa- 
nut tree. 
Minazi ya Ali, Al^s ooooci- 
nut trees. 
m. Kynmba ya Ali, AU^s house. 
Nyumba za Ali, AlCs 
houses. 
lY. Kisn cba Ali, Ali^s knife. , 
Visu vya Ali, Ali^s knives. 
Y. Kasba la Ali, Ali^s chesL 
Makasha ya Ali, AWs 
chests. 
VI. Uimbo wa AU, Alfs song. 

Nyimbo za Ali, Al^s songs. 
vn. Mabali pa Ali, Al'Cs place. 
yni. Kufa kwa Ali, AWs dying. 

1. Kymnbani mwa Ali, in AlCs 

house. 

2. Nynmbani pa Ali, by AlCs 

house. 

3. Nynmbani kwa Ali, to AWs 

house. 
Ta is sometimes pronounced a. 

saa a sita, twelve o'doek. 

Where it isintended to marhspedaUy 

the individuality of the possessor 

the possessive pronoun may he 

used instead ofthepreposition -a. 



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ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, &c. 



217 



Kit! obake Sultani, means the 

ckair in which no one but the 

SuUan aits, or the SuUan^a own 

, chair. 

Ot is included in some words which 

are therefore not followed by -a. 

Eina Abdallah, AhdaUah*s people, 

or people like AhdaUah. 
Wadi Mohammed, Mohammed^s 

son, 
Binti Mohammed, MohammecPs 

daughter. 
In some common phrases -a is 
omitted apparently for shortness 
only. 
Often, mara nyingi. 
On, juu yay the case in -ni. 
Put it on the table, weka mezani. 
Put it on the top of the table, weka 

juu ya meza. 
on both sides, pande mbili. . 
on every side, kotekote. 
on foot, kwa miguu. 
on one side, onesidedly, pogo. 
on purpose, makusudi 
on the part of, miongoni mwa. 
Once, mara moja. 
at once, mara moja, mara. 
once only, mara moja tu. 
Ofdy, peke yake, Ac. (by itself, 
alone), in, bassi, both following 
ihe word or phrase qualified. 
Orderly, taratibu. 
Otd, nje. 
out and out, tama. 
Speak out, sema saua. 
Outside, nje, kwa nje. 

'outside of, nje ya. 
Outtoa/rdly, kwa nje. 
Over, juu ya (of place), zayidi ya 
(of quantity), OYei in the sense 
of excess may be expressed by 



kupita, to pass ; and in the sense 
of finished, by kuisha, to oome 
to an end. 
The battle is over, mapigano ya- 
mekwisha. 

P. 

Patiently, stahimili. 

Perhaps, labuda, hwenda, kwenda, 

kwa nasibu, inshallah. 
Perpetually, dayima, ibadan. 
Possibly, labuda, yamkini (it is pos- 

sible), kwa yamkini (by possi" 

bility). 
Presently, halafa. 
Properly, vema, haliai, bawaba. 
-to, used as an enclitic subjoined 

to verbs and substantives, 
Amejiwekato, he has placed him- 

self properly. 

Q. 

(iuickl/y, hima, himahima, kwa ha- 

raka, upesi, mbio (running). 
Quietly, taratibu, polepole. 
Quite, kabisa, pia hili^i. 

B. 

Bather, zayidi (more), afathali (pre- 
ferably), 
much rather, sembuse, seuze. 

S. 

Secretly, kwa siri,ndani kwa ndani . 
Side by side, kandokando. 
Silently, kimyakimya. 
Since, tangu, toka, tokea. 
Slowly, polepole, taratibu, kiada. 
So, when followed by ob is generally 
omitted, when standing alone it 



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218 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



may he expressed hy ginsi, and 
•?vyo inserted in the verb. 
He is not so taU as you arey si 

mrefa kama wewe. 
I did not know he y^as so taU, si- 

kumjua ginsi alivyo mrefu. 
80 far flw, hatta. 
Sometimes, mara, mara kwa mara. 
Sometimes he laughs, somstim^es he 
cries f mara hucheka, mara hulia. 
Soon, sasa hivi (immediately), upesi 
(quickly), bado kidogo (yet a 
little), karibu (near). 
StiU, tena, hatta leo. 
Strongly, kwa nguvu. 
Suddenly, ghdfala, mara moja, thd- 
ruba moja. 

T. 

Tfuit (how that), kwamba, ya kwa- 

mba. 
(in order that), illi. See p. 141, 
Then, is often expressed hy the use of 

the -ka- tense, or hy the verbs 

kwisba, to finish, or, kwenda, 

to go. 
Akiisha akatoka, having finished 

this, he went out = then he went 

out. 
Akaenda akamkamata, and he 

went and seized him = then he 

seized him. 
(after this), baadaye, baada yake, 

nyumaye, nyuma yake. 
{then it was), ndipo. 
(in those days), zamani zile, siku 

zile. 
(at that time), wakati ule. 
There, pale, huko, kule. Pale 

points to what is nearest, kule 

to what is farthest off. 
Therefore, kwa sababu hii. 



Though, kwamba; the -kl- tense, 
p. 136, when the case is put as 
an existing one ; the -nge- tense, 
p. 138, where the case is put as 
not existing. 

Though he is, akiwa. 

Though he he, angawa. 

(even if), -japo, p. 138. 
Thus (in this way), hivi, hivyo. 

just thus, vivi hivi, vivyo hivyo. 

(in the same way), vivyo. 
Till, hatta, mpaka wa. 
To (as the sign of the infinitive)^ 
ku- ; the u hecomes w hefore a, e, 
or i, and is often omitted hefore 
o and u. 

Kwisha = ku-isha, to finish. 

Xwenda = ku-enda, to go. 

Koga = ku-oga, to haihe. 

To hefore a verh where it expresses 
the. purpose or the object aimed 
at, is expressed hy the use of the 
subjunctive. 

I stood up to look, nalisimama 
nione. 

TeU him to help you, mwambia 
akusayidie. 

I want him to' go, namtaka aende. 

I want to go, nataka kwenda. 
(In such cases as this the verh 
in the infinitive is used as a 
substantive.) 

(unto) is generally contained in 
the verh, kapa = toaive to (not 
to give). If not contained in 
the meaning of the original verh, 
it may he expressed hy the use of 
the applied form. In the few 
cases in which to cannot he 
brought into the meaning of the 
verh, it must he rendered hy 
kwa. 



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ABVUBBS, PREPOSITIONS, *c. 



219- 



(08 far 08), hatta. 
(to the home of)y kwa. 
Together, pamoja, wote. 

When joined vnthpersoiu together 
i8 expressed by forms of -ote, 
aU. 

twende sote, let us go together, 
mwende nyote, go together. 
wende wote, let them go together, 
both together, wote, wote wawili 
Topsy-turvy, kitwakitwa, vitwavi- 

twa. 
TotaUy, kabisa, pia. 
Truly, kweli, hakika, yakini, inna. 
Tvjtce over, kuwilL 



Unawares, ghdfala. 

Under, chini ya. 

Until, hatta. 

Up, juu. 

Upon, juu ya, case in -ni. See On. 

Upwards, juu. 

Utterly, kabka, pia yote, tikitiki 

V. 

Vainly, burre. 

Very, sana. Sana always follows 

the word qualified by it. 
Vigorously, kwa nguvu, saua. 
Violently, kwa nguvu, kassi. 

W. 

Well, vema, sana, -to. See Properly. 
What 9 See p. 122. 

What do you want i Watakanini? 

What tree is it ? Mti gani huu ? 

What man ? Mtu yupi ? 
What = that which See Belatives, 

p. 117. 
Wheni Lini? 

When (if, as soon as, (fee), the -ki 
tense, p. 186. 



(at the time when), -po, treated at 

a relative particle and joined 

with the verb, p. 119. 
(during the time), wakati wa. 
when it rains, wakati wa mvua. 
When the harvest comes, wakati 

wa kuvuna, [wa]Tunapo. 
(even if), -japo, p. 138. 
Whenever, wakati wote, kiUa -pa 

Whenever I go, kill a neudapo. 
Where ? Wapi, api, p. 123. 
WTiere are you going f Wenda 

wapi ? 
Where, po, ko, mo, treated as relative 

particles and joined with the 

verb. Po implies nearness^ and 

mo the being inside. 
1 don't know where he is, simjui 

alipo. 
I don*t know where I am going, 

sijui ninapokwenda. 
I donH know where I came from, 

sijui ninakotoka. 
Where the tree is (or was), penyi 

mti. 
Wherever, po pote, ko kote, mo mote. 
WTierever I go, killa nendako. 
Wherever I enter, killa ningiamo. 
Wherever I am, killa nilipo. 
Wherefore, kwa sababu hii or hiyo. 
Whether — or — , ao^ao— . 
Whether it be, licha. 
(if), kwamba. 
WhUe, maaddm, maazdl. 
While, is generally expressed by 

the use of -ki- prefixed to the 

verb, p. 136. 
While U is yet early, kungali na 

mapema bade. 

? Mbona? Kwani? Kwa 

nini? Ya nini? Kwa sababu 

gani ? Ginsi or Gissi gani ? 



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220 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



With, na, pamoja na. 
(as an inttrumenty, kwa. 
(cofntmningy having), -enyi. See 
i>.97. 
Within, ndanL 
Without, nje. 

Without (prep,), pasipo (where there 
is not). 
Without is generaUy expressed by 
the Hsipo- tense (p. 146). It 
may he represented by a simple 
negative. 
He is without shame, haDa haja 

= he has no shame. 
Without, followed in English by 
the pa/rticipial or verbal in Aug, 
may he rendered hy the negative 
subjunctive %>f the verh. 
Without seeing him, aaimwone. 
Without there heing, pasiwe. 
Wonderfully, ajfb, ajabu. 



Y. 

Yearly, mwaka kwa mwaka. 
Yes, a6e, e6e, na*am, vema, njema, 
yakini, ndio, kwelL 
Ewaa or Ee wallah are often used 
by skives or inferiors to express 
a wiUing assent. 
Inshallah is used as a promise to 

do something. 
Lebeka or Labeka, contracted 
into leb^, ebbe or even he, is 
used hy inferiors as an answer 
when caUed. Superiors or 
equals generally use naam, the 
Arabic yes. 
Ndiyo yalio, that is just it. 
Yonder, kule, kulee,jp. 115, 116. 

Z. 

Zigzag, upogoupogo. 



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( 221 



^ 



INTEEJEtJTIONS. 

There are in Swahili, as in all languages, some 
scarcely articulate Interjections, and many of the natives, 
especially of the lower class, use a great deal of action, 
often joined with half-articulate exclamatory sounds, 
to illustrate and enforce their meaning. The following 
are> the most usual Interjections, and those which can 
best be written. The words used for Yes and No are 
given in the preceding list, pp. 216 and 220. 

The ordinary salutations are in practice a sort of 
Interjections, not being very easily explained under 
any other head. 

A slave addressing a superior says Sikamoo or Nasika- 
mooy for nashika miguu, I embrace your feet. The 
superior replies Marahaha, thank you, or welome, the 
word being originally an Arabic form of congratulation 
and well-wishing. 

Equals very commonly say when they meet Jamho or 
Tawbo, to which the reply is Janibo or Jamho aana. There 
is a playful or very affectionate way of continuing the 
dialogue thus — Jambo. Jamho. Jamho sana. Jamho aana, 
Sana aana. Sana sana, Kama lulu (like pearls). Kama 



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222 SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 

marijani (like coral), dc, dc. The more correct expres- 
sions are — Hu jambo ? Are you well ? and the answer, 
Si jambo, I am well. It is difficult to explain these 
phrases intelligibly. Hu janibo f is • literally, Are you • 
notv a matter or affair ? or still more strictly, Are you 
not a word ? The meaning is very nearly that of the 
English, Is nothing the matter with you ? Sometimes 
Ha jambo is used to express. He is well, or Ha jambo 
kidogo, He is not very ill, or He is a little better. One 
may ask, U halt gani ? What state are you in ? i.e.. How 
are you ? to which a proper reply is, Njema, hemd il Hlahi, 
Good, praise be to God. The Arabic SabalTcheir, Good 
morning, and Masalkheir, Good afternoon, are often 
heard. The more elegant forms are Subahh AUdh bilh-r 
heir and Masdk AUdh bilkheir. It is not usual to inquire 
about the health of a wife or of the women of a house- 
hold, unless among very intimate friends, or for some 
special reason. When necessary, one should say, Hu- 
janibo nyumhanif or U halt gani nyumbanif How are 
you in the house, i.e.. How are your household, or 
those in your house ? It is proper, if you are asked 
, how yon are, always to answer, well, for the sake of 
the oihen ; and similarly if you are asked Habari gani f 
What news ? to answer Njema, good, and then after- 
wards to give a true account of the matter. 

In Swahili Interjections a final h is often distinctly 
heard. It requires much practice to enable a European 
to make this sound properly. 



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( 223 ) 



LIST OF INTEEJECTIONS. 



A. 

Ah! An exclamation of mingled 
grief and surprise. The final 
h must be distinctly sounded. 

Ahsdnt or asanti, thank you. Ah' 
sdnt is an Arabic word mean- 
ing, You have done well. It is 
sometimes used profusely by 
way of mere compliment. 

Amirm. Amen, used at the end of 
a prayer. 

AH ! Look you I I say I It is 
used generally as a means of 
calling attention to what has 
been said, or is about to be said. 
It is a sort of vocal note of 
admiration. 

B. 
Bassil or Bosb! That will do I 
Enough ! Stop I Ko more I 



Ghfibl An exclamation of impa- 
tience and contempt; the ch 
is the sound most heard, tiie 
vowel being very short and in- 
significant. 



E. 

Eel 01 The interjection of in- 
vocation. 

Ewe! plur. Enyil You there 1 A 
rather contemptuous way of 
demanding attention. It is 
used for Hi I I say I and any 
exclamation merely meant to 
attract notice. It must not be 
used to a superior and rarely 
only to an equal. It is custo- 
mary to call to them Bwana ! 
i.e., Master! The answers 
will be found in the previous* 
list, p. 220, under the word 
Yea, 

H. 

Haya! An exclamation borrowed 
from the Arabic ; it means, 
give your attention to this, go 
on with it. It is used where 
we say, Come along 1 Look 
sharp I Be quick I Go on I 
If it has been proposed to do 
anything, Haya! means, Lei 
us set about it. Haya! in 
commonly used by a master or 



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224 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



overlooker to hasten men abont 
their work. 

Hima I Quick I Be qnick I Make 
haste I Often doubled, Hima 
hima I 

Eddi! with a great stress on the 
0. It is ndt right to enter any 
house or room (not your own) 
without first crying Hddi! and 
waiting for some one to c6me, 
or at least to answer, Kdnb, 
Gome in I 



Jel or Te! Hullol What nowl 
Weill What is it? 

K. 

Kdrtb I i.e., come near I It is used 
to invite people into a house, 
to join a party, or to sit down 
and put themselves at their 
ease. Kdrib! may generally 
be translated, Come and sit 
with us I and a common answer 
is, Nimekaa hitdko, I am set 
down. 

KSfulel An exclamation of con- 
tempt. 

Kuaheril Good-bye! Farewell I 
Sometimes a plural is made, 
Kuaherinit though it seems to 
be an incorrect form. 

Sometimes a special friend 
adds, Ya kuonana, as much as' 
to say, May we soon meet again. 

Kumbel What I What then I An 
expression of surprize, espe- 
cially used when things turn 
out not to be as they were 
represented to be. 



Lattil Oh that I Would that! 
An exclamation of regret, a 
wish that things had been 
otherwise. 

Looo I An exclamation of surprize ; 
the o is more dwelt upon in 
proportion to the amount of 
surprize. 

M. 

Mardhaba! Thank you I It is 
well I used by way of acknow- 
ledging a gift or a compliment. 

Miye! Me I II I am the one ! 

Mwmyewe t You did it yourself I 

O. 

out An exclamation foreboding 
evil. Woe I OU wenu 1 Woe 
unto you ! OU wangu ? Woe 
is me I 

S. 

8aa! You I I say! It is put 
after a word to give emphasis 
to it. Njoo saa 1 Come on, do ! 

Salaam I Peace! Hail! It is 
used as a salutation by the 
Indians. The regular Arabic 
Salaxim dUikuml Peace be 
with you ! and the answer, Wa 
aleik salaam! And wiUi you 
peace! is not very commonly 
heard. Salaam is often used 
in the sense of compliments : 
Salaam Bibil With the mis- 
tress' compliments, — said in 
presenting anything. 

SimiUat Out of the way! Ori- 
ginally, as it is said, BimUUdh, 
In the nameof God. It is now 



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LIST OF INTEBJE0TI0N8. 



225 



the common cry by which people 
are warned of something com-, 
ing. SimiUa punda! Make 
way for a donkey ! SimiUd 
ubaul Take care of the plank ! 
Two servants frequently go 
before a great man to clear the 
way for him, and call out to 
any one in the road, SimiUal 
SmiUa! 

A plural SimiUeni! is some- 
times made as though it were 
the imperative of a verb. The 
more correct plirase for G et out 
of the way I iaJUengel 
Starehe! Don't disturb yourself! 
When a new-comer enters, the 
rest rise to do him honour, 
which he tries to prevent by 
saying, Starehe I Starehe I It 



is properly used to deprecate 
any trouble or disturbance on 
the speaker's account. 



Tendenil Go on! Let us go! 
Probably the imperative of ku- 
terida, to do or to be employed 
about 

Tutu! Don't touch I Used to a 
child meddling with what he 
had better leave alone. 



V. 

Vema! Very well! 
That will do I 



go be it! 



Weye! You! 
It's you I 



W. 

You are the one! 



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226 SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



FOEMATION OF WORDS. 

The formation and introduction of new words go on 
so freely in Swahili, that no guide to the language 
would be complete without a section on the subject. 

Foreign words are adopted in a shape as nearly like 
their own as the rules in regard to Swahili syllables will 
allow. At first indeed a word may be UBed in its crude 
original shape, but it soon has vowels introduced into, 
and subjoined to it, so as to bring it into a regular form. 
Arabic words seldom present great difficulties when 
once the gutturals have been toned down. Thus hhdbar 
(news) softens into hahdri, wakt (time) becomes first 
wdkti and then wakdtiy kahr or gahr (a grave) is softened 
and expanded into hahuri. It is seldom that an Arabic 
word presents so much difficulty as did these three. 
Portuguese has furnished some words, as kasha (caxa), a 
large box ; meza, a table ; mvinyo (vinho), wine. French 
gives a few, as hweta (boite) a box; divai (du vin) 
claret. An instance of English adaptation occurs in 
manowatiy which is the ctirrent designation of an English 
man-of-war. 



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FORMATION OF WORDS 227 



Some rules have been given at the end of the section 
on Verbs for the formation of several derived forms 
(p. 157). Verbs in the causative and neuter forms may 
be made from other parts of speech, especially from 
foreign Adjectives, by changing their final syllable 
into -hha or -eaha, -ika or -eha, as though they had been 
originally Verbs. 

Ohali, dear. KughaUsha^ to make dear. 
Laini, smooth. Kulainisha^ to make smooth. 
Kulainika, to be made smooth. 

Beside those formations which are in daily use, it is 
a great help to the understanding of the language to 
bear in mind the traces of formations not now ordinarily 
employed. In regard to Verbs it is a constant rule that 
those ending in -ua reverse the meaning of similar verbs 
ending in -a only. 

Ku/unga, to fasten. Kufungim, to unfasten. 

Ku/uka, to fill in a hole. Kufukua^ to clear out a hole. 

Several verbs show traces of a rule, which prevails in 
some other African languages, that the change of -a into 
^ya gives the Verb a causative meaning. 

KttponOj to get welL KuponyOy to cure. 
Kupgopa, to fear. Kuogofya, to frighten. 

There are many questions about the form of Verbs 
which need much more investigation. What is the rule 
by which some causatives are made in -sha and some in 
"Za ? Has the -sJia termination the eflfect of to make to 
he, and -za that of to make to do f What is the explana- 
tion of the apparently neuter form of some active Verbs, 

Q 2 



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228 8WAHILI HANDBOOK, 

such as hufunilca, to cover ? Wliat is the effect of the 
terminations -ma and -/a, as in kuungama and hufumhata f 
What dialect did they originate in? What are the 
rules for the termination -anya, which seems to be 
common in the most northerly Swahili ? 

It has been shown in the section on verbs how some 
tenses are formed by the use of an auxiliary, and some 
by a tense prefix which has no independent meaning. 
An example of the transition between the two is sup- 
plied by the three forms of the negative infinitive : 1. 
kutoa Jcupenda ; 2. kutoa jpenda; 3. kutopenda. In the 
first form both words have a substantial independence ; 
in the second the principal verb, penda, is already 
drawn out of its proper form, and depends for its 
meaning upon the first verb, toa, as upon a prefix ; in 
the third it has swallowed up the final of the first verb 
and appropriated its prefix ku-. The form of the future 
prefix which is used with relatives points to taka as the 
original form, and the verb kutaka is so like our own 
word to will that one can, hardly be wrong in supposing 
that in both cases the change from a verb expressing 
volition to a mere sign of tense expressing futurity has 
proceeded in a similar manner. Now, if the tense pre- 
fixes were ever independent words, the principal verb 
must have been in the infinitive ; and, if so, the presence 
of the ku- before monosyllabic verbs, wherever the accent 
requires it, is fully explained ; it Was dropped wherever 
it served no purpose, and retained where it was con- 
venient to retain it. The original independence of the 
tense prefix and of the principal verb would also go to 
account for the way in which the objective prefix clings 



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FORMATION OF WORDS, 229 

to the principal verb; it would then have originally 
followed the hi-^ and so been severed by it from all the 
other prefixes. The only cases in which the natives 
separate the prefixes from the verbs in writing seem to 
be where a particle of relation is joined with the -wa-, 
-Zi-, and -tdka- prefixes, and in the past conditional or 
-ngali- tense. It is curious to have in such a word as 
atakayekuja the same letters exactly used to form a 
tense prefix and to express an independent verb. Ata- 
kaye kuja means, who desires to come, atakayekuja, who 
will come, in the sense of a simple future. 

Adjectives. 

Adjectives are made from Verbs in correct Swahili by 

substituting -vu or -fu for the final -a. Where the final 

is preceded by a consonant the Adjective is made from 

the applied form. 

Kunyamaa, to remain silent. -nyamavu, silent. 
Kvharibu, to destroy. -haribifu, destrnctive. 

Verbs that end in -ka change this into -vu in making 
the Adjective. 

KuehokOy to become tired, -chovu, tired. 

These forms do not now appear to be freely made or 

used in the common dialect of Zanzibar. A somewhat 

similar meaning may be expressed by the use of the 

variable Preposition -a followed by the Infinitive of the 

Verb. 

Substantives. 

Substantives may be freely made by prefixing to the 
simple form of the Verb the initial letters proper to the 
first, or to the fourth class, according to whether it is 



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230 • SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

a living being or a thing which does what the Yerb 
expresses. It must be observed, that this form is so 
purely verbal that it takes an object after it just as a 
Verb would. 

Mfanya biashara, a trade maker, i.e., a merchant. 
VifcM, things which are of service, necessaries. 
Kifungua mlango, the door opener. 

The final letter is sometimes changed into -t, and the 
word ceases to govern an object. 

Msemi, a speaker. 

Where the final -a is preceded by a -6- it becomes -i?-. 

Ktciba, to steal. Mwivi, a thief. 

Kiigomiba, to qoarreL Mgomviy a quarrelsome person. 

Where the above rules would produce a common 
word with another meaning, the ku of the Infinitive is 
retained. 

Kulima^ to cultivate. JUkulima, a cultivator. 

Mlimay a mountain. 

There are a few traces of a formation of verbals by 
changing the last letter into -e, as in -tevle, chosen, from 
kuteu{l]a, to choose. 

The habitual doer of an action may be denoted by 
adding -ji to the simple form of the Verb and prefixing 
the initial letters proper to the first Class. 

Kiwmha, to beg. * Mwomhaji^ a beggar, 

KuibUy to steal. Mimbaji, an habitual thief. 

. Another way of denoting a person who does what the 
Verb expresses is formed by changing the final letter 
into -si, -ahiy or -zi, and employing the usual prefixes. 



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FORMATION OF WORDS. 231 

When the Verb ends in -ha the -ha becomes sM ; where 
the Verb ends in -ta the -ta becomes -sL 

■ Kuokoa, to save. Mwokozi, a saviour. 

Kununtta^ to buy. Mnunuzi, a purchaser. 

Kuaka, to build (in stone). Mwashij a mason. 

Kufwxta^ to follow. Mfwui^ a follower. 

The result of the action denoted by the Verb may be 
expressed by changing the final -a into -o and using 
some appropriate prefix. 

Kuzaa, to bear. Mcutao, fruit, produce. 

Kutenda, to do. KUendo, an action. 

Kvjendoy to go. Mwendo^ a journey, or going. 

Of the Substantival prefixes those of the fourth (Ki-) 
Class are most often used. 

The same forms especially in the fifth Class are used 
to express the place where an action is generally done. 

Kuoka, to bake. JoTco^ a baking place. 

Kukusanyika, to be assembled. Makumnyiko^ a gathering place, 

or an assembly. 

Words of similar meaning are also made by the termi- 
nations 'Zi -shiy '81, ' See above. 

Mavao, or Mavazi, dress, garments. 
KizaOf or Kizazi, birth, a generation, 
Pendo, or Penzi, love. 

Where the Verb and Substantive are both borrowed 
from the Arabic, it is useful to remember that the Sub- 
stantive has generally a where some other vowel occurs 
in the Verb. 

KuabudUi to worship. Ibada, worship. 

Kusafiri, to travel. Safari, a journey. 



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232 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

Sometimes both the Arabic and the Swahili forms 
occur. 

KuJibUf to answer. Jatoahu and majihut an answer. 

Verbs joined with relatives, or with the particles of 
place or time, may be treated as Substantives. 

Wendako Tcote, whithersoever thou goesi 
Killa Tiendapoy every time I go. 
Zikerezwazot turnery, turned gogds. 

Substantives of place may be made from Adjectives 
by putting them into the form required by MahcUi, 
place (Class VII.). 

PanyamavUf a quiet place. 

The place where something is may be expressed by 

penyL 

Penyi mtendey where the date tree is, or was. 

The place for doing anything may be expressed by 
j)a followed by the Infinitive of the Verb. 

Pahutokea, a place to go out at, an outlet. 

Abstract Substantives are ordinarily formed by means 
of the prefix U- or IF-. 

Karimu, generous. Ukarimu, generosity. 

-eupe, white. TTctfpe, whiteness. 

MtDtziy a thief. Uizi, thievishness. 

Muuaj% a murder. Uuaji, murders. 

Waziri^ a vizier, Uwaziri, viziership. 

An instance in which both Arabic and Swahili forms 
are used occurs in the word for enmity. 

Adui, an enemy. Wadui or Adawa, enmity. 

Nations, their country and language, are regularly 



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FORMATION OF WORDS. 233 

expressed by the prefixes of the first, sixth, and fourth 
Glasses. 



a, a. Galla. UgdUij Galla land. Kigala^ the Galla 
language. 
MzungUf a European. Uzungu, the native country of the 
Europeans. Kizungu, the language which Europeans 
speak. 

It is to be observed that the U- form would also 
express the being a Galla, European, &c., and that the 
Ki^ form denotes the sort or kind of anything, not of 
language only. It is seldom used absolutely except of 
the language, but when preceded by -a (of) its true 
meaning becomes evident. 

Mavao ya Kizungu^ European dress. 
Viazi vya Kizungu, potatoes. 

The Ki' form may be made from other substantives. 

Mavao ya hifaume, royal robes (form m/otime, a king, and 
u/aume, kingdom or kingship). 

The formation of Adverbs and Prepositions has been 
described in the section on the smaller parts of speech. 



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( 234 ) 



2 



J25 

<5 



§ 



g 1 






T^ 
^ 



I 

f ^ 

S M 






g 3 



liii^i-i.. 









-^ .* 



i»H i»H^ i^H i^ ^^^ ^^ ' 

w w v-/ v-/ w O ' 



\-/ >-/ o 



-S^s S, 



<!> . 'iv 






*. . . 



I I 



i ^. ^ A A A^ 



^^^'^^^'^'^ I |^5iw5^ 






HM *-< kJ 

" B &i 



egi 



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( 235 ) 



Table of the Pbeposition -a (of) 
in four Languages. 







SWAHILI. 




Nyamwrzi. 


Yao. 


I, 


Sing. 


Wa 


Ywa 


Wa 


Jwa 




Plur. 


Wa 


Wa 


Wa 


Wa 


II. 


Sing. 


Wa 


Wa 


Gwa 


Wa 




Plnr, 


Ya 


Ya 


Ya 


Ja 


III. 


Sing. 


Ya 


Ya 


Ya 


Ja 




Plur. 


Za 


Za 


Za 


Sya 


IV. 


Sing. 


Cha 


Kya 


Cha 


Cha 




Plur. 


Vya 


Vya 


Pya 


Ya 


V. 


Sing. 


La 


Jh 


Lya 


Lya 




Plur. 


Ya 


Ya 


Ga 


Ga 


VI. 


Sing. 


Wa 


Lwa 


Lwa 


Lwa 




Plur. 


Za 


Za 


Za 


Sya 


vn. 




Pa 


Ha 




Pa 


vm. 




Kwa 


Kwa 


Kwa 


Kwa 


(IX.) 


Sing. 




Ea 


Ea 


Ea 




Plur. 




Vya(?) 


Twa 


Twa 



END OP PAKT I. 



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HANDBOOK OF THE SWAHILI LANGUAGE 

AS SPOKEN AT ZANZIBAR. 

Part IL 
SWAHILI-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



'ji 

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( 239 ) 



PEELIMINAEY OBSERVATIONS. 



In using the following Vocabulary it is necessary to remember that 
Swahill words change very much at the beginning and not often at 
, the end. 

In searching for the meaning of a word, which is not to be found 
exactly as written, it is well to examine first the final syllable, so as to 
correct, or remove, any termination or enclitic which may be attached 
to it. These are as follow :— 

1. The passive of the verb is made by changing -a into -wa. Verbs 
ending in two consecutive vowels frequently use as their passive the 
passive of the applied form which ends in -liwa or -lewa. 

Kupenda, to love. Kupendwa, to ber loved. 

Kufungua, to unfasten. Kufunguliwa, to be unfastened. 

Kuzaa, to bear. Kuzaliwa, to be bom. 

Kuhomboay to buy back. Kukomhqleuja, to be bought back. 

2. Verbs ending in -a change the -a into -e in the subjunctive and 
imperative, and into -t in the negative present. 

Pende^ love thou. 
Apende, that he may love. 
Hapendi, he does not love. 

The change of the final vowel distinguishes hapendi^ he does not 
love, from hapenda, a contracted form of nikapenda, and I loved. 

3. The plural of the imperative is made by adding -nt to the 
singular. 

Pendani or Pendent, love ye. 
Sifuni, praise ye. 
Fihiriniy consider ye. 

B 2 



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240 FRELIMINABT 0B8EBVATI0N8. 

4. Sabstantives fonn the locative case by addiog -n^ 

Nyunibani mwangu^ inside my house. 
Nyumbani kwangu, to or at my house. 
Nyumbani pangu, by or near my house. All from Nyumba, 

5. -nf may stand for nini i What ? 

Watakani i What do you want ? 

6. Jef How? is subjoined to the verb expressing the action in» 
quired about 

Asemaje f How does he speak ? i.e., What does he say ? 

7. mnoy exceedingly, always follows the word it qualifies, and may 
be treated as an enclitic. 

8. 'to, which, however, rarely occurs in the dialect of Zanzibar, 
denotes goodness and fitness. 

Kuweka, to place. Kuwekato, to place properly. 
Manuka^ smells. ManukatOy scents. 

9. The relative signs and the particles denoting time and place are 
subjoined to the verb when there is no tense prefix, otherwise they 
follow the tense prefix. 

Tulala-poj when we sleep. 
Tuna-pO'ldla, while we are sleeping. 

The particles denoting time and place are, 

-jjo, when or where. 
'koy whither or whence. 
'tnOf wherein. 

These preceded only by the personal prefix imply the substantive 
verb to he. 

Yupo, he is there, not far off. 

Zipo, d'c.j <fec., they are there, not far off, &c., &c 
TukOt he is there, far off. 

Ziko, <fec., Ac, they are there, far off, &c., &c. 
Tumo, he is there inside. 

ZimOy Ac, <fec., they are there inside, &c., &c. 

The relative signs are, -c7to, -lo, -o, -po, -ryo, -iro, -ye, -j/o, -zo. . 
These syllables with na prefixed have (ho meaning of and, or icitX 
hinif her, it^ or them. 



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PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 241 

10. llie possessive pronouns may be nsed in enclitic forms. 

Thyy or your, may be expressed by subjoining, according to tlie 
class of the flabstantive, -c/jo, -lo, -o, -po, -vyo, -wo, "yoy or -20. 

HiB^ hers, or its, may be expressed by subjoining -che^ -e, -le, -pe, 
vye, -icCi -ye, or -ze. 
Other enclitic forms of the possessive pronouns are, — • 

-7M/tf , or -angu, my. -eft*, our. 

-fco, or 'OkOy thy. -cnt*, your. 

-Afc, or -afce, liis, &c. -ao, their. 

The final letter of the substantive generally merges into the initial 
of the pronoun. 

Mwanangu, my chihl. Mwanetu^ our child. 

MwanakOy thy child. Mwanenu, your child. 

Mwanahe, his child. Mwanao, their child. 

11. New verbs may always be formed when wanted by changing the 
final vowel into -ia or -ea, -Ha or -lea, to make the applied form; into 
-za or -sha, -iza or -eza, -isha or -esTuif to make a causative form ; into 
'ana, to make a reciprocal form ; and into -fea, -tZfa, or -eJca, to make a 
neuter or quasi-passive form. 

12. In old and poetical Swahili the object of the verb is suffixed as 
well as prefixed, as in U-ni-hifathimi, Do thou preserve me ; where 
both the ni and the mi denote the object of the verb. 

The syllables thus used are -choy -Zo, -wt, -nyi, -0, -poy -ai, -vyoj -we, 
'too, -ye, -yo, -zo. 

Having cleared the word of all adventitious terminations it wil 
probably be found at once ; if not, look for the first syllable, and so 
on, taking syllable by syllable until the word, its number, person, and 
tense, will all have been explained. It must, however, be borne iu 
mind that nouns in tt- or w- generally drop the initial letter in the 
plural and frequently substitute for it n- or ny-. 

Verbs and adjectives are here indexed under the first letter of the 
simplest form, or of that to which the prefixes are joined. 

Kupenda will be found as Fenda ku-, to love. 
Mabaya will be found as -haya, bad. 

Words which may be used as adjectives or as substantives, but from 
their nature can hardly be applied to any but animate beings, will be 
found under m- or mw-j as they can very rarely in the singular take 
any other prefix. 



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242 



FRELIMINAR Y OB SEE VA TIONS. 



Substantives are indexed by the prefix with which they are generally 
used. It must be remembered, however, that the use of particular 
prefixes may be nearly always varied to suit any particular shade of 
meaning, so that if the word is not to be found under one, it may 
happen that its meaning can bo found under some other. 

Where no plural is mentioned, it is to be understood that the plural, 
if used at all, is in the same form as the singular. 



The following table of prefixes may be found useful, 
each will be explained in the Vocabulary. 



Substantival prefixes. 

Ch- Ki- Ma- Mw- 

J- Ku- Mi- N- 

Ji- M- Mu- Ny- 

Adjectival prefixes. 

Ch- Ku- 'M- Mu- 

J- Kw- Ma- Mw- 

Ki- M- Mi- N- 

Pbonominal prefixes. 

Ch- Ku- Li- Mw- 

I- Kw- M- Pa- 

Ki- L- Mu- U- 



Ny- 

P. 

Pa- 



Vi- 
W- 

Wa- 



The use of 



U- W- 

Vi- Wa- 

Vy- 



Vi- 
Vy- 
Wa- 



Y- 
Z- 

Zi- 



Verbal prefixes. 

1. Personal or subjective prefixes, which take precedence of all 
others. 



A- 

♦Ch- 

Ha- 

Hu- 

♦I- 



*Ki- 

*Ku- 

♦L- 

*Li. 

♦M- 



*Mw- 

N- 

Ni- 
♦Pa- 
*P- 



Si- 
*Tu- 
•Tw- 
♦U- 
♦Vi- 



♦Vy- 

♦W- 

*Wa. 

*Y- 

*Ya- 



Yu- 
•Z- 
•Zi- 



Tense prefixes which precede all except the signs of person. 

-a- -j'^po- -ku- -na- -si- 

-ali- -ka- -li- -ngali- -sije- 

-ja- -ki- -me- -nge- -sipo- 



-ta- 
-taka- 



• These may all be preceded by ffa^ to form negative tenses In the Indicative mood, 
and personal prefixes followed by -«i- make negative subjunctives. 



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PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS, 213 

3. Particles of place, time, and relation, "which follow the tense 
prefix, or, if there is no tense prefix, are subjoined to the verb. 



-cho 


-mo 


-wo 


-ko 


-0 


-ye 


-kwo 


-po 


-yo 


-lo 


-vyo 


-zo 


4. Objective prefixes, which always immediately precede the verb. 


-i- 


-mw- 


-u- 


-ki- 


-n- 


-vi- 


-ku- 


-ni- 


-wa- 


-li- 


-pa- 


-ya- 


-m- 


-tu- 


-zi- 



A suppressed I or r always exists between two consecutive vowels. 
It is often heard in the Merima dialect, and frequently appears where 
otherwise three or more vowels would follow one anothe^. However, 
the more classical the Swahili, the less tolerant it is in any case of an 
I between vowels, or even as an initial letter. 

heee = hdde, ete = leie. 

The following letters are interchanged ; 

I and r, s and shf and vulgarly hi and c/u', and th and z. 

Zanzibar ch = t (M.). 

„ e = a (M.). 

„ h = kh (Ar.). 

„ j =d(M.),y(A.)(N.). 

„ t = ch (Ozi.). 

„ v=z(A.). 

„ z = V (Mer.), th (Patta and Ozi.), j (vulgar). 

The letters enclosed in parentheses deuote the various dialects. 
(M.) = Mombas (kimvita). (Mer.) = Southern Coast dialect 

(kimerima). 
(A.) fi= Lamoo (kiamu). (Ar.) = Arabic. 

(N.) = Poetical Swahili (kingozi). 



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SWAHILI-ENGLISH VOCABULAEY. 



The sound of a in Swaliili re- 
sembles that of a in the English 
word "father." It is, perhaps, — 
except when doubled — somewhat 
sharper and lighter. 

When the final a of any prefix — 
except tiie negative prefix ha — is* 
brought by composition to precede 
immediately either e or t,it coalesces 
with them and produces the sound 
of a long e. 

Aka-enda is pronounced ahenda, 

Akawa-ita is pronounced akaweta. 

A and u have a tendency to 
coalesce into an o sound. 

Arabic substantives incorporated 
into Swahili havfi often been made 
by changing -t- in the verb into -a- 
in the substantive. 

Ktibarizi, to hold a public 
audience. Baraza, a public 
audience. 

Kumfirif to travel Safari, a 
journey. 

A occurs in some dialects where e 
is used in Zanzibar. See E. 



A-NQ 

A = ya, of. 

-a with a varying initial letter, 

of. -a is used in such phrases 

as the following for in : Unitie 

wa machot put it in my eyes. 

Akamchoma ya kitovu, and he 

stabbed him in the navel. 

A', the sign of the third person 

singular prefixed to verbs when 

governed by substantives which 

denote animate beings — he, she^ 

or it 

Where the tense prefix begins with 

a, one of the a's disappears. 
The following are instances of the 

way in which this a occurs. 
A-penda (for a-a-pendd), he loves. 
A-na-pendaf he is loving. 
A-m-penday he has loved. 
A-li'penda (for a-ali-penda), he 

loved. 
A'ka-penda, and he loved. 
A-ta-penda, he will love. 
A-ki-pendttf he being in the con- 
dition of loving. 
A-nge-penda, he would love. 



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246 



A-NG 



AMI 



A-ngali-penda, he would have 

loved. 
A-japo-penda, even if he lovea. 
A'Sipo-pendaj he not loving. 
A-peTidCf let him, or that he may 

love. 
A-81-pende, let him not, or that 
he may not love, or without his 
loving. 
-a-, the Bign of the present in- 
definite; it follows the prefix 
denoting the person of the 
Buhject or nominative, and 
precedes that denoting the 
object or accusative. 
N-a-m-penda, I love him (I do 
him love). 
Aali, choice, good. 
AoMij disobedient, rebellious. 
Ahadan, or abddiy always, constantly. 
Ahiri ku-, to pass over, go across (a 
Ahiria^ passengers. [river, &c.). 

AJnrisha ku-j to put across, to ferry 

over. 
Abudia hu-, to give worship to. 
Ahudisha ku-, to cause to worship. 
Ahudu ku; to worship. 
Acha ku'f to leave, leave alone, let 

be, let go, allow, acquit, divorce. 
Achana Zcu-, to leave one another, to, 

separate. 
AehaHj pickle, a relish made of 

lemon-juice and red pepper. 
Achia kU't to leave to or for, to be- 
queath to. 
Achilia ku-<, to pass over what a 
person has done, to forgive, to 
neglect. 
Ada, a custom, especially a customary 

gift 
Adahu^ good manners, politeness. 
Kutia adahu, to make polite, to 
teach good manners. 



Adamu, Adam. 
Mwana Adamu, or Bin Adamu^ a 
human being, a man. 
Adawa, enmity. 
Adi ku; to accompany a person part 

of his way, 
Adihu ku-t to educate, to teach 

manners. 
Adili, right, right conduct. 
Adiliku; to learn to behave rightly. 
AdUisha ku-y to teach to behave 

rightly. 
Aduiy plur. Adui or maadui, an 
Aee, Yes. [enemy. 

Afa, plur. maafa, an enemy. 
Afathali, rather, better of the two, 

best, preferably. 
Afla, health, good health. 
Afikana ku-j to come to an agree- 
ment, agree. 
Afiuni, opium. 
Afu, wild jasmine. 
Afu ku; to save, to deliver, to par- 
don, to preserve. Also, to get 
Afya. See Afia, health. [well. 

Afya ku; to make to swear. 
Aga kU'j to take leave of, to agree 

with. 
Agana ku; to take leave of one 

another, to make an agreement. 
Agga ku-, to be lost, to perish. 
Agiza ku-^ to commission, direct, 

give in charge, appoint to. 
Agizo, plur. maagizo, conmiission 

charge. 
Agiia ku-y to predict. 
Agulia ku-, to predict ofc 
Ahaa! No! 
Ahadi (vulgarly wa^adt), a promise, 

promises. 
Ahadiana ku-, to promise mutually, 

agree. 
Ahili, family, relations. 



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AHE 



AL 



24 1 



Ahera, in the grave,un(ler the earth, 

after death, at the end of the 

world. [Ar. akhr, the other.] 
Ahidi ku-f to promise. 
AJisdnty or Ahsanti, or Asantty 

thanks! thank you! 
Aibika ku-^ to be disgraced, to be 

put to shame. 
Aibisha ku-, to disgrace, to put to 

shame. 
Aibu, a disgrace, a reproach. 
Aina, kind. 
Aini ku-f to appoint. 
Ainisha ku-, to show, point out. 
Aitiwaloj pronounced Etiwdh, what 

he is wanted (or called) for, a- 

itiwa-lo. 
Ajabisha ku-, to astonish, amaze. 
Ajabu, a wonderful thing, wonder- 
. fully. 
AJali, fate, death. 

KusoMmika ajali, to be altogether 
come to an end (to be saluted 
by its fate). 
AJara, merit. 
Aj{bl or *Ajdb I Wonderful! Won- 

derfuUy. 
Ajili, or djiliy sake, cause. 

Kwa ajili ya^ because of, for the 
sake of. 
Ajiri ku-, to hire. 
Ajirisha ku-, to cause to hire, to let 

on hire. 
*AJjemi, Persian. 
Aka ku-f to build in stone, to do 

mason's work. 
Akali, some few, some. 

Akali ya watu, ya vitu, &c., some 
few men, things, &c. 
-ake, or -akwe, his, her, or its, of 
him, &c. 

'dke yeye, his own. 
Akenda, for Akaenda, and he went 



Akhera = Ahera, 
AkhtUaf, to quarrel. 

Atafanya akhtilaf, slie will scold. 
Akia ku-, to build for. 
Ak'ia ku', to swallow, gulp down. 
Akiha, store, a thing laid by. 
Kuweka akiba, to lay up, to put 
by. 
Akida, an officer, a second in com- 
. mand. 

Akida wa asikari, an army officer. 
Akidi ku-, to suffice. 
Akiisha or Akisha, then, he having 

finished this business. 
Akika, a funeral feast for a child. 
Akili, intelligence, wits, under- 
standing (generally treated as a 
plural noun). 
Akina, you — addressed to young or 
inferior persons. Akina hwana 
young sirs. Akina bibi, my 
young ladies. 
Akiri ku-, to stand over, to remain 

behind. 
Akirisha ku-, to adjourn, put off, 

make to stand over. 
ako, thy, your, of thee. 
-ako wewe, your own. 
Akraba, relations. 
Akraba ya kuumeni, paternal 

relations. 
Akraba ya kukeni, maternal 
relations. 
Al, the Arabic article the. It is 
retained in many words derived 
from the Arabic, as Alf ajiri for 
Al Fajr, the dawn. Sometimes 
its form is varied, as Liwali for 
Al Wali, the governor. 
In Arabic phrases the definite 
article prefixed to the second of 
two nouns is the sign of the 
possessive case, as Bayiat al 



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248 



ALA 



AMB 



Ingr^z, a subject of the English, 
i.e., a British subject. 
Ala^ plur. Tnaala or nyala, asheath, 

a scabbard. 
*Aldka, a tusk of* ivory. 
Alafu, thousands. 
Alama, a mark, marks. 
Alasiri, one of the Mohammedan 
hours of prayer, about half-past 

3 P.M., afternoon. 
Alhunseyidi (Ar.), of the sons of 

princes. 

Alf = ElfUy a thousand. 

Alfajiri, the dawn, the earliest Mo- 
hammedan hour of prayer, about 

4 A.M. A stress on the second 
syllable denotes very early dawn. 

Alfia. 

Kofia alfia, a chiefs cap. 
Alhamuif Thursday. 
-all- or 'li'j the sign of that past 
tense which denotes an action 
complete in past time. 
•li or 'li- sometimes stands for 
the verb to be, as in a-li-ye, he 
who is, or merely, who. A-li, 
he is, or, he being. Nika-li, 
and I am. 
Alia A;u-, to make a mark by striking, 

to wale. 
AHfu, Alify the first Arabic letter, 

the alphabet. 
Alika ku; to invite, to call, to call 
invited guests to a wedding, to 
inform, to split, to click, to give 
' a crack, to snap. 
Alikwa ku-^ to go through a certain 
course of medicine, consisting 
chiefly of various fumigations and 
a very strict regimen. 
Aliki ku-, to hang. 
AlikOy where he is, or was. 
Alimisha ku-, to instruct 



Aliomo, wherein he is, or was. 
Alisa, a dancing place, a house of 

amusement. 
AUsha ku-, to cause to snap. 

Kualisha mtamho wa bunduki, tc 
click the lock of a gun. 
Allah (Ar.), God, more reverently, 

Allah ta^ala, God the most high. 
Allah Allah, without delay or pre- 
tence. 
Allah hdkhetr, may Crod make it 

good. A common answer to the 

usual morning and afternoon 

salutations. 
Almaria, embroidery. 
Almost, a diamond. 
Ama — ama, either — or. 

Ama siyo ? Isn't it so ? 
Amali, an act, a thing done. 
Amali, a kind of amulet. 
Amama (Ar.), a turban ? 
Amana, a pledge, a thing entrusted, 

a deposit, a present sent by another 

person. 
Amani, peace. 
Amara, urgent business. 
Amara (ya nanga), a cable. 
Arriba ku-, to speak against, to talk 

scandal, to speak, to say. 
Amha. See Amhaye. 
Arribaa ku-, to go near to without 

touching, not to re^h, to leave 
Ambari, ambergris. [unhurt. 

Ambata ku-, to attach, to stick. 
Anibatana ku-, to cleave together, 

to be mutually attached. 
Ambatiza ku-^ to make to stick. 
Ambaye or Ambaye kwamha, who. 

The final syllable is variable, 

making arribazo, ambayo, Ac, 

which. 
Ambaza ku-, to cause to pass near 

without touching. 



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AM6 



AND 



249. 



Ambia Jcu-^ to tell, to say to. 

Pass! Kuambiwa^ to be told, to 
have said to one. 
Amhika Zft*-, to put (or be put?) 

firmly together. 
Amhilika hu-, to be spoken to. 
Ambisana ku-, to be cemented to- 
gether, to stick together. 
Ainbisha ku-, to make to hold to- 
gether. 
AmhiLa ku-y to peel, to husk, to take 

a morsel in eating. 
Amhukiza ku-, to give a complaint 

to, infect. 
Amdelhan, a silky kind of stuff. * 
AmerikanOf American sheeting, best 
cotton cloth used in trading in 
the interior. 

Njia, &c., ya Amerikano, the best 
Amili ku-y to manage. [way, &c. 
AminOy Amen. 
Amini kii-j to believe in, trust. 

Kuamini miu na kitu, to trust a 
man with something, to entrust 
something to some one. 
Amini, or Amini/u, trustworthy, 

faithful. 
Aminislia ku-, to entrust to, have 

perfect confidence in. 
Amiri, plur. maamiri^ an emir, an 
Amka ku-, to awake. [officer. 

Amkia ku-, to salute. 
Amkua Jm-, to invite, summon (?). 
Amraioi, a dipping line, made fast 

to the foremost yard-arm. 
Amri, order, command. 

Amri ya Muungu, a matter in 
God's hands. 

Sina amri, Ac, I have no busi- 
ness, &o. 
Amria ku-, to put a thing at one's 

disposal, to give leave concerning 

something. 



Amrisha Atf-, to cause to be ordered, 

order. 
Amru ku-, to order, command. 
Am ska ku-, to waken, cause to 

awake, rouse. 
Amu, Lamoo. 

Kiamu, the dialect of Lamoo, of 
the Lamoo kind. 
Amu, father's brother. 
Amua ku-, to judge, to separate two 
people who are fighting. 

'PaBBive,Kv>amuliwa, to bejudgeil. 
Amuka ku- = Amka ku-. 
Amuru ku- = Amru ku-. 
Amusha ku- = Amslia ku-. 
Amwa kth, to suck (M.). 
AmwisTia ku-, to suckle (M ). 
Ana, he has. 
Anakotoka, whence he is coming, 

where he comes from. 
•anana, gentle, soft. 

Upepo mwanana, a soft breeze. 

Maji manana, clear, quiet water. 
Anapokwenda, whither he is going. 
Anapolala, while he is sleeping. 
Anastty pleasure. 
Andaa ku-, to prepare for cooking, 

to make pastry, &c. 
Andalia ku-, to prepare for, to make 

made dishes for. 
Andama ku-, to follow (M.). 

Mwezi umeandama, the month is 

up — the new moon has begun. 

Andamana ku-, to accompany (M.). 

Andika ku-, to put in order, to lay 

out, to describe, to write, to steer 

a vessel. 
Andikanya ku-, to put things one 

upon another, as plates in a pile. 
Andikia ku-, to write, to lay out, 

&c., for or on account of. 
Andikiwa ku-, to be written, laid 

out, &c., for. 



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250 



AND 



ASH 



AndiTciana few-, to write to one 

another, to correspond. 
An/u, knowing, ingenious. 
Anga, a great light, the firmament. 

Ndege za anga, birds of the air. 
Anga ku-j to jump or dance about 

like a wizard. 

Angaika hu-, to be in a great bustle. 

Angalia hu-, to look attentively, 

regard, take notice, observe, be 

careful, beware of. 

Angama hu-y to be caught in falling 

(as by the boughs of a tree). 
Angamia hu-, to be ruined, to fall, 
come to poverty. 
utaangamia rnvfUuni, you will be 
lost in the jungle. 
Angamisha hu-^ to ruin. 
Angaza hu-, to be light, to be bright, 
to remain awake, to keep watch. 
Kutia mwangaza, to give light to. 
Angia hu-, to bewitch by dancing 

and jumping about 
Angika hu-, to hang up, to hang 

against a wall. 
'angu, my, of me. 

-angu mt'mt, my own. 
Angtia ku-., to takd down, to hatch 
Anguka hu-, to fall down. [i ggs. 
Angukia ku-, to fall down to, or 
before. 

^ kU', to make to fall down, 
iown. 

. to purpose, think of doing. 
;-, to spread out to dry. 
bill of sale. 
, to take out of the sun or 

!t-, to leave off raining, 
the address of a letter. 
, to begin. 

t' is frequently retained, as 
wanza for Alianza, 



AnzUiza ku-^ to make a beginning. 
Anzwaniy Johanna. 
Ao, or. 

Ao — ao, either — or. 
-aoj their, of them. 
Apa ku-f to swear. 
Apendalo, what he likes. 
Apii where? 
The a sometimes is so run into 
the final a of the preceding 
word as to be scarcely separable 
from it. 
Apia /(tf-, to swear to, or about 
Apisha ku-, to make to swear, to 

atljure. 
Apiza ku-j to swear at, to imprecate^ 

against, to wish bad luck to. 
ApizOj pl\u.maupizo,aD. imprecation. 
Arabuni, Arabia, in Arabia. 
Arahuni, earnest money. 
Araihiy pardon. 
Arhaa^ four. 
^Ariy a thing to make one blush a 

disgraceful thiog. 
Aria, following, party, faction. 
Ariaay lower 1 let out the rope ! 
Ari/Uf knowing, iugenious. 
Arifu ku-j to inform. 
Ardbaini, forty. 
Arohatashara^ fourteen. 
Asa ku-f to forbid. 
Asalij syrup. 
Aaali ya nyvkij honey. 
AscUi ya tnua, the boiled juice of 

the sugar-cane, treacle. 
Asali ya tembo, fresh palm wine 
boiled into a syrup. 
'Ashara^ ten. 
Atiharini, twenty. 

AshekaJi, better in health during 
sickness. 
Kutca ashekaJi, to improve. 
Kufanya athekali, to make better 



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ASH 

Aslierati, dissipation, a dissipated 
person. 

Ashiiki ku-j to love, to love ex- 
ceedingly. 

Aahii-ia ku-, to make a sign to. 

AsMr, customs duties. 

Asi ku'y to neglect one's duty to, to 
rebel, to be disobedient. 
KHOsi mkewe, to quarrel with his 
wife, and not do his duty by 
her. 

Asikari, plur. asikari, or waaaikari, 
a soldier. 
Kutia asikari, to enlist. 

Asilif origin, nature, source. 

Asisha ku'f to cause to leave, to 
cause to ceasa 

Asitasa, not jet. 

Assuhui, in the morning. 

Asusa, that which assuages bitter- 
ness or pain, takes away an im- 
pleasant taste. Also Azuza. 

Ata^ Atana^ Atia, Atilia, (M.) = 
Acha, Achana, &o. 

Atamia ku-, to sit on eggs, to hatch 
eggs. 

Atamisha ku-y to put under a sitting 

Atguly average. [hen. 

Athahatisha ku-^ to control. 

Atliama, highness. 
Mwenyi aihama, the Most High. 

Athari = Haikari, 

Athibu ku', to chastise, to punish. 

Athtbisha ku-y to punish. 

Athima = Atliama. 

Athimika ku-y to be exalted. 

Athini ku-y to call to public prayers. 

Athuuriy noon, one of the Moham- 
medan hours of prayer. 

Ati! look you I I say I 

Aiihuy a fragrant herb used in the 
composition of kikuha. 

Attiay gratuitously, for nothing. 



AZM 



251 



Atuka kii-y to crack as the eart^ 

does in very dry weather. 
Aua ku'y to make a survey of, to go 

over and look at. 
Auka ku-y t6 grow large enough to 

bear fruit. 
Auni ku-y to help. 
Avya kU'y to prodJice, to spend, to 

give away. 
Awa ku-y to go out or away (Mer.). 
Awaltty a promissory note. 
Atcali or Aowaliy first, almost, 

nearly. 
Awaza ku-, to dispose, to allot to 

each his share. 
Awesiai a kind of dhow like a hedeni 

(which see), without any prow or 

head, with merely a perpendicular 

cutwater. 
Awini ftti-, to help, to supply. 
Awithi ku-y to barter. 
Ayariy a cheat 
Ayariy^ pulley, the stay of a dhow's 

mast. 
Ayasiy a sort of grass. 

Ayasi ya shdbay brass wire. 
Ayika ku-y to dissolve, to melt 
Ayithi ku-, to preach. 
Aza ku- = Waza ku-, to ponder, 

think. 
Azamay a nose ring. 
Azimay a charm used to bring back 

a runaway slave and to drive 

away evil spirits. 
Azima ku-, to lend. 

Azimwa ku-y to borrow. 
Azimia ku , to make an azima 

against 
Azimia ku-y to resolve. 
Azimu ku-y to resolve (generally 

pronounced dzimu). 
Aziziy a rarity, a curiosity. 
Azmay scent, fume. 



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252 



AZU 



BAJ 



Azufy peijnry. 
Azuzcu 8ee Amuct. 



B. 



B has the same sound as Id 
English. 

N changes into m hefore h, as 
mhaya for n-haya^ bad. 
mbtoa for n^bwa, a dog or dogs. 

Nw also becomes mb* 
mbingufotn-wingu^the heavens. 
Ba, a shortened form of bioana, 
BaojeYil 
Baa, plur. mahaa, a worthless 

person, an titter reprobate. 
Baada, afterwards. 

Baada ya, after (used preferably 
of time). 

Baadaye, or haada yoke, after it, 
then, afterwards. 
Baathij some. 

Baathi ya watuy some persons. 
Baazi, a sort of pea growing on a 

small tree somewhat resembling 

laburnum. 
Bab (Ar.), a gate, chapter. 

Bab TJlaya, goods for the Euro- 
pean market. 

Bab Ka>chi, goods for the Cutch 
trade. 
Bab U amana, something entrusted) 

lent to one. 
Baha, father. 

Baba mdogo, mother's brother. 

Baba wa kambo, stepfather. 

Babawawaana, J^nowl. 

Baba wa watoto, ) 
Babaika hu-, to hesitate in speaking, 

to stutter, to talk in one's sleep. 
Bdbata ku-, to pat, to tap, to flatten 

out. 
BabUf grandfather, ancestors. 



Babua ku-, to strip off. 

Babuka kur^ to tear, to become torn. 

Baddla or Badali, a thing given in 

exchange for something eke, an 

equivalent 
Badani, See Kanm, 
Badili ku-, to change, exchange, 

alter, become changed. 
Badilika Xw-, to be changed, to be 

changeable. 
Badoy not yet, used generally to 
express that the matter in ques- 
tion is as yet incomplete. 

Bado kidogOf soon. 
Bafe, a kind of snake. 
Bafta^ a sort of flue calico. 
BagaJa or Bdgala^ a biiggalo^ a 

large kind of dhow square in the 

stem, with a high poop and a 

very long prow. Most of the 

Indian trading dhows are of this 

build ; they have generally ~& 

small mizen-mast. 
Bdghala, a mule. 
Bagua ku-, to separate. 
Baguka ku-, to be separate. 
BagukanakU't to be in hostility, to 

be on two sides. 
Bcihari, sea. 

Bahari iTali, the Persian Gulf. 

Bdhari ya Shairiy the Bed Sea. 
Bahariay a sailor, Bailors, the crew. 
BaJuutha, a square bag or pocket 

with a three-cornered flap to tie 

over the opening, frequently 

used to keep books in. 
BdhatiorBakhii, luck, good fortune. 

Bakhti miu, that depends on the 
Bahatisha ku-, to guess. [person. 
Baini, &c. See Bayinif &c. 

Baini ya, between. 
Bajiaj small cakes of ground beans 

and pepper. 



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BAJ 



BAO 



253 



Bajuni = Mgunya, 

Bakalcuy to dispute, to argue. 

JiakhUi, a miser, covetous, miserly. 

Bdkhti, See Bahati, 

Bahiy the remainder, what is loft. 

Baki (in arithmetic), subtraction. 

Baki kur, to remain, to be over, to 
be left. 

Bdkora, a walking stick with the 
top bent at right angles to the 
stem. The best are made of a 
white, straight-grained wood 
(mtobwe), which will bend nearly 
double like a piece of lead without 
breaking or returning. 

Baksha, a packet, of clothes, &c. 

Bakulij plur. mabakuU, a basin. 

Bakwia &u-, to snatch out of the hand. 

BaZoo, sorrow. 

Balamwezi, moonlight, moonshine. 

Balanga^ leprosy. 

BcUasiy a large kind of water jar. 

Bali, but. 

^a%^t,aboy whois avirgln,ayouth. 

Balungij plur. mabalungif a citron. 

Bamha, plur. mabambcL, a plate, a 
flat thin piece. 

BambOy an instrument like a cheese- 
taster thrust into a bag to draw 
out some of its contents for ex- 
amination. 
MdbambOy large mats for beating 
out mtama upon. 

Bamvuay spring-tides. 

Bana ku-, to squeeze, press as in a 
vice. 

Banaday the SomauU coast. 

Banajiri or Banagiri, a kind of 
bracelet ornamented with points 
or blunt spikes, much. worn in 
Zanzibar. 

Bandtty plur. ma&an(2a, a large shed. 
Banda la frosty a stable. 



Bandariy a harbour. 

BanderOy a flag, red stuff the colour 

of the Arab flag. 
Bandiy a seam. 

Kupiga handi (in sewing), to 
tack, to run, to baste. 
Bandia, 

Mtoto wa handiay a doll. 
Bandika ku-y to put on a plaster or 

any medicament. 
Bandua ku-y to strip off, to peel off. 
Bandulca ku-y to peel off, to come 

out of its shell, to be peeled. 
Bangiy bhang, Indian hemp. 
Banika ku-y to roast on a spit over 

the fire. 
Baniyay a temple, a building, 

especially that at Mecca. 
Banja ku-y to crack nuts, &c., to 
break off the shell or husk by 
beating. 
Banyaniy plur. mahanyaniy used in 
Zanzibar as a general name for 
the heathen Indians who come 
as ti-aders from Cutoh. 
Banza. 
Kujtbamay to squeeze oneself 
against a wall or into a hedge 
to allow some one else to pass. 
Banziy plur. mahanziy a small thin 

piece of wood, a splint. 
BaOy the tiller of a small craft (A.). 
BaOy a game in card-playing. 
Mabao sita = Mvumo, 
Kutia baoy to mark, in card-play- 
ing. 
Boo or Boo la komwey a board with 
thirty-two small holes, each 
about the size of a teacup, for 
playing a very favourite game 
also called baOy with komwCy or 
with pebbles. The holes are 
sometimes merely scooped out 

8 



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254 



BAP 



BAT 



in the ground, and any small 
things used to play with. 
Kuchexa hao^ to play at the above 
game. 
Bapa, the flat of a sword, &c. 
Kupiga hapa, to strike with the 
flat of a sword. 
Bara^ a species of antelope (Helgo- 

bagus arundinaoeus). 
Bara or Barra, wild country, coast. 
The Arabic name, Z^njibarr, is 
compounded of this word and 
ZeT\joT Zanjy a negro : hence the 
Zanguebar and Zanzibar of our 
maps mean only the negro 
coast The Swahili name for 
Zanzibar is invariably Ungv^a, 
Bart Farit^ the piece of Persian 

coast belonging to Oman. 
Barr SwdhU^ the Swahili coast 
Baraha^ proper, just, exactly. 
Barahara^ a broad open road. 
Bannfu^ ioe. 

Baragumo^ a spiral horn tised as a 
musioii instrument ; it is blown 
through a hole at the small end. 
Baraiy an after brace carried on the 
lee side to steady the yard of a 
dhow. 
Baroka^ a blessing. Also oommoii 

as a proper name. 
Barakoot a mask reaching down to 
the mouth, universally worn by 
the women of Oman and Zan- 
libar of the upper daat. 
JSorMJ, a disease. 
BaraAmU^ an idiot, dupe, aimpletou 

Borcuoai, a swallow. 

Borua, a stone 8e«t or bendi table, 
either outside the home or in 
Uie ball, or b^ when the 
■MUter liti in pubUo andnoeiTaB 



his friends ; hence the durbar, or 

public audience held by the 

sultan, and the couDcil then held. 
Baridi, cold, wind. 

Maji ya haridi, fresh water, 
BaridiyabiSf rheumatism. 
Bariki hu-, to bless. 

N.B. — Young people are said in 
Zanzibar to harihi, when they 
first have connection with the 
opposite sex. Girls are though t 
old enough between nine and 
ten. 
Barikia ^u-, to give a blessing to, 

to greet 
Bariyo (A.), what is left from the 

evening meal to be eaten in the 

morning. 
Barizi ku-^ to sit in (aroro, to hold 

a public reception. 
Bctrra, See Bara, 
Barua or Bdrua^ a summons from a 

judge, a bill, a letter. 
BaruH^ gunpowder. 
Barzuiiy a fool. 
Ba$batij mace, the inner husk of 

the nutmeg. 
Badkire kkeH! may it be ludry ! 
Ba^iri km-, to prognosticate, to 

foretell by signs. 
BadktMki or BakkthiM, a gift, a 

largess. 
Amrt ihi-, to ftnesee. 
Bam or Bam, enough, it will da 

Whoi it begins a senteooe it 

means— well, and ao, and then. 

When it follows a word or phrase 
V it means— just this and no moi«. 
BoflColo, a pbtol. 
Bafs, plur. wflkOs, a dndL 

JBoto la bdktiii; a goose. 

JSote ia airia ya, a tukey. 
Ba«sk,tbe eoBBoa dhow of Zm. 



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BAT 



BIA 



255 



zibar ; it ha<t a square stem and 
an ordinary boat-like head. 

Bati, tin, block tin. 

Batil. See Betill 

Batili ku-f to annul, to abollBh, to 
reduce to nothing. 

Batlif the log (nautical). 

BatohcUo, plur. ma'^ various colours 
and marks on an animal. 

BaUf a "wizard's fortune-telling 
board. 
Kupiga &au, to divine. 

Baura, a European anchor. 

BoAjuniy alongside, at the side. 

Bawa, plur. mdbawa, the wing of a 
bird. Also, the scales of a fish. 

Bawahiif a hinge. 

BawahUf a house-porter, door-keeper. 

Baufosiry hsamorrhoids. 

'hayoy bad. It makes mhaya with 
nouns like nyurnba, 

Bayini ku-, to recognize, to know. 

Bayinika ku'j to be notorious, to be 
well known. 

Bayinisha ku-, to distinguish be- 
tween, separate distinctly. 

Bazazi, a trader, especially a cheat- 
ing, over-sharp trader, a huck- 
ster. 

Beha kihf to carry (a child) on the 
back in a cloth. 

Behera, a he-goat given to covering, 
strong, manly. 

Bedarij the fixed lower pulley for 
hoisting a dhow sail and yard, 
bitts to which and through which 
ihejiraH are passed and secured. 

Bedenif a kind of dhow with a per- 
pendicular cutwater, or merely a 
piece of board by way of prow, a 
sharp stem, and high rudder head. 
The mast of a hed^ni is per- 
pendicular; in other dhows it | 



bends forward. They come from 
tho Arab coast. 

Bee, a bargain, a trade, transaction. 

Beekj for Leheka. 

Bega, plur. mahegat the shoulder. 

Behewa, the inner court in a stone 
house. All large houses in Zanzi- 
bar are built round an inner 
court 

Beina, between. 

Beina yako nini ? what do you know 
about it ? Compare Bayini. 

Bekua ku-, to parry, to knock off" a 
blow. 

Belghamuy phlegm. 

Bemhe^ food and confectionery 
cooked by a woman for her lover, 
and sent to him during the 
Bamathan, 

Bemheleza ku-, to beg. 

Bemhesha kU', to swing. 

Bemheza ku- \ to beg, to caress, to 

Bembdeza ku- ) pat. 

Benua kw, to put forward, to stick 
out. 
Kuhenua kidariy to walk with the 
chest thrown forward. 

Benuka ku-^ to warp. 
Kuhenuka kiko kwa kiko, to warp 
and twist this way and that. 

Besa, vulgar Arabic for pesa, Bes- 
teen = Peea mbili, 

Beseray canopy of a bedstead. 

Betela = Batela. 

Betty a pouch for shot or cartridges. 

Beti (Ar.), a house, a line in verses. 

Betili or Batil, a dhow with a very 
long prow, and a sharp stern 
with a hi^ rudder head. They 
generally belong to the Shemali, 
or Persian Gulf Arabs. 

Beyana, legible, dear. 

Bia. 

• a 



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256 



BIA 



BOM 



Ktda bto, to subecribe to a meal 
in common, to go shares in a 
meaL 

Biashara, trade, commerce. 
Kuffinya hiashara, to trade. 
Mfanyi bicuharaf a trader, a mer- 
chant. 

Bibi, grandmother. It is nsed as a 
title answering to my lady, and 
for the mistress of slaves. 

JBt&o, plur. mahibo, a cashew apple. 

-bichi, fresh, green, unripe, raw, 
under-done. It makes mbichi 
with nouns like myumba. 

Bidii, effort to surpass, emulation. 

Bihiray a virgin. 

Bihiri hu-, to deflower. 

BUashit gratis, for nothing. 

BUauri, a drinking glass. 

Bildiy the lead (nautical). 

Bilisi = 16/w, the deviL 

BiUa, except by. 

Bilula, a tap. 

Bima, insurance. 

Bima ku-, to insure against acci- 
dents. 

Binadamuj a human being (a son 
of Adam). 

Bindot the loin-cloth held up to 
receive or carry things, a bundle 
in a cloth. 
Kukinga bindo, to hold up the 
loin-cloth to receive things. 

Bingwa, shrewd, knowing. 

Bintit daughter. Women in Zan- 
zibar are generally mentioned by 
their father*s name only, as, Binti 
Mohammed, Mohammed's daugh- 
ter. 

Binka,pbiT. mabirtka,^ large vessel 
for holding water, a cistern. 

Birinzi, a dish composed of meat, 

- rice, pepper, &c. 



Bisha hUj to knock or ory Hodi ! at 
a door to attract the attention of 
the people within. It is held 
very wrong to go beyond -the 
entrance hall of k house unless 
invited in. 

Bisha ku; to work in sailing. Also^ 
to make boards. 

Bishana ku-, to squabble, to quarrel. 

Bishara, a sign, a good sign. 

Bisho, tacking, working to the wind- 
ward. 
Upepo fjoa bishot a foul wind. 

Bisi, parched Indian corn. 

Bitana, lined, double, used of clothes 
wherever there are two thick- 
nesses. 

BUhaaj goods, merchandise. 

•bivu or -toiru, ripe, well done. It 
makes nibivu with nouns like 
nyumba, 

Biiei, plur. mabiioi, heaps of garden 
rubbish, leaves, wood, &c 

Bizari, a small seed used in making 
curry. 

Bize, a wild hunting dog. 

Bizima, a buckle. 

'bofu or -ovuy rotten, bad, malicious. 

Boga, plur. maboga, a pumpkin. 
Boga is used as a general word 
for edible vegetables. 

Bogi = Pombe, 

Bogoa ku-, to strip off leaves, to tear 
apart, to chop away wood in 
making a point ? 

Bohari or Bokhari, a storehouse, a 
house with a shop and worerooms. 

Boko, a buffalo (?). 

Bokoboko, a kind of food made of 
wheat, meat, &o. 

Bokwa, jack fruit [Tumbatu]. 

Boma, plur. mahoma, a heap of 
stones, a rampart 



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BOM 



BUN 



257 



Bomha, a pump. 

Bomboromoka, plur. ma-. See Boro- 
moka. 

Bomoa ku-, to make a hole through, 
to break down. 

Bomoka ku-^ to have a hole broken 
through it, to' be broken down. 

BongOf plur. mabongo, brains, mar- 
row. 

Bonthj a bridge, a pier. Prom the 
French pont. 

Bonyea ku-y to give way, to crush 
in. 

Bonyesha kw, to press so as to sink 
in, to make an impression with 
the fingers. 

Bonyeza ku-, to examine by feeling 
and pressing. See Tomasa. 

Boonde, a valley, a hollow place. 

Bora, great, very great, noble, best, 
most.' 

Bori, the bowl of a native pipe. 

Boriti, a rafter, thick poles cut in 
the mangrove swamps and laid 
flat to support the stone roofs. 

Borohoat a dish made of pounded 
pulse with flavourings. 

Boromoka ku-y to fall down a preci- 
pice. 

Boromoka, plur. ma-, precipices, pre- 
cipitous places. Also homhoro- 
moka, plur. wa-. 

Borongdboronga ku-y to make a mess 
of one's work. 

Boroshoa, a long-shaped black in- 
sect found in dunghills. 

Boruga ku-y to stir, to cut up weeds. 

'hovu or -ovuy rotten, bad. 

BozOy a narcotic made by mixing 
bhang with flour and honey. 

Bozihoziy idle, dull. 

Brdmini, an agent (working for two 
per cent, commission.) 



j5Ma,plur. mahua,ihe stem of millet. 
Bubaj rupia, applied to various skin 

diseases. 
Buhut (A.), a teat. 
Bubu, plur. mabubUy dumb. 
Bubujika ku-, to bubble out, burst 
forth. 
Kubvhujika mac7iozi,io burst into 
tears. 
Bubur (M.), dumb. 
Buddif escape, other course. 
Sina buddi, I have no escape, t^ ., 
I must. 
Bueta, a box. Also bweta. (From 

the French, boUe.) 
Bugcf,, a hare (?). 
Bughuthu ku-, to hate. 
Buhuriy incense. 
Buibui, a spider. 
Buki or Bukini, Madagascar. 
Bukiy a kidney. 
Buku, a very large kind of rat. 
Bully plur. mabuliy a teapot. 
Burribuaziy perplexity, idiotcy. 
Kupigwa na bumbuaziy to become 
confused and abashed, so as not 
to be able to go on with one's 
business. 
Bumbwi, lice flour pounded up with 

scraped cocoa-nut 
Bumiay sternpost. 
Bumunday^luT, mahumundoy a sort 

of soft cake or dumpling. 
Bundiy a native bird, an owl. Owls 

are thought very unlucky. 
Bundukiy a gun, a musket. 
Bungalay a kind of rice. 
BungOy plur. mabungoy a kind of 

fruit something like a medlar. 
Bungtiy plur. mabunguy a dish. 
Bungu la kupozea ujiy a saucer to 

cool gruel in. 
Buniy raw coffee, coffee-berries. 



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258 



BUN 



Bum, an ogtrich. 

Buniy (Ar.), sons, the sons of. 

Bum ku-9 to begin, to be the first to 

do a thing, to invent. 
Bunju, a poisonous fish. 
Bunzif plur. mabunzi, a stinging 

fly. 
Buotku ku't to hate. 
Bupuru, plur. mahupuru, an empty 
shell. 

Bupuru la kittoa, a skulL 
Burangeni, of two colours, neither 

black nor white ; also painted of 

different colours, as a dhow with 

a white stripe. 
Buratangi, a whirring kite. 
Burdu. 

Marashi ya Burdu, ean-de- 
Cologne. 
Burt, large-sized tusks of ivory. 
Buriani, a final farewell, asking 
a general forgiveness. 

KtUdkana buriani, to ask mutual 
pardon and so take a last fare- 
well. 
Burikao, Port Dumford. 
Burre^ for nothing, gratis, in vain, 

for no good. 
Buruda, a book of the prayers used 

over a dying person. 
Burudika fcu-, to be refreshed. 
Burudisha hu-, to cool, to refresh. 
Buruga ku-, to mix up, to knock 

together. 
Buruhanif token, evidence. 
Burujiy battlements. 
Burura ku-, to drag, to haul along. 
Busara, prudence, subtlety, astute- 
ness. 
Busati, a kind of matting made at 

Muscat. 
Bushcuhif a thin sort of aiuS. 
BushUf tow, a g^n-wad. | 



Buihuti, woollen stuff, blanket. 

Buetani, a garden. 

Bu8u, a kiss. 

Busu ku; to kiss. 

Buu, plur. mabuu, maggots ic meet 

(M.). 
BuyUf plur. mdbuyu,& calabash, the 
fruit of the baobab tree, used 
to draw water with. 
Buzi, plur. mahuzit a very large 

goat. 
Bioaga ku-, to throw down what 
one has been carrying; to tip 
off one's head, &c.; to rest by 
throwing down one's burden. 
Kubwaga nazi, to throw down 
cocoa-nuts. ' 
Bwana, master of slaves, master of 
the house, lord, sir, used politely 
inspeaking of one's own father. 
Bwana mdogo, master's son. 
Bwanda = Gwanda. 
Bwara, 
Beale ya bwara, c dollar under 
full weight, a 5-franc piece. 
Bweta, See Bueta, 



C is required only in writing the 
sound of the English ch or of the 
Italian c before i and e. 

In the dialect of Zanzibar e^ 
frequently stands for the t of more 
northern Swahili, as — 

Chupoj a bottle (Zanzibar) = 
Tupa (Mombas). 

Kucheka, to laugh (Zanz.) = 
Kuteka (Momb.). 

Chi, in the vulgar dialect, and 
amongst the slaves in Zanzibar, 
stands for ki in the more correct 
language. Several of the tribes in 



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CHA. 



259 



the interior follow the same rule as 
the Italian in always prooouncing 
the same root letter ch before i and 
«, and h before a and o. 

Thus slaves commonly say, Ckitu 
chidogOffk little thing, for KituJci- 
dogo. 

As a rule, in all Swahili where 
the preformative ki has to be pre- 
fixed to an adjective or pronoun or 
tense prefix beginning with a vowel, 
it becomes c^, thus — 

Kiiu c/taTi^u, my knife, not Kisu 
Iciangu. « 

Kisu chakata, the knife cuts, not 
Kisu hidkctta, 

Kitu chema cho chote^ every good 
thing whatsoever, not Kitu 
kiema kio kiote. 

Where ch represents ki^ as the 
initial sound of a substantive, the 
plural is made by changing ch into 
foy. 

C%077}&o, a vessel, Fj^om^o, vessels. 

But where ch stands for t, the 
plural is made by prefixing ma. 

Machupat bottles. 

Mdchungioaj oranges. , 

The Arabs confound in their 
pronunciation ch with sh, though 
the sounds are in Swahili perfectly 
distinct 

It would perhaps be an improve- 
ment to write all c/i's which repre- 
sent ki by a simple e, which has 
been usedfor this sound in Sechuana, 
and to write all c^'s which repre- 
sent t by ty, which has been used 
for this sound in writing Zulu. But 
both are here represented by e^, 
because at least in the infancy of 
our studies it is puzzling to have 
two signs for one sound, and neither 



way of writing might be quite satis- 
factory in all cases. 

Thei^ is little doubt that the 
northern t becomes ch by the addi- 
tion of a 2f sounds as the same sort 
of change takes place with d, which 
becomes dy or j, and sometimes 
with n, making it ny or the Spanish 
H. The same sort of change in 
English vulgarizes nature into 
ncLchufj and Indian into I^jun, 

Ch- = ki-j which see. 
Ch-f a prefix required by sub- 
stantives beginning with ki- ois 
e^- representing ki-, in all pro- 
nouns and adjectives beginning 
with a vowel, and in tenses of 
the verb where the tense prefix 
begins with a vowel. 
Cha, of. 
Many quasi-substantives may be 
made by prefixing cha to a 
verb, kitu being understood, as 
chdkula (a thing), of eating, 
food. • 
Cha or Chayi, tea. 
Cha kU', to fear [A.] (the ku- bears 
the accent, and is retained in the 
usual tenses). 
Cha kii', to dawn, to rise [of the sun] 
the ku' bears the accent, and 
is retained in the usual tenses. 
Kumekucha, the dawn (it has 

dawned). 
Kunakucha, the dawning. 
Usiku kucha, all night till dawn, 
all night long. See Chwa, 
Chaanzuy the beginning of a piece 

of ukiri, 
Chacha ku-, to ferment, leaven, 

work. 
Chachaga ku-^ to wash clothes by 



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260 



-CHA 



CHA 



dabbing them gently on a Btone 

or board, not to beat tbem so hard 

as is implied in the more common 

word fctt/teo. 
•chache, few, little, not many or 

much. It makes ehache with 

nouns like myuinba, 
Chdchia ku-, to come with a press, 

to come much at once, to burst 

upon one. 
Chachu, bran, leaven, ferment. 
Chafi, a kind of fish. 
Chafi. 

Chafi cha mguu, calf of the leg = 
tafu. 
Chafu, plur. machafuy the cheek, 

especially that part which is oven 

the teeth. 
Chafua leu-, to put in disorder, 

disarrange. 
Cha/uka ku-y to be in disorder, in 
dishabille. 

Moyo umechafuka^ (I) feel sick. 
Chafukachafuka ku-, to be all in a 

mess, to be all tumbled about 

and in confusion. 
ChafuOj a poisonous horse-fly. 
Chafya ku-^ or kupiga chafya, or 

kwenda chafya^ to sneeze. 
Chagaa = Tagaa. 
ChagOf land crabs. 
ChagOj the place where the bead is 

laid (oi^ a kitanda, etc.). 
Chaguat ku', to pick out, select, 

garble. 
Chai, or Chayij tea. 
Chakaa ku-, to become worn out, 

to become good for nothing 

through age or use. 
Chake, or ehakwe, his, her, its. See 

-ake, 
Chnkij chalk, whitening, putty. 
ChakOf thy. See -ako. 



Chakogea = IKitu] eha ku-ogea, a 
thing to bathe in, a bath. • 

Chakida, something to eat, food, a 
meal. 
Chakula cha suhui, breakfast. 
Chakula eha mclMna, dinner. 
Chakula chajioni, supper, which 

is the chief meal of the day. 
Plur. vyakula, victuals. 

Chale^ a cut or gash made for orna- 
ment. 

CJialiy backward, on his back. 

Chamat a club, guild, band of 
people. 
Waana chamay members of it 

Chamha chajichOf a white film over 
the eye. 

ChambOy plur. vyambo, a bait. 

Chambua A;u-, to dress, clean, pick 
over, as to pluck off the outer 
leaves of vegetables when sending 
them to market, to pick the 
sticks and dirt out of cotton, to 
pick cloves off their stalks, 
&o. 

Chambulia ku-^ to clean up, to dress 
up work or things. 

ChamhurOy a plate for wire drawing. 

Chamchela. 
Pepo za chamehday a whirlwind. 

Cha^msha kanvsa (something to 
wake the mouth), something 
eaten first thing in the morning. 

Chana = Tana. 

Ghana ku-, to comb. 

Chanday plur. vyanda (M.), a finger, 
a toe. 

Chandaluay an awning, a mosquito 
net 

-ckanga, young, immature. 

Changa ku-y to sift away chaff and 
husks. 
Kula kwa kiiehanga, a feast 



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GHA 



CHBf 



261 



Inhere each contributes some- 
thing to the entertainment. 
Changa'mka ku-, to be genial, to be 

hearty and pleasant. 
ChangamuBha kur, to cheer up. 
Ckanganya fet*-, to mix. 
Changanyika ku-y to be mixed. 
Changanyisha ku-, to perplex. 
Changarawi, girt,little white stones 

like those in coarse sand. 
Chango, plur. vyangOf a peg to hang 

things upon. 
Chango, small intestines, round 

worms. 
Changu, a kind of fish. 
Changuy a tribal mark (?). 
Changu, my. See -angu. 
Chant = Tanif on the back, back- 
ward. 
Ckania ku; to comb for, &o. 
Cbanikivnti, green. 
Chanja ku-, tocut up [firewood, &c.]. 
Chanjiwa ku-^ nduij to be cut for 

small-pox, to be vaccinated. 
Chano, plur. vyano, a large wooden 

platter, a mortar-board. 
Chanua ku-, to put forth leaves. 
Chao, their. See -ao, 
Chapa, plur. machapa, a stamp, 

-a chapa, printed. [type, 

Kupiga chapa, to print. 

Chapa ^u-, to beat, to stamp. 

Chapachapa, wet through, all 
dripping. 
Chapeo, a hat. From the French 

chapeau (?). 
Chappa or Chappara, excessively. 
ChapuOf a sort of small drum. 
Chain, a python, a crocodile (?). 
Chavu, plur. vyavu, a net. 
•chavuy filthy, unwashed. 
Chawa, a louse. 
Chayi, tea. 



Chaza, an oyster. 

Chazo, a sucker fish. 

Cheche, a small box (such as a 

lucifer-box). 
0%ec%e,abrownmangouste. Also = 

chechi. 
Cheche, a spark. 
Chechea ku-, to walk lame. 
Chechelcy an ahseni person, one who > 

goes far beyond where he in- 
tended to stop through inattention. 
Chechemea ku-, to be lame. Also, 

to reach up, stretch up to. 
Chechi, plur. machechi, a spark. 
Chegua ku-, to choose. 
Cheka ku; to laugh, to laugh at. 
Chekelea ku-, to laugh at, because of. 
Chekoy plur. macheko, a laugh, a 

loud laugh. 
Chdea ku; to fear for, about, &c. 
Chdema, watery. 

Chdewa ku, to be overtaken by 
something through thought- 
lessness, to wake up and find 
it broad daylight, to be struck 
foolish, to be dumbfounded. 
Also, to be too late. 

Stkukama ivala Hkuchelewa, I 

did not delay, and I was not late. 

Cheleza ku-, to keep, to put on one 

side, to put off. 
Chelezea ku-, to keep or put aside 
Chdezo = ChUezo. [for. 

Chembe, a grain, grains. 
C%em&e,plur. vyemhe (N.), an arrow, 

the head of an arrow oraharpoon. 
Chembe cha moyo (A.), the pit of 

the stomach. 
Chemheu, a chisel. 
Chemchem, a spring of water. 
Che*fnka ku-, to boil, to bubble up. 
Chenezo, plur. vyenezOf a measuring 

rod, line, &c. 



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262 



CHE 



CHI 



Chenga ku', to cleave, to cut wood, 

to prane. 
Chenge chenge^ small broken bits. 
Chenja = Chenza. 
ChenUf your. See -enu, 
Chenyiy haviog, with. See -enyi. 
Chenza, a large kind of mandarin 
orange. 

Chenza za kiajjemi, Persian, i.c., 
good chenzas. 
Cheo, plur. vyeo, measurement* 

measure, length, breadth, &c., 

position in the world, station. 
Chepechepe, wet, soaked with rain, 

wetted. 
Chepuka ku- = Chipukcu 
Cheravjif a well-known mangrove 

swamp in the island of Zanzibar. 
Cheree, a grindstone. 
CherevUf cunning, subtlety. 
Cherkhana, machine. 

Cherkhana cha ktuihana, a sewing 
Cheruwa^ measles. [machine. 

Chetezo, plur. vyet.ezo, a censer, a 

pot to fume incense in. 
Chet% plur. vyeti, a pass, a passport 
CJistu, our. See -etu, 
Cliewa, a kind of fish. 
Cheza ku-j to play, to dance. 

Kucheza gwaridi, to be drilled 
in European fashion. 

Kucheza komari, to play for 
Cheza, a kind of oyster. [money. 
Cheza ku-, to play with. 

Kuehezea unya^o, to deflower a 
virgin (?). 
Chi = Ki'. 
Chicha, the scraped cocoa-nut after 

the oil has been squeezed out. 

It is sometimes used to rub on 

the hands to clean them of grime, 

but is generally thrown a way as 

refuse. 



Chiehiri, a bribe. 

Ckikapo = Kikapu, a basket 

Chikichi, plur. machikichi, the fruit 
of the palm-oil tree. 
Kichikichi, plur. vichikichi, the 
small nuts contained in the 
fruit of the palm-oil tree. 

Chilezo, plur. vUezo, a buoy. 

Chimba ku-, to dig (M. timbd), 

Chimbia ku-, to dig for (M. timbia), 

ChimUa ku- = KinHna ku-, to run 
away. 

Chimhua ku-^ to dig out or away. 

Chimbuko, origin, first beginning, 
source. 

Chini, down, bottom, below. 
Yuko chini, he is down stairs. 
Chini ya^ under, below. 

Chinja ku-, to cut, to slaughter 
animals by cutting the tt^t, 
which is the only manner allowed 
by the Mohammedan law, hence 
generally to kill for food (M. 
tcutinda). 

Chinki, a small yellow bird kept in 
cages. 

Chinusi, a kind of Water sprite, 
which is said to seize men when 
swimming, afid hold them un- 
der water till they are dead, (?) 
cramp. 

Chinyango, a lump of meat 

Chipuka, &c. = Chupuka^ &o. 

Chipukizi, a shoot, a young plant 
See TepukuzL 
Chipukizi ndio mti, children will 
be men in time. 

Chifiki, a small yellow bird often 
kept in cages. . 

Chiro, chironi = Choo, chooni, 

Chiroko = Chooko, a kind of pulse. 

Chiti = Cheti, a note of hand, a rute 
of any kind. 



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CHO 



CHO 



268 



Cho, 'cho, -eho', which. 
Che chote, whatsoever. 

Ckoa, ring-jsorm. 

Chocha kttr, to poke out from, out 
of a hole. 

Chochea hu-^ to make up a fire, to 
turn up a lamp. 

Chochelezea ku-, to stir up and in- 
creasd diseord, to add fuel to the 
fire. 

Chofya kth. See Chovya. 

Choka ku-, to become tired. 
Nimechokay I am tired. 

Chokaaj lime. 

Cholcedi a stye in the eye, hordeolum. 

Chokoa ku'f to clear out, to free 
from dirt, enlarge a small hole. 

Chokochoko, a kind of fruit with a 
red prickly rind, white pulp, and 
a large kernel. 

CJiokora ku-, to pick (with a knife, 
&c.). 

Chokora, plur. machokora, a hanger- 
on, a follower, a dependant. 

Chokoza ku-, to teaze, to irritate. 

Chole, a place on the island of Zan- 
zibar famous for cocoa-nuts ; also, 
the chief town of Monfia. 

Choma ku-, to stab, to stick, to 
prick, to dazzle. Vulgarly in 
Zanzibar — ^to use fire to in any 
way, to bum, to roast, to parch, 
to fire, to apply cautery, to bake 
pottery. 

ChambOy plur. vyombOf a vessel, a 
pot, a dhow. 
Vyomho is used for household 
utensils, things used in a 
bouse, goods. 

(Jhomea ku-. See Choma ku-, 

Chameka ku-, to be stuck into, to be 
set on fire. 

Chomelea ku-, to take out a bad 



piece of cloth, thatch, &c., and 

put in a new one. 
Chomoza ku-, to be hoi ' 
Chonga ku-, to cut, to adze, to hollow 
put, to cut to a point. 

Kuchonga kalamu, to make a pen. 
Chonge, canine teeth, cuspids. 
Chongea ku-y to cut for, or with. 
Chongea ku-, to do a mischief to, to 

get (a person) into trouble, to 

inform against. 
ChongeUza ku-y to carry tales, to 

backbite. 
Ct^ongOy loss of an eye. 

Kuwa na choTigOy to have lost an 
eye. 

Mwenyi chongOy a one-eyed person. 
Chongoka ku-, to be precipitous. 
Chooy plur. vyooy a privy, the bath- 
room, which always contains one. 
ChookOy a small kind of pea, very 

much resembling the seeds of 

the everlasting pea of English 

gardens. 
Chopa, plur. machopay such a quan- 
tity as can be carried in the two 

hands. 
Chopi, 

Kwenda chopi^ to walk lame in 
such a manner as that the lame 
side is raised at every step. 
Chopoa ku-y to drag out of one's 

hand. 
Chopoka ku'y to slip out of the hand. 
Chora ku-y to carve, to adorn with 

carving, to draw on a wall. 
ChorochorOy scratches, marks. 
Choropoka ku-y to slip out of one's 

hand. 
Choveka ku-, to put into water, to 

steep. 
Chovya ku-, to dip, to gild. 
Chosha kwy to tire, to make tired. 



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264 



CHO 



CHU 



CfMsi — Kisoze. 

Chota ku; to make up a little at a 

Chote, all. See -ote. [time. 

Chovu, weary, tired. 

Choyoy greediness, avarice. 

Mwenyi choyo, a miser. 
Chozi, plur. machozi, a tear, a tear- 
drop. 
Chvhl shtl nonsense 1 
Chubua ku-y to take the fikin off, to 

bruise. 
Chubuachuhua ku-, to bruise about, 

to batter. 
Chubuka ku-y to be raw, to be 

bruised. 
Ckubvoi, a plummet. 
Chuchu ya ziwa, a teat. 
Chuchumia ku-, to stretch up to 

reach something. 
Chuiy a leopard, leopards. 
Chuja ku; to strain. 
Chujuka ku'y to have the colour 

washed out. 
Chukiy the being easily disgusted 
or offended. ' 

Ana chuki huyuy he is easily put 
out. 
CJiukia ku-y to be disgusted at, to 

abhor, to hate, not to bear. 
Chukiwa ku-y to be offended. 
Chukiza ku-y to disgust, to offend. 
Chukizisha ku-y to make to offend. 
Chukuy a cupping horn. 
Chukua ku-y to carry, to carry 
off, to bear, to support, to sus- 
tain. 

Kuchukud mimhay to be pregnant. 
Chukulia ku-y to carry for a person. 

Pass. kuchukuHwa, to be carried 
for, to have carried for one, to 
be borne, to drifL 
Chukuliana ku-y to bear with one 

another. 



Cliukuza ku-y to make, to carry, to 

load. 
Chvia or Chura, plur. vyvlay a frog. 
Chumay plur. vyumay iron, a piece 

of iron. 
Chuma ku-y to pluck, to gather, to 

make profit. 
Churribay plur. vyumbay a room. 
Chumviy salt. 

Chumvi ya Jtaluliy sulphate of 
Chuna Aim, to flay. [magnesia. 

Chunga ku-, to pasture, to tend 

animals. 
Chunga ku-y to sift. 
Chungu, plur. vvunguy an earthen 

cooking pot. 
ChungUy ants. 
Chunguy a henp. 

Chungu chungUy in heaps, 
-chungUy bitter {uchungUy the 

quality of bitterness). 
Chungulia ku-, to peep. 
Chungwa, plur. ma^hungway an 
orange. 

Chungwa * la kizunguy a sweet 

orange. 

Chunika ku-y to lose the skin, to be 

Chunjuay a wart. [flayed. 

Chunuka ku-y to love exceedingly, to 

long for. 
Chunuzi 2« Chinust. 
Chunyu, an incrustation of salt, as 

upon a person after bathing in 

salt water. 
ChuOy plur. vyuOy a book. 

Chuoniy school. 

Mwana wa chuoniy a scholar, 
learned man. 
Chupay plur. maehupOy a bottle. 
Chupia fctt-, to dash. 
Chupuka ku' or Chipuka ku-y to 

sprout, become sprouted, to shoot, 

to spring. 



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CHU 

Chupuza hu-i or Chipuza ku-, to 
sprout, to throw out sprouts, to 
shoot, to spring. 
C^urukiza ku-, to drain out. 
Chururika ku- = ChuruziJca ku', 
Churutoa, measles. 
Churuza ku-, to keep a stall, to 

trade in a small way. 
Churuzika ku-, to run down with. 
Kuchuruzika damu, to bleed 
freely. 
ChtMsa, plur. vyussa, a harpoon. 
Chuuza = Churuza. 
Chwa kii; to set (of the sun). The 
kii- bears the accent and is re- 
tained in the usual tenses. 
Mchana kuchwa, or kutwa, all 
day till sunset, all day long. 



D. 

D has the same sound as in 
English. It occurs as an initnl 
letter chiefly in words derived from 
the Arabic. 

X or r and t become d after an 
n. Bc/tt, long, makes kawha nde/u, 
a long rope, not nrefu. 

Kanita/tUia, and seek out for me, 
when pronounced quickly becomes 
Kandaftia. 

D in the dialect of Mombas be- 
comes ^ or dy in tliat of Zanzibar. 

Ndoo! Come (Momb.). Njool 
(Zanz.) 

See C and /. 

Daba, a small tin box. Also, af fool. 

Dacha ku, to drop. 

Daday sister, a term of endearment 

among women. 
V »i ku; to pry into things, to 



DAM 



265 



ask impertinent and unnecessary 
questions. 

Dafina, a bidden treasure. 

Da/tari, an account book. 

Dafu, plur. mad^fu, a cocoa-nut 
fully grown before it begins to 
ripen, in which state it supplies a 
very favourite drink. When the 
shell has begun to harden and 
the nutty part to thicken, it ceases 
to be a Dafu and becomes a 
Koroma. 

Dagaa^ a kind of very small fish 
like whitebait. 

Daggla, a short coat. 

Dai ku; to claim, to sue for at 
law. 

Daka ku-, to catch, to get hold of. 

Dakika, a minute, minutes. 

Daku, the midnight meal duriii!2^ 
the Itamathan. A gun is firetl 
from one of the ships at Zanzibar 
about 2 A.M., to give notice that 
the time for eating is drawing to 
a close. The name is said to be 
derived from the saying : — 

** Leni upeii^ ketho kuna ndaa kuu." 
**£at qaickly, to-morrow there will be 
great hunger." 

Dakuliza ku-, to contradict, to deny 

formally, to rebut. 
Dalali, a salesman, a hawker, an 

auctioneer. ^ 
Dalia, a yellow composition much 

used as a cosmetic : it is said to 

give softness and a sweet smell 

to the skin. 
Dalilij a sign, a token. 

Hatta dalili, anything at all, even 
a trace. 
Dama, a game played on a board 

like chess. 
Damani = Demani, 



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266 



DAM 



PEU 



Damu, blood. 

Danga hu-, to take tip carefully, as 
they take up a little water left 
at the bottom of a dipping place 
to avoid making it muddy. 

Danganika hu-, to be cheated. 
* Danganikia Icu^ to put to confusion. 
' Danganisha feu-, to confuse. 

Danganya fef*-, to cheat, to humbug, 
to impose upon. 

Danzi, plur. madanziy a bitter, 
scarcely eatable sort of orange. 
The Danzi is reputed to be the 
original orange of Zanzibar. The 
name is sometimes applied to 
all kinds of oranges, and sweet 
oranges are called madanzi ya 
Kizunguy European (Portuguese) 
oranges. 

Dao. See Dau, 

Dapo, plur. madapo, a native 
umbrella. 

Darahif plur. madardbi, h rose 
apple. 

Daraja, a step, a degree, a rank, a 
staircase, a bridge, a league. 

Dara^ayO. class for reading, a regular 
meeting for lesmiing. 

Dart, a I roof, an upper floor. 
Darinif up-stairs, or, on the roof. 

Dariziy embroidery, quilting. See 
also Kanzu. 

Darumetiy part of a dhow, inner 
planking. 

DasUi, a detergent powder made 
of the dried and powdered leaves 
of the mkunazi, 

Dasttiri, See Desturi, 

Dau, plur. madau, a native boat 
sharp at both ends, with a square 
mat saiL They are the vessels 
of the original inhabitants of 
Zanzibar, and chiefly bring fire- 



wood to the town from the south 

end of the island. 
DatUatiy the government. 
Dawa, plur. dawa or madatcc, a 
medicine. 

Dawa ya kuharay a purgative. 

Dawa ya kutapika, an emetic. 
Dawamu ku-, to persevere. 
Dawatiy a writing desk. 
Dayima, always, perpetually. 
Dayimara = Dayima, 
Debey tin can. See Daba. 
Deheniy lime and fat for t^unam- 

ming the bottoms of native craft. 
Deheni ku-,,to chunam the bottom 

of a dhow. 
Deka ku-y to refuse to be pleased, 

to be perverse, to be teazing. 
Ddkiy a donkey's walk. 

Kwenda delki, to walk (of a 
donkey). 
Dema, a kind of fish -trap. 
Demani, the sheet of a sail. 
Demaniy the season of gentle 

southerly winds, beginning about 

the end of August. It is applied 

less correctly to the whole season 

of southerly winds from April to 

the end of October. 
DendarOy a sort of dance. 
Denge, 

Kukata denge, to shave the hair 

except on the crown of the head. 

DengUypeBBy split peas. They are 

not grown in Zanzibar, but are 

brought dry from India. 
Deniy debt, a debt, debts. 
Deraye (?), armour. 
Desturiy a sort of bowsprit, to carry 

forward the tack of a dhow-sail. 
Desturi, custom, customs. 
Deuli, a silk scarf worn round the 

waist 



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DEV 



DUA 



267 



Devaif claret, light wine. 

Dta, composition for a man'e life, 
fine paid by a murderer. 

JHbajif elegance of composition, a 
good style. 

Didimia ku-, to sink. 

Didimikia ku-y to bore with an awl, 
&c. 

Bidimisha ku-, to sink, to cause to 
sink. 

jyigali, part of a native pipe, being 
the stem which leads from the 
bowl into a vessel of water 
through which the smoke is 
drawn. 

Diko, 'pluT.madtkOj a landing-place. 

Dimu, a lime. 
Dimu tamu, a fiweet lime. 

Dinif religion, wdrship. 

JHra, the mariner's compass. 

Diriki ku-t to succeed in one's pur- 
pose by being quick, to be quick 
enough to catch a person, to be 
in time. 

Dirishaf plur. madirisha^ a window. 

Diwaniy plur. madiwani, a council- 
lor, a title of honour among the 
coast people. 

^ana, a hook. 

Ddbi, a washerman. 

Doda ku', to drop. 

Dodo, See Embe. 

Dodokiy plur. madodoki, a long 
slender fruit eaten as a vege- 
table. 

J)odoa ku-f to take up a little at a 
time. 

Dofrai plur. madofra, a sailmaker's 
palm. 

-dogo, little, small, young, younger. 

DohcLan, DokhaaUf or Dohanij a 
chimney. 
Marikebu ya dohtumf a steamship. 



Hence Bohani, or Dokkani, a sort 
of tall basket in which fruit 
is brought on men's heads to 
market. The foundation is 
made of sticks about two feet 
long, loosely tied together, 
which are supplemented with 
plaited cocoa-nut leaves, until 
the whole becomes perhaps six 
feet high and fifteen to twenty 
inches in diameter. These I 
doJiani are often decked with 
flowers and green leaves. 
Dokaa ku-, to nibble. 
Dokeza ku-, to give a little part of 

anything, to give a hint. 
Dokra, a cent. 
Domo. 
Kupiga domo, to tell a person in 
confidence. 
Dona ku; to peck. 
Donda, plur. madonda, large sores. 
Donda ndugut malignant ulcers. 
Dondo, pi. madondOf a tiger cowry. 
Used to smooth down seams with. 
Dondo,ataTchj the dressing of calico. 
Dondoa ku-, to pick up small frag- 
ments, to pick up rice, &c., to 
pick up bit by bit 
Dondoka ku-, to drop from little by 
little. 
Mbegu zimenidondokay the seeds 
dropped from my hand one by 
one. 
DondorOy Dyker's antelope. 
Donea ku-y to flutter like a bird. 
Donge, plur. madonge, a small round 

thing, a ball. 
Donoa ku-y to peck, to sting. 
Dotiy a loin-cloth, a piece of cloth a 

little less than two yards long. 
Doya ku'y to go as a spy. 
Dtui, worship, theology. 



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268 



DUA 



E 



DuarOt ft windlass, anything ronnd. 

Dude, plur. madude, a what-is-it ? 

a thing of which yon don't know 

or haTO forgotten the name. 

DudUf plur. madudUf an insect, 

insects. 
Duduvule, a kind of hornet which 

bores in wood. 
-dufuj insipid, tasteless. 
Dvka^ plui;. maduka, a shop. 
Dukiza hu-, to listen secretly. 
Bukizij plur. madiikizi, an eaves- 
dropper, a tale-bearer. 
Dumbuza, a plant having big yellow 

flowers with dark centres. 
Dumia ku-, ta persevere. 
Dumisha ku-, to make to continue. 
Dumu, a jar (?). 

Dumu ku-, id c(Hitinue, to persevere. 
Dun, a fine. 
Dundu, plur. madundtt, a large 

pumpkin shell used to hold 

liquids. 
Dunge, the green skin of the ca- 
shew nut, an immature cashew 

nut. 
Dunguy plur. vMidungu, the roof 

over the little stages for watching 

com, &c. 
Dumgumaro, a kind of spirit, also 

the drum, &c., proper for expelling 
Duni, below, less. [him. 

Dunia, the world, this world. 
Durabini, a telescope, an eyeglass. 
Kupiga durdbini, to use a glass, 

telescope. 
Duru ku; to surround. 
DuruH kU'f to meet in a regular 

class for study. 
DusamcUi, a striped silk scarf or 

handkerchief worn upon the head 

by women. 
Duumif a dhow saiL 



Duzi, plur. maduzi, one who de- 
lights to find out and proclaim 
secrets and private matters. 



E has a sound between those of a 
in gate and of ai in chair. 
. In the dialect of Zanzibar it is 
often substituted for the a of more 
northern Swahili, especially as re- 
presenting the ArahiQ fet*ka, 

Merikebttf a ship, is in the 
Mombas dialect Martkabu, and in 
the Arabic Markab. 

The sound of e often arises from 
the fusion of the final a of a prefix 
with an 6 or t which follows it, as — 

Akenda for A-ka-end<ii and he 
went. 

Akaioeta for A-ka-wa-Ua, and he 
called them. 

Some of the cases in which e in 
the Zanzibar dialect stands for a in 
northern Swahili may be explaiued 
by the substitution at Zanzibar of 
in for a mere 'n, as in the word for 
"land" or country," which iB*nii 
at Mombas, with so mere an *n that 
the vowelof the preceding word may 
be run into it, as in the saying — 

** Jlvtmddntit vttoandnti." 
** A oonntry can be rained only by its own 
children." 

Whereas in Zanzibar, besides the 
usual change of t into ch, tbe first 
syllable has generally a distinct i 
sound, and may be better written 
inelii. 

Thus at Mombas the root of the 
adjective " many " seems to be ngi, 
making the substantive ''plenty," or 
^ a large quantity," ungi, and with 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EBB 



BND 



26» 



flie proper prefix "many people," 
wa-ngi,. But in Zanzibar "plenty" 
is w-ingi, and "many people" wengi, 
as if wa-ingi, 

Ebbe, for Lebeka. 

Ebut Eehol well then! oomethen! 

Eda. 
Ku kcdia eda^ to remain in ex- 
treme privacy and quiet for five 
months, as is usual by way of 
mourning for a husband. 

Edashara^ eleven. 

Ee! 01 

Ee Waa loxEe WaXlah / the common 
answer of leaves and inferiors 
when called to do somethings a 
strong assent. 

Eema (M.) ^ Demo, a kind of fish- 
trap. 

Egemea ku-f to lean. 

EheetYesl 

EkercJiiy a provocation, an irritating 
word or thing. 

Ekua ku'y to break by bending. 

Ekuka ku', to be sprung, to be 
broken. 

•e^undtt, r^ It makes jekundu 
with nouns like kasha, and 
nyekundu with nouns like ny^ 

Ela (M.), except. [umbo. 

Elafu, thousands. 

Elea ku-f to float, to l)ecome clear. 
3fo^o wamwdea^f he feels sick (M.) 
Yamekueleaf Bo you under- 
stand? Have they (my words) 
become clear to you? 

Eleka ku'f to carry a child astride 
on the hip or back. 

Eltkea ku-, to be right, to agree, to 
be opposite to. 

Eltkeana kth, to be opposite to one 
another. 



Elemuiha %u-, to teach, instruct 
Eleza ku'f to make to float, to swim 
a boat, to make clear, to explain. 
El/een or El/ain^ two thousand. 
ElfUf a thousand. 
Elimisha ku-, to instruct, to make 

learned. 
Elimuy or <^mu-, learning, doctrine, 
•emo, good, kind. It makes jema 
with nouns like kashot and njema 
or ngema with nouns like nyvmba. 
•em&am5a, narrow, thio, slim. It 
makes jemhamba with nouns like 
A;a«^and nyembamba with nouns 
like nyumba, 
Enibe, a mango. In Mombos the 
plural is Maembej in Zanzibar it 
UEmbe, 
Embe dodo, or EaJbe fa dodo, a 
very large kind of mango, 89 
named from a plantation in 
Pemba, where they first grew. 
Embe kinoo, a small kind of 
mango which is very sweet 
Enibwe, glue, gum. 
Embwe la ubuyu, a kind of paste 
made from the fruit of the 
calabash tree. 
Enda hw-, to go. The kw- is re- 
tained in the usual tenses. 
Kioenda is often used merely to 
carry on the narration without 
any distinct meaning of going. 
Sometimes it is employed as 
an auxiliary, nea^rly as we say 
in English, he is going to do 
it. Sometimes it expresses 
an action merely, as Kwenda 
chafya,U} eneeze, Kwenda B.nd 
Kupiga used in this way can- 
not be exactly translated. 
Ew^nda kwa mguu, to walk. 
Kwenda tembea, to go f6r & walk. 

T 



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270 



END 



ESH 



Kwenda mghad, &o., to go oanier- 

ing, &e. 
Kwtnda zangu, »ako, zdks^ &o., in 
other dialects, vyangu, vyake^ 
&o., and thangu, HuJce, &0m to 
go away, to go, to go one's way, 
todejMurt 
Imekwenda fwaliwar^ they have 
gone to fetch it. 
Mdea hw-, to go for, to, or after. 
Sndeka kw-y to be passable, to be 
capable of being gone upon, to 
be gone upon. 
EndeUa hw-t to go either forward 
or backward. 
Kwenddea wbeU, to advanoe. 
KioendeUa nyuma, to retire. 
EndeUza hu-, to spell, to prolong. 
EnkM hw^i to spread, to become 

known. 
Enmda ku^, to go, mostly in the 
sense of to go on, to proceed, to 
go forward. 
EfMnza ku-, to measure together, to 

try which exceeds the other. 
Eiiieoj the spread, the extent covered. 
Eneo la MuungUf God*s omni- 
presence. 
Eneea ku-, to spread, to oanse to 
spread, to cause to reach. 
Mmmgu amemweneza ktUa miu 
risiki zakBj God has put within 
• the reach of every man what 
is necessary for him. 
Enga ku^, to split mahogo for 

cooking. 
Engaenga ku-, to ooddle, to tend 

over carefully. 
Engua ku-, to skim, 
•ait*, your, of you. 

•enu ninyij your own. 
Enyi or Enyi^^ Tou there! Tou 
there, I say 1 



•enyi, having, possessing, with. It 

makes mwenyi, vjenyii yenyi, 

zenyif lenyi, ehenyi, vyenyi, and 

penyiy which see. 
Enza hu', to ask news of a person. 
Enzi, or Ezi^ sovereignty, dominion, 
majesty. 

Mwenyi ezi, the sovereign, he who 
is supreme. See Ezi, 
^^ kU', to endeavour to avoid (a 

stone, stroke, Ac.) 
Epea ku*, not to go direct to, to 

miss a mark, not to shoot straight 

(of a gun). 
Epeka ku-, to be avoidable, to be 

what can be got out of the way of. 
-epesi, light, not heavy, easy, quick, 

willing. It makes jepesi with 

nouns like kasha, and nyepesi 

with nouns like nyumba. 
Epua ku-, to brush or shake oif, to 

take away. 
S^puka ku*, to be kept from, to avoid, 

to abstain from. 
Epukana ku-, to be disunited. 
^pukika kw, to be evitable. 

Haiepukiki, it is inevitable. 
Epusha ku; to make to avoid, to ' 
keep from. 

Epusktoa ku-, to be kept from, to 
be forbidden something. 
-erevu, subtle, shrewd, cunning. 
Erevuka ku-, to become shrewd, to 

get to know the ways of the 

world, to grow sharp. 
Eremwha ku-^ to make diarp and 

knowing. 
JBWa }ku-, to ease off, let down. See 

Ariaa, 
E6ha, the latest Mohammedan hour 

of prayer, which may be said to 

be from half-past 6 to about 

8 p.m. 



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£68 



FAH 



271 



Mue (?), a screw. 
-etu, our, of us. 

-^hk titit our own. 
Ewi hth, to sprinkle with water 

after praying by way of charm 

against a disease. 
-eupe, white, dear, clean, light- 
. coloured. It makes jeupe with 

nouns like kcuihc^ and nyeup9 with 

nouns like nyiMii6a. 
-eupee, very white. 
•eusit black, dark-coloured. It 

makes 'Je^U with nouns like 

hashay and nyeim with nouns like 

EuHM =Ee Woo, 

Bwel Yon there 1 Hi 1 I say, you ! 

plur. EnyL 
Ska ItU'^ to measure. 
E»ha hu-9 to thatch, to cover with 

tiiatch. 
Ezi = Enzi, sovereignty. 
Mwenyi ezi Muungu, or Mwenye" 
zfmngu. Almighty God, God 
the Lord, representing in 8wa- 
hill the AUah ta'ala, God the 
Most High, of the Arabic 
Skmii huh, to uncover. 
Knezua paa, to strip a xoofl 



F hftf the same sound as in 
English. 

Fand V are confounded by the 
Arabs, though in Swahili perfectly 
distinct, thus :— 

Kwfaa means— tobeprofitable to. 

Kn-vcM means — to put on. 

There is, however, in some cases 
a Uttle indistinctness, as in the 
common termination ifu or ivu ; the 



right letter is probably in all cases 
a v. 

The Arabs in talking Bwahili 
turn p*s into/*s, and sayfunda for 
pundoj a donkey ; and conversely, 
some slaves from inland tribes turn 
fs intop's. P, however, does some- 
times become / before a y sound, 
as kuogopa, to fear, huogo/ya, to 
frighten. 

There is a curious /y sound used 
in some dialects of Swahili, which 
is rarely heard in Zanzibar. 

Fa hi', to die, perish, cease, fade 
' away. The ku- bears the ac- 
cent, and is retained in the usual 
tenses. 

Faa ku; to be of use to, to avail, 
to be worth something. 
Half ait it is of no use, it won't do. 

Faana ku-, to be of use to one an- 
other, to help one another. 

Fafanitha ku-, to liken. 

Fafanua W, to recognize, to under- 
stand. 

Fafanyka kth, to become clear. 

Fafanukia ku-j to be clear to. 

FafaniUia ku-y to make clear ta 

Faganzi ku-, to become callous. 
Mguu wangu umenifaganzi, my 
foot is asleep. 

Fagia ku-, to sweep. 

FaJiali, plur. mafahaU, a bull, used 
of men in the sense of manly, 

Fahamici, [strong. 

Kwa kirfahamiaQS..)f on the fuce, 
forward. 

Fahamisha ku-, to make to under- 
stand, to remind. 

Fahamu ku-^ to understand, to re- 
member. 

FahaH = Fakhari, glory. 



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272 



yAJ 



FAT 



, Kufanya faJiariy to live beyond 

one's means and station. 
Faja lafraH, a stable. 
Fake/a, generous,a generous person. 
Fakhaiiy glory, 
Fdkiriy poor, a poor person. 
FaUt hU', (Mer.) = Faa ku-, , 
Falahi, oifdlah, astronomy. 
. Kupiga Jalaki, to prognosticate 

by the stars. 
Faliy an omen, omens. 
Fana ku-, to be very good of its 

kind, to become like (?). 
Fanana ku-^ to become like, to 

resemble. 
FananisJui ku-, to make to resemble. 
Fanikia ku-, to turn out well for. 

Kufanikiwa, to prosper. 
Fanwi, a lantern. 
Fanya ku-, to make, to dO) to adapt, 
to mend. 

Kvjifanyoy to make one's self, to 
pretend to be. 

Kufanya kura, to cast lots. 
. Kufanya sliauri, to take* counsel. 
Fanyia ku-, to do or make for or to. 

Mkufanyiejef What am I to do 
with yon ? 
Fanyika ku-, to be made or done, 

makable or doable. 
Fanyiza ku-, to amend, to mend. 
Fanyizika ku-, to be very good, to 

be well done. 
Fara or Farafara, brimful, full to 

the brink. 
Fara^ha, privacy, secrecy, leisure. 
Faraja, comfort, ease after pain. 
Farajika ku-, to be comforted, to 

be eased. 
Farakana ku-, to be alienated. 
Farakiana ku-, to be alieoated in 

regard to one another. 
FaraJcUJia ku-, to alienate. 



Faranga, pi. mafaranga, a chicken, 

a young fowl. 
Farasi or Frasii a horse, in Arabic 

a mare. 
FaHji ku-, to comfort, to console. 
Fariki ku-, to become separated, to 

decease. 
Fdrine, a kind' of rice and milk 

gruel. 
Farishi ku-, to spread. 
Faritha, pay. 

Faroma, a block to put caps on 
after washing them, to prevent 
their shrinking. 
Farrathi, necessity, obligation, obli- 
gatory. 
Farrathi, a place one habitually 
goes to. 
The th of this word is the Eng- 
lish th in that, the th of the 
preceding word is a little 
thicker. 
Farumi, ballast. 
Fashifashi, nonsense. 
Fashini, the stempost of a dhow. 
Fasihi, correct, clean, pure. 
FasiU, spreading. 

Huna dsili, loala fdstU, you have 
neither root nor branches, ie., 
neither good birth nor great 
connections. 
Fasiri ku-, to explain, to interpret 
Fasiria ku-, to explain to, to inter- 
pret to. 
Fataki, a percussion cap, a gnn cap. 
Fathaa, restlessness, disquiet. 
Fathaika kw, to be troubled, dis- 
quieted, thrown into confusion. 
Fat1iaii=AfathaU, preferably. 
FathaIi=FathiU. 

Fathehi ku-, to put to confusion, 
to find out a person in a trick, 
&c 



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Fathai, a favour, a kindness, kind- 



Flli 



273 



FaOiili ku-, to do a kindness, to 

deserve well. 
FcUihat a Mohammedan form of 

prayer. , 
Fatiishi ku-, to pry, to be over 

cnrions. 
Fatdukwyto getpast,to getthrongh, 

to weather. 
FawUi ku-y to delay, to occupy, to 

hinder. 
Fatfida, profit, gain, advantage, 

interest. 
Fayidi ku-, to get prof t. 
Fayiti ku'y to delay. 
Fayitika ku-y to be delayed. 
Fazaay trouble, confusion, anxiety. 
Feka ku- = Fieka ku-, to clear 

forest lands. 
Fele/ehy an inferior kind of millet. 
Feleji or Felegif a choice kind of 
steeL 

Upanga wa felejiy a long straight 
two-edged sword, used by the 
Arabs. 
Feleti ku-, to discharge, to release 

from an obligation, to release. 
Fdiy plur. mafeliy a beginning of 

speaking or doing. 
Ferejiy a chaiitel, a drain. 
Ferusaji = Foraadi, 
Fethdy silver, money. 
Fethaluka. Marijani ya fethaluka, 

the true red coral. 
Fethehoj a disgraceful thing, a 

shame. 
Fetheheka ku-, to be found out in a 
disgraceful thing, to be put to 
shame. 
Fetiwa kth, to be condemned or 

adjudged to [a punishment]. 
Fetwa Apu-, to give judgment on 



a question- of Mohammedan 
law. 
Fevliy the place in a dhow where 
they stow things which may be 
wanted quickly, 
Fiy by. 

Sdbafi saba, seven times seven. 

Fiaku-y to leave behind, to die to. 

Pass. Kufiwa tw, to lose by 

death. 

Fiata ku-, to hold one's hands or 

one's clothes between one's legs. 

Fiatika ku-, to be kept back, to°bo 

delayed. 
Fiatua kw, to allow a spring to 

escape, to let off. 
FieUuka ku-, to escape (as a spring). 
Ficha ku'y to hida 
Kunificha kofia-, to hide a cap 

from me. 
Kunifichia kofia, to hide my cap. 
Fidi ku-y to ransom (of the price 

paid). 
Fiditty a ransom, a sacrifice (giving 

up). 
Fidta ku-y to ransom (of the person 

paying). 
Fidinay mint (?). 
Fieka kw, to clear. 
Kufieka mvsitUy to clear ground 
in a forest. 
Fijia ku-y to disappear, to cease to 
be visible (as a scar or a mark ; 
it does not imply motion), to 
pine away, (of seeds) not to 
come up. 
Figoy plur. mafigay the three stones 
used to set a pot over the fire 
upon. See Jifya. 
Figaoy a movable fireplace. 
Figiliy a kind of large white radish. 
FigOy kidney (M.). 
Fika kury to arrive, to reach, to ootaie. 



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274 



FIK 



FOB 



Fikara, thought. 
Fikia ku', to reach a person. 
Ftkicha kwy to crumble, to rub to 
pieces, to rub hard, to threeh 
corn. (Used also obscenely). 
Fikilia &u-, to come to a person on 
business of his, to arrive and 
return without delay. 
FikUiza hu-, to cause to arrive for. 
Kufikiliza ahadiy to fulfil a pro- 
mise. 
Ftkisha A;tt-, to make to arrive, to 

lead, to take. 
Fikiroy thought, consideration. 
Fikiri ku-, to consider, to ponder. 
FU, a chess castle or rook (in 

Arabic, an elephant). 
FUa ku' = Fia ku-, 
Afile mbaliy that he may die out 
of the way. 
FiUmbi^ a flute. 
FiUH ku-j to take away a man's 

property, to seize for debt. 
FUuika ku^^ to come to want, to 
have been sold up, to have run 
through all one's money. 
Fimbo^ a stick. 
Finetsiy plur. mafinetei^ a jack fruit. 

Finesii la ktzungu, a duryan. 
Fingirika ku-y to roll along, to be 
rolled, to writhe like a wounded 
snake. 
Fingirisha ku-, to roll, to make to 
Finya kth, to pinch. [roll. 

Finyana ku»y to be pinched to- 
gether, to be gathered up small. 
Finyanga ku*, to do potter's work, 
to make pots, to tread and 
trample. 
Fionya ^ti-, to chirp, to make a 
chirruping noise with the mouth, 
to do so by way of showing oon- 
. lempt 



Fira in«-, to commit sodoB^. 
Firana Au-, to commit sodMiiy to- 
gether. 
Firigisi, the gizzard, 
Firinghi = Firigisi. 
Firkomboy an eagle (?). 
Firuzi, a turquoise. 
Fisadi, one who enters other peo- 
ple's houses for a wrongful pur- 
Fisha ku-j to cause to die. [pose. 
Fisty a hyena. 

Fisidi ku-, to enter other people's 

houses for a wrongful purpose, 

to commit an offence in another 

man's house. 

FiikvU = Futhvli^ officious, over 

talkative. 
Fitinoy slander, sowing of discord, 

a disturbance. 
Fitini ku-, to slander, to sow dis- 
cord. 
Fitiriy alms and presents given at 

the end of the Ramathan. 
Fito (plur. of H/^to), lung slender 

sticks. 
Fivoa ku-, to be died to, to lose by 
dtotb. 
Mtoafumke cUiofitoa na mumewey 
a widow. 
Fiwcy a sort of bean growing on a 
climbing plant with a white 
Fo/ofu, [flower. 

Kufafofofuy to die outright 
Fola, a gift expected from those 
who first touch a new-bom baby, 
paying your footing. 
Forcmali, a ship's yard. 
Formaah, 

Datoati yaformat^y a workboz. 
Forsadiy a small kind of edible 

fruit, mulberries. 
Fortha, a custom-house* 
Forihani, at the custom-houaa. 



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FEA 



FUM 



275 



Fras^ Froiif or Farasi, a boine, a 

mare. 
Frasii a obeM knight 
-/u, dead. 

Mqji mafUy neap tides. 
Ftto, a wooden bowL 
Fwi ku-, to beat (?), to wash clothes, 
to clear the husk from coooa- 
nuts, to work in metal, to make 
things in metal. 
Kufua chuma^ to be a blacksmith. 
Kufuafethat to be a silversmith. 
Kvfua ihdiiabu, to be a goldsmith. 
KuftM kuUf &c., to forge a knife, 

Fuama hu;^ to lie on the face 
(Momb.). 

Fuata ku-f to follow, to imitate, to 
obey. 

Fuatana ku-^ to accompany, to go 
with. 

Fuatanisha %ur, tp make to accom- 
pany. 

FuauHi ku't to lie on the side and 
be beaten by the waves, as when 
a vessel goes ashore broadside on. 
Pass. of/aa(?). 

Fuawe, an anviL 

Fucha = Futa, 

Fudifudi, on the face (of falling or 
lying> 

Fudikiza ku-^ to turn bottom up- 
wards, to turn cards backs upper- 
most. 

Fufua ku-, to cause to revive, to 
resuscitate. 

Fufuka ku-, to revive, to come to 
life again. 

Fufuliza ku't to cause to come to 
life again for some one. 

Fufumonye, in the kitchen (Pemba). 

Fuga ku-^ to keep animals either 
tame or in captivity. 



Fugika hu-t to be capable of being 
kept, to be capable of domesti- 
caticm, not to die in captivity. 

Ft/^a ku-t to waste, to squander, to 
leak. See Vuja. 

Fvjika hvTi to moulder, waste away. 

Fvjoy disorder, uproar. 

Fujofujoy slovenliness, laziness. 

Fvkoy a kind of thin porridge. 

Fnku ku'i to fill in a small hole. 

Fvka moihi ku-, to throw out smoke, 
to fume. See Vuke, 

Fvkarcby very poor. 

Fukia ku', to fill up a small hole. 

Fukiza ku', to cense, to put the 
fuming incense-pot under a per- 
son's beard and into his clothes, 
by way of doing him honour. 

FukizOf vapour, fumes. 

Fuko (?), a mole, 

Fuko, plur. mqftikOf a large bag. 

Fukua ku'y to dig a small narrow 
hole, such as those to receive the 
posts of houses ; to dig into a 
grave so as to get at the body ; to 
dig out, to dig up. 

Fukua/ukua ku-^ to burrow* 

Fukuta ^tt-, to blow with bellows. 

Fukuza kU't to drive away, to chase. 

Fukuzana ku-^ to chase one another. 

Fiikuzia fct*-, to drive away from. 

Ftdia kt^, to work in metal for, to 
make things in metal for. 

FtUifidi, on the face, forwards. 

Fuliza ku', to go on, not to stop ; 
also, to blow upon, to kindle. 

Fullani, such a one, such and such 
men or things. 

Fululiza ku-, not to stop or delay 
to go on fast 

Fuma ku't to weave. 

Fuma kur, to hit with a spear, to 
shoot with arrows. 



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276 



tuu 



FUN 



Fwmania hu-, to come suddenly 
upon, to surprise, intrude. 

Fumaniana' hi-, to intrude into 
people's houses without reason- 
able cause. Those who do so 
have no remedy if they are beaten 
or wounded. 

Fumatiti, an owl (?). 

Fumha ku-y to close, to shut (used 
of the eyes, the mouth, the 
hand, &c.). 
Maneno yafuniba, a dark saying. 
Mdkuti ya fumha, cocoa-nut 
leaves plaited for making en- 
closures. 

Fumhay a lumpi. 

Furribat a kind of deeping mat, 
which is doubled and sewn to- 
gether at the ends, so as to make 
a large shallow bag. The sleeper 
gets inside, and draws the loose 
edge under him, so as to be com- 
pletely sllut in. 

FiU7n&afa2;u-,toclosethefi8t,to grasp. 

Fuvfibatika ht^, to be grasped. 

Fumhia ku-, to talk darkly. 

FurribOj plur. mafumhOf k dark say- 
ing, a hidden thing. 

Fumbua kti-, to unclose, to open the 
eyes, &o. 

FumhuJta ku-, to come to light. 

Funibulia fc«-, to lay open to, to 
explain. 

Fumi, a kind of fish. 

Fu*mka ku-, to become unsewn, to 
open at the seams, to leeik (of a 
boat). 

Fumo, plur. mafumo, a flat-bladed 
spear. 

Fumo, a chief (Kingozi and Nyassa). 

Fumtta ku-, to unrip, to unpick. 
Kufumua moto, to draw out the 
pieces of wood from a fire. 



Fumuka ku- = Fu^mka kit-. 

Funda, a large mouthful making 
the cheeks swell out, a sip (?), 
a draw at a pipe. 
Kupiga /undo, to take large 
mouthfuls one by one. 

Fwnda &tt-, to beat up, to mix by 
beating, to pound. 

Funda ku-, to teach. 

Fundif a skilled workman, a master 
workman, a teacher of any hand!- 
orafb. 

Fundisha ku-, to teach, to instruct. 
Kujifundisha, to learn. 

Fundisho, plur. wa/Mndw^,instruo- 
tion, direction, teaching. 

Fundo, plur. mafundo, a knot 
Kupiga fungo, to tie a knot 

Fundua ku-, to untie. 

Funga, a civet cat. 

Funga ku-, to fasten, to tie, to bind, 
to Imprison, to fast 
Kufunga choo, to become consti- 
pated. 

Fungamana ku-, to cling together, 
to connect, to tie together, to rely 
upon. 

Fungana ku-, to bind, to stick 
together. 

Fungasa ku-, to tow. 

Fungate, a period of seve^ days 
after the completion of the wed^- 
ding, during which the bride's 
father sends food to the bride- 
groom and his friends. 

Fungisha ku-, to shut against 

Fungo, a civet cat 

FungUt plur. mafungu, a bank, a 
shoal, a heap, a part, a week. 

Fungua, See Mfunguo. 

Fungua ku-, to unfasten, to ppcn, 
io let loose, to leave off fast- 
ing. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



FUK 

Pungutca Jcu-, to become unfastened, 

to be unfastenable. 
Funguliwa ku-^ to haye unfastened 

for one, to be unfastened. 
Funguo (plur. of Vfunguo), keys. 
FuTiguza ku-, to present with food 

during the Hamathan. 
Funika ku-, to cover (as^wlth a lid), 

to close a book. 
Funikika ku-, to become covered. 
Funikiza ku-f to cover (as with a 

flood). 
Funot a kind of animal. 
Funua ku-t to lay open, to uncover, 
to open a book, to unpick sew- 
ing, to show cards. 

Kufunua macho, to open one*s 
eyes. 
Funuka kur, to become opened, to 

open like a flower, &o. 
Funza, a maggot. 
'Funza fett-, to teach. 

Kujifunza, to learn. 
Fupoj plur. mafupa, a large bone, 

the anus (?). 
'fupif short It makes fupi with 

nouns like nyumha, 
Fupiza ku-, to shorten. 
Fura ku; to swell, to be puffed up 

from the effects of a blow only. 
FurdhOf gladness, joy, pleasure, 

gladly. 
Furahani, with gladness, happiness. 
Furahi ku-, to rejoice, to be glad. 
Furahia ku-, to rejoice in. 
FuraJiUha kt^-, to make glad. 
Furdhiuoa ku-, to be made glad, to 

be rejoiced. 
Furijika ku-, to moulder away. 
Furika kthf to run over, to boil 

over, to inundate. 
Furukuta kit-, to move, as of some- 
thing moving under a carpet 



tYV 



277 



Fktrumij ballast. 

Furunguj plur. mafurungu, a large 

citron, a shaddock, a kind of 

anklet. 
Furufhi, a bundle tied up in a 

cloth. 
Fu8fu8 or Fu88U8f precious stones. 
JPWt, rubbish. 
Futa ku-, to wipe. 

Kufuta kamasiy to blow the nose. 
Futa ku-y to draw a sword ( = vttta ? ). 
Futari, the first food taken after a 

fast 
Futiy plur. mafuii^ the knee (A.) 
Futhuliy officiousness. 
Futika ku-y to tuck into the girdle 

or loin-cloth. 
Futua ku-y to open out a bundle, 

take out what was tucked in. 
Futuka ku'y to get cross or angry. 
Futukia ku-, to get cross with. 
Futurif a span. 
Futuru ku'y to eat at the end of a 

fast, to break a fast. 
Fuu, plu^. mafuu, a small black 

fruit. 
FuvUf plur. mafuvu, an empty sheik 

Fuvu la kUwOf a skull. 
Fuza kth, to go on, not to stop. 
Fuzi* plur. mafuzif a shoulder 

(A.). 
Ftoata ku- = Fuata kuu 
Fyoa kU', to answer abusively. 
Fyolea ku-y to answer a person with 

abuse and bad language. 
Fyonda kU' or Fyonja ku-f to suck 

out. 
Fyonya hu', to chirrup. Sed 

Fionya, 
Fyonza ku-, to suck. 
Fyoma ku-, to read (M.). 
Fyuka ku-y to go off, to drop, to 

escape like a spring. 



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278 



GAA 



GAB 



G, 

O is alwayi to be pronounced 
hard, as in ''gate." Much con- 
fusion arises from the way in which 
the Arabic letters jim and haaf on 
qaf are pronounced *by different 
Arabs; Jim is properly an English 
j, and is so used by the Swahili, 
and qaf is properly a guttural k^ 
but most Arabs in Zanzibar pro- 
nounce either Jim or qaf as a hard 
g. This must be remembered In 
writing or looking for many Swahili 
words. 

The Arabic Ghain is retained in 
many Swahili words borrowed from 
the Arabic, and a similar sound 
occurs in African languages also. 
It is here written gh. Most Euro- 
peans think it has something of an 
r sound, but this is a mistake ; it is 
a hard gratiug g,made wholly in the 
throat It resembles the Dutch g, 
and the German g approaches it 

Croagaa hu-, to turn over restlessly, 

to roll like a donkey. 
Odbri, See Kdburi. 
Oadiy a wooden prop to keep a 

yessel from falling over when 

left by the tide. 
CUidimu ku-t to put gadi, 
Gugat plur. magaga^ rubbish, dirt 
Oat, plur. magai, a large piece of 

potsherd. 
Galme, See Xalme, the small mizen 

mast of a dhow. 
GaXawck, a canoe, a small canoe 

with outriggers. GalavHU are 



hollowed out of the trunk of a 
tree, and have two long poles 
tied across, to the end of which 
pieces of wood pointed at both 
ends are attached, which serve 
to prevent the canoe upsetting. 
These outriggers are called 
matemgo. Bee MtMmbwL 

Gamba, See Jiganiba, 

GafM, the tiller, the rudder handle. 

Oanda, plur. nuiganda, husk, rind, 
shell, hard bark. 
Ganda la taiu^ the three of cards. 

Ganda fcu-, to stick, to freeze. 

Gandama Aru-, to cleave, to stick. 

Gandamana ku-, to cleave to- 
gether, to coagulate, to curdle, to 
freeze. 

Gandamia hu-f to stick to, to cleave 
to. 

GandOy plur. magando, the claw of 
a crab. 

Ganga ku-f to bind round, as when 
a stick is sprung to bind it 
round with string, to splice, to 
mend, to cure. 

Gauge, a soft white limestone. 

Gango, plur. magango^ a cramp, a 
splint, something which holds 
other things together in their 
right place. 

Ganil What? What sort of? 
The name of the thing queried 
about always precedes the word 
gani. 

Garni, 
Imekufa ganziy it has lost all 

feeling. See Faganzi. 
KtUia ganti la meno, to set the 
teeth on edge. 

Garif plur. magaf% a carriage, a 
wheeled vehicle. 

Craro/utf, doves. Also, a kind of rice. 



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GAU 



GHU 



279 



Gauza^ Gauka, eto. See Qeuza^ 

Geuka, etc. 
Oawa ku, to divide, to part out. 

Kugawa karata, to deal cards. , 
(xatoanya hu-, to divide, to share. 
Gaya ku', to change one's mind, 

to vacillate. 
Gayamiy a post with a cleat at the 

side of the poop, to fasten the 

sheet of a dhow sail to. 
Gayogayo, a flat fish, (?) a sole. 
Gema ku-, to get palm wine. They 

cut the immature flowering shoot 

and hang something under to 

catch what flows from the wound, 

which is the tembo, or palm wine. 

The cutting is renewed from 

time to time to keep up the 

flow. 
Gemb€t plur. magembe, a hoe. Bee 

Jembe, 
-geniy foreign, strange. 
Genxi. 

Mkuu genzi, one who knows the 
roads well, a guide. 
GerezcL, a fort, a prison. 
Geua ku', to turn, to change (Mer.). 
Geuka ku-, to become changed, to 

turn, to change. 
Geuza ku- or Geusha ku- (?), to 

cause to change, to turn, to 

change. 
Geuzi, plur. mageuzif a change, 

changes. 
G^/oZa, suddenly. 
Ghafalika ku-^ to be imprudent, not 

to attend to, to neglect* 
Ghd/ula = glidfala. 
Ghairi ku-, to annul, change one's 
mind as to, put an end to. 

Kutia ghairif to offend, to irri- 
tate. 
GhcLUif a wareroom, a store place, 



especially the rocnns on the 
ground-floor of Zanzibar houses, 
which have generally no win- 
dows, but merely a few small 
round holes (miangoMo) near 
the ceiling. 

CrAa2i, dear. 

Ghcdime, See Galme, Kalm» 

Ghalisha ku-, to make dear. 

Ghangi^ a kind of dhow resembling 
a bigala, except that it has not 
so long a prow. 

Ghanima, good luck, profit. 

Qharama, expense, payment to a 
native chief by a caravan. 

Gharika, a flood, the flood. 

Ghariki ku-, to be flooded, to be 
covered with water. 

Gharikisha ku-, to flood, to over- 
whelm. 

Gharimia kU'f to go to expense 
about, to be at the expense of. 

Ghasit a measure of about a yard. 

Ghaai, rebellion. 

Ghoii fell-, to bother, worry. 

Ghasia, bother, coming and going, 
want of privacy. 

Ghathabika ku-, to be enraged, to 
be angry. / 

Ghathabisha ku , to enrage, to make 
angry. 

Ghathahu, anger. 

Ghelihu ku-, to master. 

Gheirij jealousy, jealous anger. 

Ghiana, an aggravating person. 

Ghofira, plur. maghofirOj pardon. 

Ghofiri fcu-, to forgive sifis ; used of 
God only. 

Ghofiria ku; to forgive a persou. 

Ghdrofa, an upper room. 

Ghoihi kw, to adulterate. 

Ghuba (?)y a sheltered place, a 
screen. 



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280 



t3iBV 



Gvk 



Ghubarij pttur. maghubarij a rain 

cloud. 
Ohubba^ a bay. 
Ohumiijija ku-j to be startled, to 

stand aghast. 
Ghufika ku'i to be arrogant. 
Ohururi, arrogance. 
Ghushi hu' = Ghoshi Jcu-, to adul- 
terate. 
Ghusubu hu; to cheat, to swindle. 
Gidam, the strap of a sandal, 

passing between the toes. 
Crinw, sort, kind. 

Ginsi ilivyokuwa njema, &o.f it 
was so good, &c. 

Ginsi gani ? or Gristi gani f 
Why? How is it? 
Giza or Kiza^ darkness. 
Gnamha or Ng'amba^ a hawk's-head 

turtle. 
Gnombe or Ng^ombe, an ox, cattla 
Goa. See Goo, 
Gohoa ku'f to break off the coba of 

Indian com. 
Godoro, plur. magodorOy a mattress. 
Gofia, a pulley. 
GogOj plur. magogo, a log of timber, 

the trunk of a tree when felled. 
Gomha A:m-, to be adverse to, to 

oppose, to quarrel with. 
G(md)ana &t«-,to squabble, to quarrel. 
Gombeza hu-y to forbid, 
GfymJbo, plur. magombOy a sheet of a 

book. 
G<me, plur. magomey bark of a tree. 
Gomea fcu-j^to fasten with a native 

lock. 
G<ymeOy a native lock. 
Gonga hu-y to knock. 
Gonjweza hu-y to make ill. 

Kvjigonjwezay to make oneself 
out an invalid, to behave like a 
sick man. 



GongOy plur. magongoy a large 

stick. 
Gongqjea hu-, 

KuJigongcjeOy to prop oneself with 
a staff, to drag oneself along by 
the help of a stick. 
Chngomea hu-, to hammer in. 
Goo. See Mtondo goo, 
Gora, a piece of cloth, a package of 

cloth. See Jura, 
Gorong^ondway a kind of lizard. 
Goshiy the tack of a sail. 

Upande loa goshini, the weather 
side. 

Eupindim Jcwa goshiniy to tack. 
Gota hu-y to tap, to knock. 
GotCy plur. magotey the knee. 

Kupiga magotey to kneel. 
Goteza hu-y to jumble together 

different dialects or languages. 
Govt niboy uncircumcised, ^ 

Gvhetty prow of a dhow. 
Gubitiy barley-sugar (?). 
Gudiy a dock for ships. 
Gudulia or GudutoiOy a water-cooler, 

a porous water-bottle. 
GugUy plur. magugu, undergrowth, 
weeds. 

Gugu mmtUy a weed resembling 
com. 
-gugUy Wild, uncultivated. 
Gugumiza kti-y to gulp, to swallow 

with a gulping sound. 
(xuguna ku-y to. gnaw. 
Gugurusha ku-y to ran with a 

shuffling noise like a rat, to drag 

along with a scraping noise. 
Guixi ku-y to seize (Mer.). 
Guiana ku-y to cling together. 
GuUguley a dolphin. 
Guniba. 

Kidole cha giPtnba, the thumb. 
Gumegume. 



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-GUM 



HA- 



281 



Bunduhi ya gumegume, a flint gun. 

'-gumut hard, difficidt. 

Ouna ku-, to grunt, to make a dis- 
satisfied noise. 

Gundua ku-t to see one who thinks 
himself unseen, to discover un- 
awares, to catch. 

Gunga ku-, (1) to warn againit 
doing something, (2) to refuse 
temptation. 

Gunguy a kind of dance. 

Gungu la kufunda, danced by a 

single couple. 
Gungu la kukuHM, danced by two 
couples. 

GunicL, a kind of matting bag. 

Gunzif plur. tnagunzi^ a cob of 
Indian com. 

Gura kU', to change one's place of 
residence (A.). 

Gurisha ku-, to make to remove, to 
banish (A.). 

Guru» 
Sukari guru^ half -made sugar. 

Gurudumo, plur. irMgurudumOf a 
wheel* 
Gurudwno la mzinga^ a gun- 
carriage. 

Guruguru, a large kind of burrow- 
ing lizard. 

Gusa ku-, to touch. 

Gutuka ku-^ to start, to be startled. 

Guu, plj^r. maguu, leg (4.). 

Gtoa kw, to fall [Tumbatu]. 

GwancUij a very short kanzu, 

Gwia kur = Guia ku-, 

Gtoiana ku- = Guiana ku-, 

H. 

H has the same sound as in the 
English word •* hate.'' 
Tiiere are in Arabic two distinct 



h% one wholly made in the throat, 
the other somewhat lighter than the 
English h. In Swahili there is only 
one h sound, which is used for both. 

The Arabic kh is pronounced as 
a simple h in all words which tire 
thoroughly incorporated into Swa- 
hili. The kh is used by Arabs and 
in words imperfectly assiniilntod. 
Some people regard it as a mark of 
good education to give tho proper 
Arabic sounds to all words of Arabic 
origin. 

In Arabic a syllable often ends 
with /i, which is then strongly pro- 
nounced ; but in Swahili the h is 
generally transposed so as to pre- 
cede the vowel. 

KuihHimUj to fiDish one's educa- 
tion = Kuhitimu. 

if-, sign of the negative in the 
second and third persons sin- 
gular. 

H-upendi, thou lovest not 

H-apendi, he lovest not 
Ua-t sign of the third person sin- 
gular negative when referring 
to animate beings, and of the 
negative when prefixed to 
the affirmative prefixes in the 
plural, and in the third person 
singular when not referring to 
animate beings. 

ffa-tupendif we love not. 

Ha-mpendiy you love not. 

ffa-wapendi, they love not 

Ha-i/ai, it is of no use. 

The final a of this ha- iievor 
coalesces with the following 
letter. 
JIa-f a contraction for ntka, 

Hamwonay and I saw him. 



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282 



]^AB 



HAL 



The third person singular present 
negative is distingoished by 
the final f 
Eamwoni, he does not see him. 
Mahciy little, few, shallow. 
HabcAi, my lord. 

JUabari, news, information, message, 
story. 
JSabari tang^ tiUzonipaiaf an ac- 
oonnt of what had happened to 
me. 
Sabuehia^ phot, mdhabtuhiOf an 
Abyssinian. Many Galla women 
are called Abyssinians, and the 
name is scnnetlmes need for a con- 
eubine of whatever race. 
Hadaa, deceit, cheating. 
Hadaa hu-, to cheat 
Hadaika Anp-, to be cheated, to be 

taken in. 
Hadidi, the semicircular ornament 
to which Arab womcQ attach the 
plaits of their hair. 
Hadimu, a servant, slave. See Jlfu- 

hadimu, 
Haditht, a tale, a story, especially 
one bearing upon Mohammedan 
tradition. 
Hadtihia ku-, to relate to. 
iiofifu^ ligbt, infeignifioant. 
. Mafithika kw = Ei/aihika ku-, to 
be preserved. 
Hdhithawahelba (Ar.), these and 

these. 
Haibaf a beauty, not beauty gene- 
rally, but one good point. 
ZTai-, »ign of third person singular 
negative agreeing with nouns 
which do not diange to form 
the plural. 
Bign of the third person plural 
negative agreeing wUh nonns 
in«^ 



Hai s Hayi^ alive. 
Hainoy it is not, there is not 
Haitassa, not yet 

HaithurUt it does not harm, it is of 
no consequence, never mind, it 
would be as well. 
Haj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. 
Haja, a request. 
Hana hc^a, he is good for no pur- 
pose, he has no occasion. 
Hajiri ku-, to go to live elsewhere. 
Hajirtka ku-, to remain overlong, 

delay. 
Hakali, 
Kumshika hakali, to require a 
stranger who goes upon work- 
men's work to pay for his in- 
trusion, to make him pay his 
footing. 
Haki', sign of the third person 
singular negative, agreeing vrith 
nouns in ki- or ch-. 
Hakiy justice, right, righteousness. 
HakihoLy true, certain, certainly. 
Baktka yako, it is true of thee, 
thou certainly. 
HaJtiki ku-',^ me^e sure, to ascer- 
tain, to prove. 
Hakiri ku-t to humble. 
Hakirtiha ku-, to despise.* 
Hako, he is not there. 
Haku; sign of the tiiird person 

negative indefinite. 
Hakwy sign of tiie third person 
singular of the negative past, 
referring to animate beings. 
This form is distinguished from 
the preceding by the final lettei 
of the verb, which is •« in the 
indefinite and -a in the past tense. 
Hakuriaf there Is not, it exists not, 

na 
Hal lAfrocf i, otto of i 



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HAL 



HAP 



2S3 



JEToZa/ hilhilhib, perjury. 
Halafu, afterwards, preMotly. 
HdUdif lawful. 
HaloBa, sailors' wages. 
HaUj state, oonditiou, health. 
U halt gani f How are you ? 
Wa hdU gani f How are they ? 
Amekuwa halt ya hioanzei, he is 
reduced to his former condition, 
he is as he used to he. 
It is also used as a kind of con- 
junction, being, if it be, when 
it is, supposing, so it was. 
Bali for ^^t, family, connections. 
Hali'y sign of the third person 
singular negative, agreeing with 
nouns which make their plural in 
ma-, 
EalUiska hti-t to make lawfpL 
Ualili ydkoi at your disposaL 
Halid or Hdlisi, exactly, without 

defect or variation. 
ffalua, a sweetmeat made of ghee, 
honey, eggs, arrowroot (?), and 
spice. 
Haluli. 
Chumvi ya haluli^ sulphate of 
magnesia. <> 
Ha^m-t sign of the seeond person 

plural negative. 
Ebma ku-, to diange houses, to 

move. 
JBofnoZt, plur. malumaU, a porter, 

a coolie. 
Hamamiy a public bath. There are 

now public baths in Zaniibar. 
Eamaya, protection. 
Fi hamayat ai Ingrw, under 
British proteotioB. 
Hamdi, praise. 
JTami, protection. 
Hami ku-, to protect 
HamiU ku^f to be pregnoBt 



Hamiraf leaven, made by mixing 
flour and water and leaving it to 

turn sour. 
Hamuha ha-^ to cause to remove, to 

cause to change one's place of 

residence, to banish. 
Sa*mnat there is not inside, not 
Hamo, he is not inside. 
Hamsiy five. 
Bamsini, fifty. 
Hamstashara, fifteen. 
HamUy grief, heaviness. 
Hamwinibi f Don't you sing ? 
JJano, he has not. 
Hana ku-, to mourn with, to join 

in a formal mourning. 
Hana kwaoy he has bo home, a 

vagabond. 
HanamUf obliquely. 
Hanamuy the cutwater of a dhow. 
Handdkiy a dry ditch, a trench. 
Hangaika ku-, to be excited. 
HangoCf the guttural Arabic Kf the 

hha. Bee Mdawari, 
Hanikiza ku-^ to interrupt people, 

to talk so loud and long as to 

prevent other people from doing 

anything. 
Hantaiy a man sexually impotent 
Haniti, a catamite, a sodomite. 
Hanzua^ a kind of dance. 
JToo, or HatDOt these or those before 

mentioned, referring to animate 

beings. 
Hapa-, sign of the third person 

negative, agreeing with mahdUt 

place or places. 
Hapa, here, this place,in this place. 
Hapanaj there is not, no I 

Hapana refers rather to a par- 
ticular i^aoe, Hdkuna h gene- 
ral. 
ffapo, here, this or that time. 



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284 



HAB 



HAT 



Tangu hapo, once npoii a time, 
. HapohdUfiu old %imea, 

Tokea hapo, ever so long. 

Toica hapo I get away I get out of 
thisl 
Hara hu-, to be purged. 

ffarUhd ku-, to act as a drastic 
purgatiye. 
Haraka^ baste. 
Haraka hw^ to make baste. 
HaraikUha ku-, to basten. 
Baramia, a pirate, a robber. 
HaramUf unlawful, probiblted. 
HararOf prickly beat, beat, bot 

temper. 
Harara, quick-tempered. 
Earariit bot-tempered. 
Hari, beat, perspiration. 

Kuioha hart, to perspire. 
Haribika ku-, to be destroyed, to 

spoiL 
Haribu ku-, to destroy, to spoil. 

Kuharibu mim^o, to miscarry. 
Harijia ku-, to spend money, to lay 

out money, to provide (a feast), 

&C. 

Earimuha ku-, to mak^ or declare 

unlawful. 
Harimu kU" = MaHmisha kt^. 
JIarioe, a cry raised on seeing a 

dbow come in sigbt (M.). 
Hariri, silk. 
Marvfuy Uarvfi, or Hert^fu, a letter 

of tbe alphabet, letters, oba- 

racters. 
Harvfuy a scent, a smell of any kind. 
Earusi, a wedding; vulgarly, tbe 
bride. 

JSioana TMruH, tbe bridegroom. 

Bibi harttsi, tbe bride. 
Haaai = Mak&ai^ castrated. 
Hasara, loss. 

Kupata haaarOf to lose. 



Ha8ara ku-, to spoil a tbing so tbat 

its value is gone. 
Hasha, not at all, not by any means, 
' a very strong negative. 
HoBho^ a patcb in planking, a piece 

let in. 
Hasi kvk" or Ehasi Xn^-, to geld, to 
' castrate. 

Hoiibu ktjhy to couni 
BasidOf a kind of porridge. 
Hatidd, envy. 
JJowVa, anger. 

Kutoa na hoHra, to be angry. 

Kutia hoHra, to make angry. 
Hanra %tt-, to ii^ure. 
Hatiri ku-^ to vex, to do barm 

to. 
Haairika kU', to be injured^ to bo 

grieved. 
Hasiruha ku-, to injure. 
Homo, exactly. 
Hata, See Eatta, 
Eatamut a bridle. 
Hatari, danger, fear. 
Eatharif caution, care. 

Kuwa na hatharif to beware, to 
be on one's guard. 

Kufanya hatkari, to become care- 
ful, to become anxious. 
Edtif, an angel. 
Eatiki ku-f to bother, tQ annoy 

(A.). 
EatimaszKhatima, end, Conclusion, 

at last. 
Eatirisha Iw-, to venture, to run 

tbe risk. 
Eaiiya = Khatiya, fault , 

KiUiahatiyani, to find fault with. 

Mwenyi hatiya nami^ wbo baa 

done me wroag. . ^ 

EaUa, unti], so far as, to, at length, 

when a certain time bad at- 

I lived. It is used to introdnoe 



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HAT 



HEB 



285 



the time when something fresh 
happened. 
Hatta siku moja, one day. 
Hatta assubui, in the morning, 

but in the morning. 
ffcUta baada ya mwezi kupita, and 
when a month had passed. 
HaUia^ for nothing. 
Eattiya = Batiya, 
Eatu'j sign of the first person plural 

negative. 
Hatiuit a step, steps. 
Bau-y sign of the third person 
singular negative agreeing with 
nouns in m- or mto-, not denoting 
animate beings, or with those in u-. 
Bavi't sign of the third person 
plural negative agreeing with 
plural nouns in vi- or vy^, 
Eawa-y sign of the third person 

plural negative. 
Bawa-, Eve. 
Eawa, these, referring to animate 

beings. 
Bawa or Bewa^ air. 
Bawa or Bawat, longing, lust, 
loving. 
Usifanye haioa nafiiy don't be 
partial, don*t show favour. • 
Bawa or Bawara, a catamite, a 

paramour. 
Bawala^ transfer of a debt, bill of 

exchange. 
Baweziy he is ill. See Weza ku', 
Bawi, he is not. 

Bawili ku-t to take upon oneself 
what was due from another, to 
guarantee a debt, &o. 
Baya-y sign of the third person 
plural negative agreeing with 
pKural nouns in ma-, 
Baya, these, referring to a plural 
' substantive in ma-. 



Baya, shame, modesty. 
Bana haya, he is shameless. 
Kuona haya^ to feel ashamed, to 

be bashful. 
Kutia kayo, to abash, to make 
ashamed. 
Bayat Work awayl Be quick I 
Gome along I 

Bayale, those, those things. 

Bayamkini, it is impossible 

Bayawaniy a man without his 
proper senses, an idiot. 

Bayi, plur. wahayi (?), alive. 

Bayo, these or those before men- 
tioned, referring to plural sub- 
stantives in mor, 

Bayukot vulgarly used in Zanzibar 
for hakOf he is not there. 

Ha2tS sign of the third person 
plural negative agreeing with 
nouns which do not change to 
form the plural, or with those 
which begin in the singular with 
tt-. 

Bazibu ku- = Besabu ku-. 

Bazinat a treasure. 

Bazitassa, not yet 

Bedayay a choice thing, a tale. 

Bejazi, the B^az in Arabia. 

Bekalu^ the temple at Jerusalem, a 
great or famous thing. 

BekimOj wisdom, cleverness. 

Bekimiza ku-^ to make a luan under- 
stand, to put him in possession of 
knowledge. 

Bemidi ku-, or Bamidi ku-, to praise. 

Benza, halyards. 

Benzaraniy cane-work. 

Beri = Kheirif happy, fortunate, it 
is welL 
Ni heri, I had better, it will be 

well for me. 
A'ua heriy good bye. 

u 



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286 



HEB 



HIT 



Mtu wa herlt a fortunate man. 
Beriay a cry raised on first seeing a 

dhow coming. Compare HartWe. 
Herimu = Marika, 
Heroy a wooden platter. 
Heru/u or Harufu, a letter of the 

alphabet. 
HesabUy accounts, an account. 
Hesabu hu't to count, to reckon. 
Ileshima, honour. 
Heshimu ku-, to honour. 
Hethf menstruation, menses. 

Kuufa na hethy to menstruate. 
HHima. [aticestors. 

KHMma hettmoy to pray for one's 
Hetoa or Hawa, air. 
Hezaya, a shame, a thing causing 

confusion. 
JI/., for Niki', See -W-. 
Hiana^ a grudging person, one who 

withholds things. Compare 

Ghiaria. 
Hiari, dioioe. 

Hibaj property left after death. 
Hidima, service. 
Hifathi ku-, to preserve, to keep. 
Hifaihika ku-, to be p^servcd. 
Bifukuza = Nikt/ukuza. 
mif this, referring to singular 

nouns which do not change to 

form the plural ; these, referring 

to plural nouns in mi-, 
HiUe, thaf, those. 
Hikaya = Eedaya, a wonderful 

thing. 
Uiku this, referring to singular 

nouns m W- or ch-, 
Hikile, that, yonder. 
Hila, a device, a stratagem, a deceit. 

Mtu wa hilttj a crafty man. 
Hili, this, referring to singular 

nouns which make their plural 

in tncL-, 



nHo, this or that before mentioned, 
referring to singular nouns which 
make their plural in ma-, 

Hima, haste, hastily, quickly. 

Himahima t be quick I 

Eimili ku-, to bear, to support. 

Himiza ku', to hasten. 

HinGf henna, a very favourite red 
dye, used by women to dye the 
palms of their hands and the soles 
of their feet, often used to dye 
white donkeys, &o., a pale red 
brown. 

Hini ku-, to refuse to give, to with- 
hold. 

Eiriziy a written charm worn on the 
side. 

Hirimuy an equal in age. 
Birimu mqjaj of the same age 

Eisaf pardon. 
Nipe htsa yangu^ pardon me. 

Hitari ku-, to prefer, choose. See 
Ikhtiari. 

Hitima, the feast which concludes 
a formal mourning. 

Bilimu ku'^ to finish one's learning, 
to leave off school, to know one's 
trade. 

Hitimisha ku-, to finish a scholar, to 
bring to the end of his learning of 
whatever kind. 

Hivij thus, these, referring to plural 
nouns in vt- or vy-, 

Hivitet those. 

Uicyo, after which manner, these 
mentioned before, referring to 
plural nouns in vi- or vy-, 

Hiyariy choice. 

Biyo, this mentioned before, re- 
ferring to hingular nouns which 
do not change to form the plural ; 
these mentioned before, referring 
to plural nouns in mi- or in mo-. 



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HIZ 



HUJr 



287 



Hizi, these, referring to plural 
nouns which do not change to 
form the plural, or which begin 
in the singular with u- or w; 

Siku hiziy some days ago, some 
days hence, now. 
Hm fctt-, to treiit with contumely, to 

groan at, to cry out against. 
Hiziley those. 

Hizika Aru-, to be put to the blush. 
Habe I now go on, be off. 

Kvoenda hdbe^ to go wherever it 
may be. 
HdbUy grandchild. 
Hodari, strong. 
Hodil a cry made by way of 

inquiry whether any one is within. 

No one ought to enter a house 

until he has received an answer. 
Hogera ku', to perform a particular 

washing customary after cir- 
cumcision. 
HogOf plur. mcihogo, a very large 

root of cassava. 
Hohe hdhej a phrase used to denote 

extreme poverty and destitution. 
Hoho, 

Pilipili Tioho, red pepper. 

Mkate loa hoho, a cake made with 
fresh palm-oil. 
Hqja = Huja, 
Borna, fuver. 
Hongo, a present demanded by a 

local chief for liberty to pass 

through his country. 
Hongua^ a Comoro dance. 
Horarit clever (?). 
Hon, or Khori, a creek, a small arm 

of the sea. 
Hori, plur. mahori, a kind of canoe 

with a raised head and stem, 
flii-, a quasi-personal prefix de- 
noting a customary action. It 



applies to all persons and both 
numbers. 
Huuijibu, it is in the habit of 

answering me. 
Huenda, he, &c., commonly goes. 
Hfjuema, they say. 
J3m- = h-U'j the negative prefix of 
the second person singular. 
This form is distinguished from 
the preceding by the termina- 
tion of the verb. 
Snenda, people go. 
Httendi, you do not go. 
Rua, a dove. They are said to cry, 
Mama aJtafa, Baha aka/a, nime 
salia mimi, tu, tu, tu, tu, tu, My 
mother is dead, my father^ is 
dead, I am left alone — luue— lone 
— ^lone. Another cry of the same 
class of birds is explained as, 
Kuku mfwpa mtupu, mimi nyama 
tele tele tele, A fowl is bare 
bones. I am meat plenty, plenty, 
plenty. 
HtMa^ love, affection. 
Hubiri, to announce, to give news. 
Hudumia feu-, to servo. 
Hudumu, service. 
Hui kthf to revive, to come to life 

again. 
Huika ku-, to be brought to life 

again, to live again. 
Huuha ku'y to revive, bring to life 

again, resuscitate. 
Huja or hoja^ sake, account, con- 
cernment, reasoning. 
Kina huja nyingi, it is full of 

bother, it is troublesome. 
Eakina huja, it is all clear, it is 
plain sailing. 
Hujambo ? Are you well ? 
Euji kU', to inquire into, seek out. 
Hujuru ku-, to desert. 

u 2 



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268 



HUK 



EukOf there, at a dietance. 

Euko na hukot hither and thither. 
ffukUf here, there, near. 

Huku na hiikUf ihU waj and 
that 
HtJcumu, judgment, authority, law. 
Eukumu kfi-f to act as judge, to 

have supreme authority over. 
Hukumia ku-, to judge, to exercise 

authority upou. 
Hulukiwa kuy to be created, to be 

a creature. 
Humumci, plur. fna-, a man who 

knows no religion. 
Hundij a draft, a bill of exchange. 
Suo, this or that before mentioned, 

preferring to singular nouns in 

u- or tr-, or which make their 

plural in mi-, 
Huruj free, not a slave. 

Kuweka or Kuacha huru, to set 
free from slavery. 
SurUf plur. mahurut a freed man. 

Mahuru wa Balyozi, or Baruzi, 
slaves freed by the British 
consulate. 
HurUi diamonds in cards. 
HurumcL, pity. 
Eurumia ku-, to pity, to have pity 

upon. 
Hu88u ku'f to divide into shares, to 

put each one's share separate. 
Euaudu ku-f to do wanton violence, 

to grudge at, to envy. 
Eummu ku-, to strive, to contend 

with. 
Etuunif a fort. 
Eusuru ku-^ to besiege. 
Euihwria ku-, to be present. 
Eutt, this, referring to nouns in 

the singular which make their 

plural in mi-t or to singular nouns 

beginning with u- or to-. 



JTuule, that. 

Euyo, this or that before inentioned, 

referring toafi animate being. 

In chasing a man or animal, any 

one who sees him cries out, 

Euyot huyoihuyo! Here he is! 

Euyu, this, this person, this one, 
referring to an animate being. 

Euyvle, that. 

Euzuni, grief, heaviness. 

Ewenday perliaps. 



I is pronounced like ee in feel. 

J before a vowel generally be- 
comes y. It is in many cases im- 
material whether t or y be written, 
but where the accent would other- 
wise fall upon it, its consonantal 
character becomes obvious. 

An unaccented t is often inter- 
changed with a short u sound. 
Thus the word for Uad may be pro- 
nounced either tUmi or rusasi. 

N has generally an i sound im- 
plied in it. It is sometimes ex- 
pressed following the n, as in the 
prefix ni. The final i of ni- disap- 
pears in rapid pronunciation, and in 
the first person of the future, as n 
cannot coalesce with t, both letters 
are often omitted. When n is fol- 
lowed by a vowel, or by d, gr, y, 
or z, the t sound is lost. When n 
is followed by other consonants it 
eitlier disappears altogether or the 
t sound is more or less distinctly 
prefixed, so as to make the n a syl- 
lable by itself. The i sound is more 
distinct in the dialect of Zanzibar 
than in more northern Swahili. 

Where i follows the final a of a 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



IMI 



289 



prefix (except the negative prefix 
hd) it coalesces with a into the 
Bound of a long e, 

J, is or was, governed by a singnlar 
noan of the class which does 
not change to form the plural; 
are or were, governed by a 
plural noun in mi-, 

J-, or before a vowel, y-, the personal 
prefix used with verbs whose 
subject is a singular noun of 
the class which does not change 
to form the plural, or a plural 
in mi'j it or they. 

-»'-, the prefix representing the ob- 
ject of the verb when it is a 
singular noun of the class which 
does not change to form the 
plural, or a plural noun in mi-. 

-t-, the reflective prefix in King*ozi 
(and in Nyamwezi), self. 

Iba kuh (the kw- is frequently re- 
tained in the usual tenses), to 
steal, to take surreptitiously. 

IbadOj worship. 

Ihia hw-fio rob, to steal from. 

Idadi. 
Hayana idadi, there is no count- 
ing them. 

Idili = Adili, right conduct. 

Idili hU', to learn right conduct. 

Idilisha ku-, to teach right con- 
duct 

Iftcihi, bringer of luck. ^ 

Iga ku-, to mock, to imitlite (M. 
igiza), 

Ih: See Bi'. 

Ihtdhidi ku', to strive. 

Ih'taji ku; to be wanting. 

Ih*tajia Aw-, to want, to be wanting to. 

IKtilafu, different Also a fault, 
difference. 



IhHimu ku; to finish learning, to 

complete one's education. 
Ijara, pay, hire, rent 
Ijaza, a reward. 
Ijaza ku; to grant permission for 

worship. 
Ikhtiari, choice. 
Ikhtiari ku-, to wish. 
Ikiza ku; to lay the beams of a 
roof. 

Kuku ya kuikiza^ a fowl cooked 
with eggs. 
i^o, there is, it is there. 
Ha, a defect, a blemish. 
lie, that yonder, referring to a 

singular noun of the class which 

does not change to form its 

plural; those yonder, referring 

to a plural noun in mi-, 
m = lUi. 
llihi, cardamoms. 
Bioko, which is, or was there. 
Biopandana, the compobition of a 

word. 
Bizi, a small round thing held 

to be a great charm against 

lions. 
Bla, except, unless, but. 
Blakini, but 
lUi, in order that 
Bmu, learning. 
Ima — ima, either— or. 
Ima ku-, to stand up (King'ozi and 
Yao). 

Njia ya kwivna, a straight road. 
Ima ku-, to eat up food provided 
for other people. 

Ametuima, he has eaten our share 
as well as his own. 
Imani, faith. 
Imara^ firm. 
Imba kw; to sing. 
laJtm, mosquito, mosquitoes 



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290 



IMI 



ITA 



Imuha ku-f to set up, to make to 

stand. 
Tmma. 

Wa tmma, to a certainty. 
Ina, it has, they have. 
Inama hu-, to bow, to stdop, to bend 

down, to slope. 
Inamiilia hu-, to make to bend 

down, to bow. 
Jnang^ara, it is bright. See ng^aa. 
Inchi, land, country, earth. 
Jnda. 

Kufanya inda, to g^ve trouble. 
Jnga hu-f to scare away birds. 
'ingu many, much. It makes jingi 

with nouns like hashd, and 

nyingi with nouns like nyuniba. 
Ingia ku-y to enter, to go or come 

into. 
Ingilia ku-, to go or come into, for, 

or to. 
Ingiliza ku-y to cohabit with. 
-ingine, other, different. It makes 
mgine or mvnngine with nouns 
like mtu and mti ; jingine with 
nouns like kasha ; ngine or nyi- 
ngine with nouns like nyurnixi; 
and pinjine or pangine with 
nouns of place. 

Wangine — toa7igfine,8ome— others. 
Ingiza ku-, to make or allow to enter. 
Ini, plur. mainiy the liver. 
Jnika ku-, tohaog down, to lay upon 

its side. See Jiinika, 
Jnna, truly. 
InshaUah, if God will, perhaps. It 

is used as a general promise to do 

as one is asked to do. 
Into = Nta. 

Inua kw, to lift, to lift up. 
Inuka ku; to be lifted, to beoome 

raised. 
Inya^ mother (A.). 



-inyi = -enyi, having, with. It makes 
mtoinyi, wenyi^ yinyiy zinyiy linyiy 
kinyiy vinyi, and penyi, 

Inziy plur. mainziy a fly. 

Ipa ku-y to want, desire to have. 
Kuipa roho mbeley to long for 
everything one sees, to h|kvu 
unrestrained desires. 

ipi. 

Kupiga ipi, to slap (.N.). 
Ipii what? 

KaTna ipi f how ? 
Ipua kvj-y to take off the fire. 
Iriba, usury. , 
Irivoa^ a vice (the tool). 
Itiha kwy to finish, to come to an 

end. The kto- is retained in 

the usual tenses, but sometimes 

the w is dropped, as ameki$ha 

for amekwisluif he has done. 
Kwisha is commonly used as an 

auxiliary : thus, Amekwisha 

kuja, he has come already. 

Alipokvjisha kvja, when he 

had oome. 
Akaitiha, or Akeshay after that, 

when he had done this. 
hharay a sign, signal. 
Ishi ku'y to last, to endure, to live. 
Jsimu or Ismu, name, especially the 

name of Qod. 
Ma igmak (Ar.)? What is your 

name? 
Istaray a curtain. 
iMiskay dropsy. 
Ba kw; to call, to call to, to name, 

to invite. The ^w- is iVe- 

quently retained. 
Kwitvsay to be called, is sometimes 

constructed as if it were ku- 

viitwa, 
lia ku'y to cast in a mould. 
Italassi, satin. 



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ITH 



JAA 



291 



ItJiinif sanction. 

Kutoa ithini, to sanction. 
Ithneen, two. 

Itia hu-, to call for some purpose. 
Itika Jcu-f to answer when called. 
Itikia ku-^ to reply to, to answer a 

person when called to. 
Itikiza ku-y to assent to. 
Ito la guu (A.)f the ankle. 
Iva ku- or Wiva ku-, to become ripe, 

to become completely cooked, to 

get done. The ku- is frequently 

retained. 
Ivu, plur. maivuy ash, ashes (M.). 
lujapii where is it? 
Jza ku', to refuse. 
Izara ku-, to tell scandal about, to 

mak» things public about a 

person improperly. 

J. 

J, The correct pronunciation of 
this letter, and especially that of 
the Mombns dialect, is a very pecu- 
1 iar one. The most prominent sound 
is that of y, but it is preceded by 
another resembling d. The French 
di is perhaps the nearest European 
representative. The Swahili write 
it by the Arabic Jim, which is ex- 
actly an English J. 

In the more northern dialects and 
in the old poetical Swahili the j is 
represented by a^ pure y, 

Moya = mcjdf one. 

Mayi = majiy water. 

A d in the dialect of Mombas 
rery commonly becomes a j in that 
of Zanzibar. 

Ndia (M.), a road, Njia (Zanz.). 

Kutinda (M.), to slaughter ; Ku- 
chinja (Zanz.). 

Many words which are properly 



spelt with a f are vulgarly pro- 
nounced with &j in Zanzibar, as, 

KanjUf for kanzu. 

Chenjaj for chenza. 

This is only carrying to excess the 
rule that a ir in the neighbouring 
mainland languages becomes a j 
in Swahili. 

The Arabs and some Swahili 
confuse J with g. Thus the late 
ruler of Zanzibar was often spoken 
of as Bwana Mag{di, his proper title 
being Seyid Mdjid. 

J'y a prefix applied to substantives 
and adjectives in the singular of 
the class which make their plural 
in ma-, when they begin with a 
vowel. Soeji', 
Ja, like. 

Ja kit' (the ku- carries the accent 
and is retained in the usual 
tenses), to como. The impera- 
tive is irregular, Njoo^ come. 
Njooni, come ye. 
Ja is used to form several tenses. 

1. With -po' added, meaning even 
if; wa-japo-kupiga, even if they 
beat you. 

2. With negative prefixes mean- 
ing not yet; ha-ja-ja^ he is not 
yet come. 

8. With negative prefix and sub- 
junctive form. Aii-Je-lalay be- 
fore he goes to sleep, or that he 
may not have already gone to 
sleep. 
Jaa ku-y to become full, to fill, to 
abound with. 

Maji yanajaay the tide is coming 
in. 

Mtungi umejaa maji, the jar is 
full of water. 

See Jatoa ku-. 



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292 



JAA 



JAS 



Jaa. 

Stiika mdjira yajda, steer Dorth- 
wards. 
Jaa, a dust heap. 
Jabali, plur. majabalij a rocky hilL 

Also see Kanzcu 
Jdbari, absolute ruler, a title of Qtodu 
Jadiliana hu-t to argue with. 
Jdhoj good luck, unexpected good 
fortune. 

Kilango cha jaJui, the gate of 
Paradise. 
Jahaziy a vessel, a ship. 
JahUi ku', to dare, not to fear. 
Jalada^ the cover of a bound book. 
J<di ku-, to give honour to. 
Jalia ku', to bless, to enable, to 
grant to. 

Muungu akinijalia, God willing. 
JcXiwa 2rtt-, to be enabled, to have 

power, &c., given one. 
Jaliza ku-tio fill up, used of vessels 

which have already something in 

them. 
Jamaa, family, assembly, gathering, 

society, company. 
Jamaa ku-, to collect together, 

gather. 
Jamaat (Hind.), a council of elders. 
Jamaloy courtesy, good manners, 

elegance. 
Jamanda, plur. majamandoj a solid 

kind of round basket with a lid. 
Jambot breaking of wind down- 
wards. 
Jamba ku-^ to break wind down- 
wards. 
Jamhia, plur. majambici, a curved 

dagger always worn by Muscat 

Arabs. 
Jambo, plur. mambo (from kwmbai) 
a word (?), a matter, a droum- 
stance, a thing, an a£Eair. 



Akanitenda kiUa janibo la wema^ 
and he showed me all possible 
kindness. 
Jambo for w Jamho, hu jamho, ha 
jamhoy &c, I am well, are you 
well ? he is well, &o., &c 

Janibo tana, I am very well, are 
you very well ? Ac. 
Jami ku-, to copulate, to have con- 
nection with. 
Jamii, many, a good collection, the 

mass, the company of, the body of. 
Jamiisha ku-, to gatlier. 
Jamvi, plur. majamvi, a coarse kind 

of matting used to cover fioors. 
Jana, yesterday. 

Mvoakajana, last year. 
Janna, paradise, x • 

Janaba, filth, xmdeanness. 
Jangdj punishment. 
Jangtoa, plur. majangvoa, a large 

desert. 
Jani, plur. majani, a leaf. Majani 

is commonly used for any grass 

or herbage. 
Janvia = Jamhia, 
-japo; sign of a tense signifying 
even if. 

TTjapqfika, even if yon arrive. 
Jarari, the ropes passing through 

the pulley attached to a dhow's 

halyards. 
Jaribu ku-, to try. 
Jarifay plur. majarifa, a seine or 

drag-net made of European cord- 
age. See JuyCL, 
Jatlho^ sweat 

Kufanya fashot to sweat. 
Jasirisha ku-t to dare. 
Jatiti ku-9 to explore. 
Jatmini or Jasmin, jasmine. The 

flowers are sold in the streets of 

Zansibar for their scent 



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JAS 



JIB 



293 



Jassiy plur. majassii the ornament 
in the lohe of the ear. It is 
generally a Bilyet plate about an 
inch and a half across. 

Jatliarif take eare 1 

Jatra, a coarse kind of Indian 
earthenware. 
Kikomhe cha Jatoa, a cup of coarse 
Indian ware. 

Jatoa hu', to be filled with, to be 
full of: used of something 
which oaght not, or could not 
be expected to be there. 
Maji yamejawa dudu, the water 
is full of insects; but mtungi 
umejaa maji, the jar is full of 
water. 

Jaimhu, an answer, a oondition, a 
matter. 

Jawahir (Ar.), jewels. 

Jaza kut', to fill. 

Jazi^ a common thing, a thing which 
is abundant. 

Jazi hu-t to supply, to maintain. 

JazUta "ku-, to reward. 

Je 1 Hullo I WeU I What now I 
-/e ? how ? 

Je&u, an ornament worn by women, 
hanging under the chin. 

JekundUy red. See •ekwadu, 

Jelidi ktt-y to bind books. 

Jema, good. See -ema. 

Jemadarij plur. majemadari, a com- 
manding officer, a general. 

Jemhamha^ narrow, thin. See 
'embarnba, 

Jenibe, plur. majembe, a hoe. 
Jemhe la hixungu^ a spade. 

Jenaiza or Jeneza^ a bier. 

Jenga ku-y to construct, to build. 

Jengea htt-y to build for, or on ac- 
count of. 

Jengo^ plur. majengOf a building. 



MajengOy building materials. 

Jenzi ku'y to construct. 

Jepa ku- (A.), to steal. 

J&pesiy light, not heavy. See -6jpe«t. 

Jerahay a wound. 

Jeribu kU' = Jaribu ku-y to try. 

Jertihi ku-, to be wounded. 

Jeshiy plur. majeshi, a host, a groat 
company. 

Jetea ku-, to be puffed up, to be 
over proud, to rely upon, to 
trust in. 

Jethamu, a leprosy in which the 
fingers and toes drop off, ele- 
phantiasis (?). 

JetUi or Jeuriy violence. 
Anajeuliy he attacks people wan- 
tonly. 

Jeupe, white. See -eupe, 

JeuHj black. See etm. 

Ji-y a syllable prefixed to subat m- 
tives which make their plural 
in Tna-y if they would otherwise 
be of one syllable only. This 
syllable is sometimes inserted 
after a prefix to give the idea 
of largeness, or to prevent con- 
fusion with some other word. Be- 
fore a vowel it becomes J- only. 

'ji'y an infix giving a reflective 
meaning to the verb. 
Kupenda, to love. 
Kujipenda, to love oneself. 

Kuponyay to save. 
Jiponyey save yourself, look out ! 

Jia kvry to come for, by, to. 
Njia vliyojia, the road you came 
by. 

Jibiniy cheese. 

JiHwa kuy to receive an answer, be 
answered. 

Jibu ku-y to answer, to give an 
answer. 



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294 



JIB 



JON 



Jibwa^ plar. mo; t5uxi, an exceedingly 

large dog. 
Jichoy plur. machoy the eye. 

Jicho la maji, a spring of water. 
Jifu, plur. majifuy ashes, 
t/i/ya, plur. mafyay one of three 

stones to support a pot over the 

fire. Uafya is the usual word 

in the town, n*afiga is commonly 

used in the country. 
Jigamba ku-, to boast, to praise one- 
self. 
Jiinika ^, to lie on the side. 
JikOj plur. meko, a fireplace, one of 
the stones to rest a pot on (?). 

Jikonif in the kitchen, among tlie 
ashes. 
JUia ku; to come to a person on 

some business* 
Jilitoat plttT. majiliwa, a vice (the 

tool). 
Jimbif a cock. 
Jimbi, Allocasia edulis. Both 

leaves and root are eaten : (a sort 

of Arum). 
Jimbo, plur. majimho, a place a part 

of the country (Old Swahili). 
Jimho. 

Kuosha najinibOj to wash a new- 
bom child with water and 
medicine. 
Jina^ plur. majina, a name. 
Jina Idko nanif what is your 

name? 
Jina la kupangway a nickname. 
Jiruimisi, niglitinare. 
Jingi, much. Bee -ingu 
Jingine, other. See -ingine, 
Jiniy plur. mo/tni, jins, spirits, genii 
JinOf plur. meno^ a tooth, a twist or 
strand of rope, or tobacco, Ac 

Kamba ya meno matatUt ft coi^ of 
three strands. 



Jioniy evening. 

Jipu^ plur. maJipUf a boil. 

Jipoioa ku-, to dress oneself up 
excessively. 

Jipya, new. See -pya. 

Jiraniy a neighbour, neighbours. 

Jiiiy quality. 

Jmu, plur. mc^iaUf a very large 
knife. 

Jitenga Apti-, to get out of the way. 

JUiy plur. majitit a tree trunk. 

Jilimaif excessive sorrow. 

JitOj plur. mato = Jicho, tlie eye (M.). 

JitUt plur. main or majitUf a gr^t 
large man, a savage. 

Jituza ku-f to make oneself mean or 
low. See Tuza, 

Jivari^ purchase (of a dhuw hal- 
yards). 

Jm, a wild hog. 

Jivu = Jifu. 

Jiwa kur, to be visited. 

Jitoe, plur. mawej a stone, a piece 

of stone. Plur. majiwey of very 

large pieces of t>tone. 

Jivoe la manga, a piece of freestone. 

Nyumba ya mawe, a stone house. 

Jodari, a kind of fish. 

Jogoi = Jogoo, 

Jogoo, plur. majogoo, a cock. 

Johariy a jewel. 

Joho, woollen doth, a long loose 
eoat worn by the Arabs. 

Joka, plus, majoka, a very large 
snake. 

Joko, a place to bake pots in. 

Jokum, charge, lesponsibility. 

JombOf plur. mtyonibo, an exceed- 
ingly large vesseL 

Jongea ku-, to approach, come neat 
to, move. 
Jongea rnvtUini, move into the 
shade. 



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JON 



JU2 



295 



Jongekza ku-, to bring near to, to 

oflfer. 
Jongeza kwt to bring near, move 

towards, move. 
JongOy gout 

Jongoet a large kind of fish. 
Jongoo, a millepede. 
Jorjiya, a Georgian, the most valued 

and whitest of female slaves. 
JorarOf soft. See -ororo, 
Jotik, a voyage, a cruize. 

= GosU, Luff I 
Jotcjoto, 

Kupata jotojoto, to grow warm. 
JoyOf plur. majoyay a cocoa-nut 

which is filled with a white 

spongy substance instead of tlie 

usual nut and juice. Tiiey are 

prized for eating, 
Jozi, Jeozi, or Jauzi, a pair, a pack 

of cards. 
Juzit a walnut. 
Jua^ plur. majuay the sun. 

Jua kilumni, noon. 
Jua ku'., to know how, to under- 
stand, to know about, to know. 

Namjua alikOy I know where he is. 

Najua kiunguja^ I understand the 
language of Zanzibar. 

Najua kufua chuma, I know how 
to work in iron. 
Jvha, a mortice chisel. 
Jvbtiru ku-f to compeL 
JugOy ground nuts. 
Juhudij an effort, efforts. 

Kufanya jvhudiy to exert oneself. 
Jt(/u, plur. majiyUf a fool. 
Jukut risk, a word used by traders. 
Jukwari, a scaffold, scaffolding. 
Jidia ku'y to know about, see to. 
JtdUha ku , to make to know. 
JurtM, Friday, a week. 

Juma a mosiy Saturday. 



Juma a pUi, Sunday. 

Juma a taiuy Monday. 

Juma a ^nne^ Tuesday. 

Juma a tano, Wednesday. 
Jumaj small brass nails used for 

ornamentation. 
Jumaay an assembly. 
Jumba, plur. majumha, a lai>ge house. 
Jumbe^ plur. majuwbey a ohi^, a 

head-man, a prince, a sultan. 
Jumla, tiie sum, the total, addition 

(in arithmetic). 
Jumliaha ku-, to add up, sum up, 

put together. 
Junia, a kind of matting bag. See 

Gunia. 
Jura, a pair; a length of calico, 

about thirty-five yards. 
Just. 

HaijuMj it is unfitting. 
Jut Kdsam (Hind.), perjury. 
Juta ku-, to be sorry for, to regret. 
Juu, up, the top, on the top. 

Yuko mu, he is up-stairs. 

Juu ya, Upon, above, over, on the 
top of, against. 
Juvisha ku-y to make to know, to 

teach. 
Juvya ku-, to make to know. 
Juya, plur. majuya^ a seine or drag- 
net made of cocoa-nut fibre rope. 
Juza, obligation, kindness. 
Juxa ku-f to make to know. 
Juziy the day before yesterday. 

Mwakajuziy the year before last. 

Juzijuzi, a few days ago. 
Jvaia ku'i to compel, to have power 

to compel. 
Juzu^ necessity. 

Jamho lajuzUf a necessary thing. 
Juzu ku', to oblige, to hold bound, 

to have under an obligation to do 

something. 



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?96 



JUZ 



KAB 



JvLzuUy a Becfion of the Koran. 
There are in all thirty, which are 
often written ont separately. All 
the ^utuu together are Khitima 
nzima, 

K is pronounced as in English. 

The Arabs have two k% one, the 
kef or kafj a little lighter than the 
English k; and one, the kahf or 
qafy made wholly in the throat, and 
confounded by many Arabs with a 
hard g. There is a curious catch in 
the throat between the preceding 
vowel and the qaf, very hard to 
explain, but easy enough to imi- 
tate. Although the correct pronuu- 
ciation of these two J^b ia aa ele- 
gance, it is not necessary nor very 
commonly observed in speaking 
Swahili.. 

Ki is very oonmionly pronounced 
chi in Zanzibar, especially by slaves 
of the Nyassa and Yao tribes. 

Kh, the Arabic kha, occurs only 
in words borrowed from the Arabic, 
and subsides into a simple h so soon 
as the word is thoroughly natu- 
ralized. 

Khahari or Habarif news. 

Kheiri or Herif well, good, for- 
tunate. 

Ka-, 'kor, a syllable prefixed to or 
inserted in the imperative and 
subjunctive of verbs, with the 
force of the conjunction •* and." 
'ka-, the sign of a past tense, used 
in carrying on a narration; it 
ipdudes the force of the con- 
junction •* and.** 



Akamwambia, and he said to 
him. 

Nika- is often contracted into ha-, 
Kaa ku-f to sit, to dwell, to stay, to 
live, to be, to stand, to remain, 
to continue^ to live in, or at 

Kukaa kitako^ to sit down, to re- 
main quietly. 
JEaa, plur. makact, a piece of char- 
coal. 

Makaaj coals, charcoal, embers. 

Kaa la moshi or Makaa ya moshi^ 
soot. 
Kaety a crab. 

Kaa makoko, small mnd crabs 
with one large claw. 

Kaa la kinwa, the palate. 
Kadka or Kaakaa, the palate. 
Kaanga A;u-, to fry, to l»raze, to cook 

with fat. 
KaangOy plur. makaango^ an earthen 

pot to cook meat in. 
Kaba ^u-,.to choke, to throttle. 
Kaha la kamuy a sort of lining round 

the neck and a short way down 

the front of a kanzu, put in to 

strengthen it. 
Kahariy a wedge. 
KaibibUf narrow. 
Kahtla, a tribe, a subdivision loss 

than taifa. 
Kahili ku-y to be before, to be op- 
posite. 
KabUisha kth, to put opposite, to set 

before. 
Kabisa, utterly, altogether, quite. 
Kabithi ku-^ to give into the hand. 
KcMa, before, antecedently. 

Kabla ya, before (especially of 
time> 
KcibtMy aeoeptanoe^ 
Kabuli, pillaw. 
Kahurif plur. moArabtiff (pronounced 



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EAD 



KAL 



297 



by many Arabs Gabri)^ a grave, 
a tomb. 

Kadamu, a servant, the lowest of 
the three chief men usually set 
over the slaves on a plantation. 
On the Zambezi the man who 
stands at the head of the canoe 
to look out for shoals is called 
Kadamo. 

Kadiri or Kadri, measure, modera- 
tion, capacity, middling, mode- 
rate, about, nearly, moderately. 
Kadri gani f how much ? 

Kadiri ya, as, whilst. 

Kadiri ku^, to estimate. 

Kadri = Kadiri. 

Kafara, an offering to avert evil, a 
sacrifice of an animal or thing to 
be afterwards buried or thrown 
away, a charm made of bread, 
sugar-cane, &c., thrown down in 
a cross-way. Any one who t£kkes 
it is supposed to carry away the 
disease, misfortune, &e. 

Kafi, plur. makafi, a paddle. 

Kafirij plur. makafiri^ an infidel, an 
idolater, one who is not a Moham- 
medan. 

Ka/uri, camphor. 

Kaga ku-, to put up a charm to 
protect something. 

Ka^Of plur. rruigo, a charm to pro- 
tect what it is fastened to. 

Kagua kw, to go over and inspect. 

Kahahaf plur. mahahaba, a prosli- 
tute. 

Kahatoa, coffee. 

Kahini^ plur. makahini, a priest, a 
soothsayer. 

Kai ku-f to fSedl down to, embrace 
the knees. 

Kaidoy regularity. 
la kaida, regular. 



-kaidi, obstinate. 

KaimUf plur. mdkaimu, a vice- 
gerent, a representative. 
KakOf a lemon after it has been 

squeezed, the rind of a lemon, 

tlie shell of an egg, &o. 
Kaka, a brother {KiJiadimUf see 

Muhadimu). 
Kaka, a disease with swelling of 

the hand and opening into sores. 
Kakakaka, very many. 
Kakamia, hard of heart 
Kakamia ^, to be longsuffering, 

slow to be affected. 
Kakamuka ku-, to make an effort, 

to strain (as at stool, or in 

travail). 
Kakawana ku-, to be strong, capable 

of great exertion, well-knit and 

firm in all the muscles. 
Kaki, a very thin kind of biscuit or 

cake. 
Kalafati ku-^ to caulk. 
Kalamika ku-, to prevaricate in 

giving evidence (?), to cry from 

pain caused by medicine (?). 
KaWmka kvr, to be sharp, to have 

one*s eyes open. 
KaWmkia ku-, to outdo, to be too 

sharp for.' 
Kalamuy a pen. The pens for 
writing Arabic are meule of 
reed, and the nibs are cut 
obliquely. 

Kalamu ya mtoanzi, a reed pen. 
Kalamuzij cunning, ci-afty. 
Kalatda, little brass pots. 
Kale, old time, formerly. 

-a kale, old, of old time. 

Zamani za kale, old times. 

Hapo kale, once upon a time. 
Kalfati or Kalafati, caulking. 
'kaii, sour, Bhaij^ keen, savage. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



298 



E AL 



cross, severe, fierce. It makes 
hdU with nouns like nyumba, 
Jua Itcdi, a hot sun. 
Kalia hu-, to remain for. 
Ku^mkalia tamu, to remain as he 
would wish. ^ 
Kalibu, ft mould, a furnace. 
Kamat Kamma, Kana^ or Kwaniba, 

as, as if, like, if, supposing. 
Kama fci*-, to milk, to squeeze. 
Kamamanga, a pomegranate. 
Kamaliy a game played by chucking 
pice into a hole. If only one 
goes in they say ''Malizay" and 
the player throws a flat stone on 
the one that is out. 
Kamasi, mucus from the nose. 
KuftUa hamasi, to blow the nose. 
Siwezi hamasiy I have a cold in 
my head. 
KafMita kU'y to lay hold of, take, 

seize, clasp. 
Kamatana ku-, to grapple, to seize 

one another. 
Kamatiy balls of wheat-flour lea- 
vened with tenibo. 
Kamba, a crayfish. 
Kamba, rope. 
Kamha ulayiti, European or 
hempen rope. 
Kambaa, plur. of iifeamdoa, cord, 
string (M.). 
Kamhaay a plaited thong or wbip 
kept by schoolmasters and 
overlookers in Zanzibar. 
Kambali, plur. makamhali, a cat- 
/ fish living in fresh water. 
Kamharauy a forebrace carried to 
the weather side to steaily the 
yard of a dliow. 
Kanibit plur. makamhU a circular 
encampment, a place whore a 
caravan has hutted itself in. 



KAN 

Kambo. 
Baba wa kamho, stepfather. 
Mama wa hambOf stepmother. 

Kamey quite dried up, utterly 
barren. 

Kami, a bulbous plant with largo 
head of red flowers. 

Kamia ku-, to reproach. 
Kujikamia, to reproach oneself. 

Kamilii perfect, complete. 

-kamilifu, perfect, wanting nothing. 

KamtHka fcw-, to be perfect. 

Kamilisha feu-, to mako perfect. 

Kamua ku-y to press, to press 
out. 

Kammiy an Arabic lexicon. 

Kamwe (M.), not at all, never. 

Kamwi = Kamwe. 

Kana, a tiller. 

JTono, if, as. See Kama. 

Kana fcu-, to deny. 

Kandaj plur. makanda, a long nar- 
row matting bag, broader at the 
bottom than at the mouth. 

Kanda ku-, to knead dough, to 
knead the limbs, to shampoo. 

Kandamiza ku-, to press upon. 

Kande, food (Mer.). 

Kanderinya, a kettle. 

Kandika ku-, to plaster. 

Kandili, plur. makandiliy a lantern. 

KandOf side, aside. 
Kando ya or Kandokando ya, 
beside, along by the side. 

Kanga, a guinea fowl. 

Kanga, a dry stem after the coooa- 
nuts have been taken off. 

Kanga ku-. 

Kukanga motoy to warm. 
Kangaja, a small mandarin orange. 
Kania ku-j to deny a person. 
Kaniki, dark blue calico. 
KaniMLy plur. makanimy a chuxch. 



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KAK 

Kanislia ku-, to deny, to make to 

deny. 
Kanji, starch, arrowroot. 
Kanjuj plur. makanju, a cashew 

apple (M.). 
Kanjuy vulgarly used for Kanzu, 
Kanuni, a thing implied, a neces- 
sary condition, of necessity. 
Kanwa, plur. mahanwa, the mouth. 
Kanya fcu-, to contradict. 
Kanyaga ku-, to tread, to tread 

upon, trample on. 
Kanyasm ku-^ to scold. 
Kanziy a treasure. 

Kanzuy a long shirt-like garment 
worn both by men and women 
in Zanzibar. Men*s kanzus 
are white or of a brown yellow 
colour, with ornamental work 
in red and white silk round 
the neck and down the brieast ; 
they reach to the heels. Wo- 
men's kanzu8 are generally 
shorter, and are made of every 
variety of stuff, frequently of 
satin or brocade, but are always 
bound with red. 
Parts of a Kanzu (men's) : 
T(w la kanzuy bottom hem. 
Magongo nene, seams. 
Badani, front and back pieces. 

Also Kimo. 
Tahariziy side pieces. 
Sija/Uy pieces turned in at the 
wrists, to receive the darizL 
Vikwapa, gores. 
Lisani, flap under the opening 

in front. 
Jahalij red line across the back. 
Mhalbon\ lining at the b^k of 

the darizi in fi-ont. 
Kaaha, lining of the neck and 
shoulders. 



EAR 



299 



SJiadaj tassel at the neck. 
Kitanzi, loop opposite the tassel 

in front. 
Kazi ya ihingo, the elaborately 
worked border round the 
neck, including — 
Tikiy red sewing over of the 

edge of the neck. 
Mrera, lines of red round 

the neck. 
Viboko, small zijj:2ag orna- 
ment in the middle of the 
neck-border. 
Vinaraf small spots forming 
the outer edge of the 
border. 
Darizi, lines of silk worked 
round the wrists and down 
the front. 
Mjuzi (Ar. shararaji), orna- 
ment at the bottom of the 
strip of embroidery in front. 
Mkia tea mjuzi, line of silk 
running up the front from the 
mjuzi, 
Vipaji, or viguu, four little 
projections on the sides of 
the mjazi. 
Kanzu ya ziki, worked with white 
cotton round the neck instead of 
red silk. 
Kaoleni, one whose words are not 
to be trusted, a double-tongued 
man. 
Kaomwa, ealumba root. 
Kapi, plur. makapi, a pulley. 
Kapi, plur. makapi, bran, husks. 
Kapiana ku- (mikono), to shake 

hands. 
Kapu, plur. mokapu, a large basket 

or matting bag. 
Kaptoai, a kind of rice. 
Kara/ati kw = EdlafatL 



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300 



EAB 



KAT 



Karafu mayiti, camphor. 
Karamat a special gift of God, an 

answer to a holy man's prayer, 

an honour. 
KcMumu, a feast. 
Karanij a secretary, a clerk, a 

supercargo. 
Karani, tucks. 
Kararay the woody flower-sheath of 

the cocoa-nut tree. 
Karaia, playing-cards. 
Karaihay a loan of money. 
Karatasij paper. 

Karib, near, come near, come in. 
Karibia fctt-, to approach, to draw 

near to. 
Karibiana ku-, to be near to one 

another. 
Karibisha, to make to come near, to 

invite in. 
KaribUf near, a near relative. 

Karibu na or ya, near to, near. 
KaHmUy liberal, generous. 
Karipia ku-^ to cry out at, scold. 
Kariruha fctt-, to recite. 
Kasay a turtle. 
Kasaraniy sorrow, grief. 
Kasasiy retaliation, revenge, ven- 
geance. 
Kaahay plur. makashay a chei»t, a 

large box. 
Kashifu kvry to depreciate. 
Kashmir^ the ace of spades. 
Kasia, plur. rndkamiy an oar. 

Kuvuta makasiay to row. 
Kasibay a gun barrel. 
Kasidiy intention, purpose. 
Kasifa, inquisitiveness. 
KaMfu ku-y to be inquisitive. 
Kasikiy a large earthen jar for ghee. 
KasimeUy the juice of grated cocoa- 
nut before water is put to it. 

Tui la Icasimde, See TuU 



Tui la kupopoha^ the same after 
mixing with water, and strain- 
ing again. 
KoMriy towards the end, late. 
Kasirika ku-y to become vexed. 
Kasirisha kt^y to vex. 
Kasiri ku-y to hurt, vex. 
Kaskazi, the northerly wind which 
blows from December till 
March. 
Kaskaziniy in a northerly direc- 
tion. 
Kasaroy less by. 
Kasstty less by. 
KasM, rdboy three-quarters of a 
dollar. 
Kassi. See Kiasd. 
Eagi^ hard, with violence. 
Ktoenda kassi, to rush along. 
Kutia kasdy to tighten. 
Kasumbay a preparation of opium. 
Kaiaa ku-y to refuse. 
Katay plur. makatay a ladle made of 
a cocoa-nut, only about a third of 
the shell being r^movecL A kata 
holds from a quarter to half a pint. 
K*atay a ring of grass or leaves put 
on the head under a water-pot or 
other burden. 
Kata ku'y to cut, clip, divide. 
Ktyikata, to cut oneself. 
Kukata hananuy to cut obliquely. 
Kukata manenOy to settle an affair, 

to decide. 
Kukata naksM, to ornament with 

carving, to carve. 
Kukata tamaay to despair. 
Njia ya kvkatay a short out, the 
nearest way. 
Kdtaba ku-y to write. 
Katakata ku-y to chop up. 
Katalia ku-y to deny all credence, 
to refuse to be convinced. 



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KAT 



EA2S 



301 



Katani, flax, thread, string, cotton- 
thread. 
Kataza ku-, to prohibit, to deter. 
Kathdlikat in like manner. 
Kathduoakaiha, many, many more. 
Watu Icathdwakaifia, suoh and 
such people. 
Kathi, plnr. makathiy a judge, a 

cadi. 
Kati^ inside, middle, the court 

within a house. 
Katia ku-, to cut for. 
Kufydiwa, to have cut, or cut out 

for one. 
Ni kiasi changu kama nalikatiioa 
mimi^ it fits as though I had 
been measured for it. 
Kafika, among, at, from, in, about. 
Katika implies nearness at least 
at the beginning of the action ; 
it has very nearly the same 
meaning as the case in -ni. 
Katika safari mU, during that 
journey. 
Katika ku-, to come apart, to be cut, 

to break, to be decided, 
Katikati, in the midst. 

Katikati ya, &c., in the midst of, 
between. 
Katili, a murderous, bloodthirsty 

person, an infidel. 
Katinakati, in tlie middle. 
KatUi (A.), little. 
Kaiiza ku-^ to put a stop to, to 

break oflf, to interrupt. 
jBTafo, plur. makato, a cutting, a 

breaking oflf. 
Katu, a kind of gum chewed with 

betel. 
Katu% kur, to polish, to brighten. 
Kaiuka A;u-, to be polished, to be 

bright. 
Kauka fcw-, to get dry, to dry. 



Sauti imekaukc^ I am hoarse. 
Kavliy a word. 
Kauri, a cowry. 

Kausha ku-, to make dry, to dry. 
'kavu, dry. It makes kavu with 

nouns like nyumba, 
Kawat a conical dish-cover of 
plaited straw, often ornamented 
with spangles, &c. 
Kawa, mildew, spots of mould. 
Ku/anya kawa, to get mildewed 
or mouldy. 
Kavja kvr, to be delayed, to tarry, 

to be a long while. 
Kawadi (a term of reproach), a bad 

man. 
Kaujaida, necessity, custom. 
KatoCf a pebble, a small stone (M.). 
Kawia ku-y to delay. 
KfjSjoilia ku', to loiter about a busi- 
ness. 
Kavjisha ku-, to keep, to delay, to 

cause to stay. 
Kaya, plur. makaya^ a pinna, a kind 

of shell-fish. 
Kayamba, a sieve, a sort of rattle. 
Kaza ku', to fix, to tighten, (of 
clothes) to fit tightly, to go 
hard at anything. 
Kukaza kvjtmbaf to sing louder. 
Kukaza mhio, to run hard. 
Kazaria ku-^ to fix one another, to 
tighten together, to hold together 
tightly, to be robust. 
Kaziy work, labour, employment, 
business. 
A^dto kazi yake, that is what he 

always does. 
Kazi mbi H mtezo mvoema^ Is 
not poor work (as good as) good 
play (mbi for n-wi) ? 
Kazika ku-, to become tight, to 
become fixed. 



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302 



- K A Z 



'hazoy nipping, pressing tight. 
-fc«, female, fjminine, the weaker. 
Kee = KeUle (N.). 
Keezoy a lathe, a machine for tnm- 

ing. 
Kef vie! an exclamation of con- 
tempt. 
Kefyahefya ku-, to teaze, to put in 

low spirits. 
Keke, a drill. The carpenters in 

Zanzibar always nse drills, which 

are much better suited to the 

native woods than gimlets are. 

The iron is called kehee, the wood 
'in which it is fixed msukano, the 

handle in which it turns Jivu^ 

and the bow by which it is turned 

Vta. 
Kekee, a kind of silver bracelet. 
KeUU, plur. makehle, noise, uproar, 

shouting. 
Xem(Ar.), How much? How many? 
Kemea ku-, to rebuke, to snub, to 

scold. 
Kenda = Kwenda and Kaenda. 
Kenda, nine. 

Ya kenda, ninth. 
Kendajd ? for kwenda wapi, going 

where, i.e., where ate you going ? 
Kenge, a large water-lizard with 

slender body and long limbs and 

tail. 
Kengea, the blade of a sword, knife, 

&c. 
Kengele, a bell. 

Kupiga kengele, to ring a bell. 
Kera kit-, to worry, to nag at. 
Kerani = Karani. 
Kereketa ku, to irritate the throat, 

to choke. 
Kereza ku-, to saw, to turn, to cut 

a tree half through, and lay it 

down, so as to make a fence. 



KHiS 

Kerimu A?a-,io feast, to be liberal to. 

Kcring'ende, a dragon-fly, the i»d- 
legged partridge. 

Kero, trouble, disturbance, uproar. 

Kesha, a watch, a vigil. 

Kettha kU', to watch, to remain 
awake, not to sleep. 

Ktsheza ku-, to make, to watch, to 
keep awake. 

Kesho, to-morrow. 
Kesho kutwa or kuchuHi, the day 
after to-morrow. 

Kete, a cowry. 

Keti ku-, to sit down, stay, liVe (M.). 

Khahari, news, information, 

Khadaa, fraud. 

Khafi/u, light, unimportant. 

Khaini, a traitor. 

KhaUs, the end, there is no more. 

Khdlifu ku- Or Halifu ku-, to tesist, 
oppose, rebel against. 

Kfudiiiku-, to deliver. 

Khami, a chess bishop. 

Khamti, five. 

Khamsini, fifty. 

Kham8ta,ghara, fifteen. 

Kharadali, mustard. 

Khdrij ku-, to spend. 

Khashifu ku- = Kashi/u kti^. 

Khatari, danger. 

Khati, a note, letter, docutnent, 
memorandum, writing, hand- 
writing. 

Khatihu, plur. makhatibu, a secre- 
tary, a preacher. 

Khathna, end, completion. 

Klmtimisha ku-, to bring to an end, 
complete. 

Khatiya, fault. See Hatiya. 

Khazana, a treasure. 

Kkema, a tent. 

Kheiri = Heri, well, forluuate, 
happy, good. 



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KHl 



JKIA 



303 



SRu wa Kheirij a happy man. 
Kwa hheiriy for good. 
Ni kheiri, I had better. 
Khini ku'f to betray. 
Khitari kw, to choose. 
Khitima nzinuif a complete copy of 

the Koran. See Juzuu. 
Khofi%ha ku; to frighten. 
Khofu, fear, danger. 
Kntoa na khofu^ ) to become 
Kuingiwa na khofu, \ afraid. 
Kutia khofuy to frighten. 
Khotjj a pad used as a -saddle for 

donkeys. 
Khoshi (?), paint, colour. 
Khubiri ku-, to inform, give news. 
Khusumut enmity. 
Khwttibu ku-., to preach. 
Khuzurungi or Huthurungif a stuff 
of a brown yellow colour, of which 
the best men's kanzus are made. 
Ki'f a prefix forming a diminutive. 
It becomes 6h- before a vowel, 
and in the plural it becomest^i- 
and vy-, or in other dialects zi- 
or ihi'. 
Ki- as a pirefiz also means (es- 
pecially if prefixed to proper 
names), such a sort ; and when 
used alone, words of such a 
sort, f.e. such a language. 
Mav€Lzi ya kifaume, royal robes. 
Viazi vya kizungu, European 

potatoes. 
Kiarabuj Arabic. 
Kiyao, the Yao language. 
Ki' or eh'f the adjectival and pro- 
nominal prefix proper to words 
agreeing with substantives of the 
above forms. 
Ki' or ch', the personal prefix of 
verbs having substantives of the 
above form as their subject. 



'kv; tke objective prefix of >verbs 
having substantives of the above 
form as their object. 
-ki; the sign of that tense which 
expresses .a state of things, 
being that. Which may be trans- 
lated by the help of the words, 
if, supposing, when, while,- or 
bo treated as a present parti- 
ciple in 'ing, 
Niki' may be contracted into hi-. 
Alikutoa akiogoUoy he was bath- 
ing. 
Akija^ if he comes, or when he 

comes. ^ 
The syllable -ki- is inserted in 
the past perfect tense to de- 
note a continuing action or 
state. 
Walipo'ki'-pendcmat when or while 
they loved one another. 
Kia, plur. via, a piece of wood, a 

kind of latch, a bar. 
Kia fett-, to step over. 
Kiada, slowly, distinctly. 
Kialio, plur. viaUo, cross pieces 
put in a co(*ing pot to prevent 
the meat touching the bottom 
and burning. 
Kianga, the coming out of the sun 

after rain. 
Kiapo, plur. vtopo, an ordeal, an 

oath. 
Kiarabu, Arabic. 

Ya kiardbu, Arabian. 
Kiasi = Kiassi, 
KiasB cha hundttki, a cartridge. 
Kiassi, measure, moderation. 
KiaBsi ganif or Kamgani f How, 
much? 
Kiatu, plur. viatu, a shoe^ a sandal. 
Viatu vya mti, a sort of tall 
wuoden clog wern lathe house, 
x2 



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304 



EIA 



KIO 



Hud especially by women. They 
are held on by grasping a tort 
of button (msuruaki) between 
the great and second toe. 
Kiazi^ pliir. viazi^ a sweet potato. 

Kiazi hihuu^ plur. viazi vihuUf a 
yam. 

Kiazi sena, with white skin. 

Kiazi kindorOf with red skin. 
Kiba Jialuli, a knot of makuti to 

light a pipe with. 
Kibaha, a measure, about a pint 

basin full, a pint basin, about a 

pound and a half. 
Kibakuli, a kind of mtama, 
Kibali ku-y to prosper. 
Kibanda, plur. vibanda^ a hut, a 

hovel, a shed. 
Kibanzi, plur. vibanzi, a splinter, a 

very small piece of wood. 
KibaOf plur. vibao, a shelf, a small 

piece of plank. In Tumbatu a 

chair is called kibao, 
Kibapara, a pauper, a destitute 

person (an insulting epithet). 
KibarangOy a short heavy stick. 
Kibaraza^ plur. vibaraza, a small 

stone seat. 
Kibaruaf plur. vibarua^ a note, a 

ticket Kibarua is now used 

in Zanzibar to denote a person 

hired by the day, from the 

custom of giving such persons a 

ticket, to be delivered up when 

they are paid. 
Kiberiti, sulphur. 

Viberiti, matches, 
Kibetif a dwarf, 

Kuku kibeii, a bantam. 
Kibia, plur. wWa, an earthen pot-lid. 
KibiongOf plur. viUongo^ a person 

bent by age or infirmity. 
KMiwe, plur. vibobwe, a piece of 



doth tied round the loins during 
hard work. 

Eibofu, plur. vibofu, a bladder. 

Kibogoshi, plur. vibogoshi, a small 
skin bag. 

Kiboko, plur. vibokOj a hippo- 
potamus. See also Kanzu, 

Kibua, a small fish. 

Kihuetay plur. vibueta^ a box. 

Kibtda, the kebta^ the point to 
which men turn when they pray. 
Among the Mohammedans the 
kibtUa is the direction in which 
Mecca lies, which is in Zanzibar 
nearly north. Hence kibula is 
sometimes used to mean the 
north. 

KibtUa ku'r to point towards, to be 
opposite to. 

Kibumbaf plur. viburnbaf a small 
paper box or case of anything. 

Kiburi, pride. 

Kiburipemhe^ a native bird. 

Kicliaa, lunacy. 

Mwenyi kicha^^ a lunatic. 

Kicihaka, plur. vichaka^ a thicket, a 
heap of wood or sticks. 

Kichala, plur. vichala, a bunol^. 
Kiehala cha mzahibu, a bunch of 
grapes. 

KichekOf plur. vicheico, a laugh, a 
gigSfle. 

KichikicJu, plur. vichikichi^ the 
small nuts contained in the fruit 
of the palm-oil tree. 

Kichilema, plur. vichHema^ the 
heart of the growing part of 
the cocoa-nut tree, which is 
eaten as a salad, and in various 
ways. 

KichOy plur. vicho, fear, a fear. 

Kichocheoy the act of pushing wood 
further into the fire, an instra- 



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EIO 



KIB* 



305 



ment for doing it, exciting words 

to stir up a quarrel. 
Kfchochoro, plur. vichochorOy a very 

narrow passage, such as is gene- 
rally left between the houses in 

Zanzibar. 
Kichwa, plur. vichwa, for Kitwa, the 

head. 
Kidaha, plur. tndaka, a recess in 

the wall. 
Kidaka, plur. vidaka^ a cocoa-nut 

when just formed. 
Kidaka ixmge^ the uvula. 
Kidanga, a very small fruit, before 

it gets any taste. 
Kidari, the chest : kidari is used of 

both men and animals, ki/ua of 

men only. 
Kidau, plur. tfidau, a small yessel. 

Kidau cha wtnOf an inkstand. 
Kidevu, plur. videoUf the chin. 
KidimJywi, plur. vidimbwiy a pool 

left on the beach by the falling 

tide. 
Kidinga popo, the dengue feyer. 
Kidogo, plur. vidogo, a little, a very 

little, a little piece, a morsel, a 

crumb. 
Kidoko. 

Kupiga kidoko, to click with the 
tongue. 
Kiddle, plur. vidole, a finger, a toe. 

KidoU cha gumha, the thumb. 
Kidonda, plur. vidonda^ a sore, a 

small sore, a wound. 
Kidonge, plur. vidonge, a very small 

round thing, a lump in flour, a pill. 
Kidoto, plur. vidoio, a small piece of 

cloth tied over a earners eyes 

while turning an oil press. 
Kielezoy plur. viehzo, a pattern, 

something to make something 

else clear. . 



Kievu (A,) = Kidevu. 

Kiendelezo, progrt-ss. 

Ki/a, plur. tifa, the nipple of a gun. 

Kifa uvfongOj the sensitive plant 

Kifafa, epilepsy, fits. 

Kifafa, plur. vifa/a, sparks and 

crackling of damp firewood. 
Kifani, plur. vifani, the like, a 

similar thing. 
Kifano, plur. vifano, a likeness. 
Kifaranga, plur. vifaranga, a 

chiok, a very small chickeii. 
Kifaruy plnr. vifaru, a rhinoceros, 

a small rhinoceros. 
Kifaume, royalty, a royal sort. 

Ya kifaumey royal. 
Kifiko, plur. vifiko, ar|ival, point of 

arrival, end of journey. 
Kifu kw, to suffice. 
Ki/u nduguj the os ooccygis, the 

bone which the Mohammedans 

say never decays. 
Kifua, plur. viftui, the chest, the 

bosom. 
Kifufu, plur. vifufu, the shell of the 

cocoa-nut (M.). 
Kifuko, plur. vifuho, a little bag, a 
pocket, a purse. 

Kifuko cha kutilia fetha, a purse. 
Kifurhbu^ plur. vifumbu, a small 

round basket or bag for squeezing 

scraped cocoa-nut in to get out 

the iui. 
Ki/umbo, plur. m/um&o, a very large 

kind of matting beg. 
Kifundo cha mguu, the ankle. 
Kifando cha mkono, the wrist. 
Kifungo, plur. vifungo, anything 

which fastens, a button, prison, 

imprisonment, a kind of rice. 
Ki/ungua, an unfastener, an opener. 

Ki/ungua kanwa^ early food, 
breakfast. 



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^6 



EIF 



KIJ 



Kifungua ml<mgo, a preeent made 
by the bridegroom to the kungu 
of the bride before she allows 
him to enter the bride's room, 
on the occasion of his first 
visit to her. 
Ki/uniko, plur. vifuniko^ a lid, a 

cover. 
Kifuo^ plur. vifuo^ a stick stuck in 
the ground to rip the husk off 
cocoa-nuts with. 
Kifurushif something tied up in the 

corner of a cloth. 
Kiftm, rubbish, rubbish from old 

buildings. 
Kifuuy plur. vifuUf a cocoa-nut 

shell. 
Kigaga, plur. vigcufo^ a scab. 
Kigai, pluri vigai, a piece of broken 

pottery or glass, a potsherd. 
Kiganda chapili, the two of cards. 
Kigaogao, the Pemba name for a 
chameleon, meaning changeable. 
Kigego = Kijego. 

Kig&renyenz€ti.-plax. vigerenyenzd, a 
very small piece of broken pottery 
or glass, a splinter. 
KigelegeUy plur. vigelegeht a shrill 
trilling scream much used ag a 
sign of joy, e^eeially on the 
occasion of a birth. 
Kigogo, a little block of wood. 
Kigogo cha ktishoneaf a small 
oblong piece of wood used by 
shoemakers. 
Kigongo, the hump of a humpbacked 
person. 
MtMnyi higongo^ a humpback. 
Kigono^ plur. vig^na (Yao), a sleep- 
ing place. 
Kigosho, a bend. 
Kigosho cha mhona, an arm that 
cannot be straightened. 



Kigiigumizi, stammering, a stammer • 

Kigtdu, lame. 

Kigunni^ plur. vigtmni, an oblong 

matting bag of the kind in which 

dates are brouglit to Zanzibar. 
Kigunzi, the day before the Siku a 

mwakct, 
Kigwe, plur. vigwey a plaited cord. 

reins, a string of beads,, a piping 

on the edge of a dress. 
KihdruUy cramp. 
Kiherehere (cha moyo\ trepidation, 

palpitation (oif the heart). 
Eihiitdi, the Indian sort, an Indian 
language. 

TctsMhindiy Indian. 
Kihoro, sorrow at a less^ frigjit, 

homesickness. 
Kiinij kernel, the heart of wood. 

Kiini cha yayi, the yolk of an 
egg. 
Kiinimachot a conjuror. 
KiiBha or Kitha^ afterwards, next, 

this being ended. 
Kijahazi, plur. mjoikazi, a slave girL 
KijamandcL, plur. vijotmanda, a 

small long-shaped box commonly 

used to carry betel and aieea- 

nut in. 
Kijana, plur; mjana^ a youth, a 

young man, a complimentary 

epithet, a boy or girl, a son ct 

daughter. 
KiJalubOi plur. v^'aluboi ft small 

metal box. 
Kijamba, plur. vijaniba, a small rocdi. 
Kijarahat plur. vijarahaf a, small 
wound. 

Kijaraha cha hooni, sores on the 
penis, syphilis. 
^jego, plur. vijego, a child whicB. 

cuts its upper teeth first They 

are reckoned unlucky, and smsmg 



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307 



the wilder tribes are often killed. 

Applied by way of abuse to bad 

children. 
KijibohOf plur. v^iboko, a little 

hippopotamus. 
Kijicho, envy, an envious glance. 
Kijiguu, plur. vijiguti, a little leg. 
Kij^t plur» vijikoy a small spoon, 

a spoon. 
Kijitiy plur. vijiti, a little tree, a 

budi, a shrub, a small pole, a 

piece of wood. 
KijUo^ plur. vijUOf a small stream, 

a brook. 
Kijito (M.) = Kijieho, 
Kijitwa or Kijiohwa, plur. pijitwa, 

a little head. 
Kijivi, thievish. 
KijogoOf plur. vijogooj, a mussel, a 

kind of sbellrfish. 
Kijolij the slaves belonging to one 

master. 
Kijomha, Swahili (M.). 
Kijongo = Kigttngo^ a humpback. 
Kijuhuu, plur. vt/uA^uu, a great- 
grandchild. 
£^'»tN^ plur. Hjurnbe^ a go- 
between, a match-maker. 
Kijuwbaj plur. vf]/ttm5a, a little 

house, a hoveL 
KikaangOy plur. vikaango, a small 

earthen pot for oooking with oil 

or fat. 
Kikaka, over-haste. 
KQcqUj old style, the antique. 

Ya kikdUf of the ancient kind, 
antique, of old times. 
KikaOf plur. vikao, a seat» utting, 

dwelling-place. 
Kikapu, plur. vt^pu, a basket, a 

matting bag. 
Kikarawba, a very old person (dis- 
respectful). 



KikiM ku'y to understand half of 
what is said. 
HaUi hit yanikikiMy I know some 
of the words, but not alL 

Kikoy plur. vikoy a tobacco pipe, a 
pipe. The native pipes consist 
of a vessel half full of water with 
two stems, one leading to the 
bowl and one to the mouthpiece : 
the water vessel is properly the 
kiko. See &ort, digali, maliOy and 
shilamu. 

Kikoa, plur. vikoa. 
KtUa kikoat to eat at the expense 
of each one in turn. 

Kikofij the inside of the fingers. 

Kikohoziy a cough. 

Kikoij plur. vikoi^ a white loin- 
cloth with coloured stripes near 
the border. 

Kikombej plur. vikambe, a cup. 

KikomhOf a little crooked thing. 

KikomOy plur. vikomo, ^d, end of 
journey, arrival 
Kikomo eha uto^ the brow, es- 
pecially if pmroii^ent. 

Kikondoo. See Kondoo. 

Kikongwe, plur. vikongtoe, an ex- 
tremely old person,, a feeble old 
woman. 

Kikonoy plur. vikonts the prow of a 
small native vessel. 

Kikonyo, plur. vikonyOy flower and 
fruit stalks, tiie stalks of cloves. 

Kikorombioey a cry made into the 
hand by way of signal, a call. 

Kikasi or 17%08t, the nape of the neck. 

Kikoto, plur. vikoto (M.), a plftited 
thong or whip carried by an 
overlooker and used in schods. 

Kikosiy plur. vikozi, a detaehmenti 
a band, company, division. 

KikubOf plur. viktibKh a small packet 



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of aromatic leaves, &c., worn in 
the dress by women. It is com- 
posed of rehani, sprinkled with 
dcUia, and tied up with a strip of 
the mkadi. 
Kihukuy plur. viJeukUy a bracelet, an 
arm ring. 
Kikuku cha kupandia frasi, a 
stirrup. 
Kikunazi (?), labia (obscene). 
Kikumbo. 
Kupiga kikumho, to pnsh aside, 
to shove out of the way. 
Kikuta, plur. vikuta, a small stone 

wall. 
Kikwapa^ the perspiration from the 

armpit. See also Kanzu. 
Kiktoiy plur. vikwi, a thousand, ten 

thousand. 
Kilango, a narrow entrance. 
Kilango cha hdhari^ straits. 
Kilango cha jaha^ the- gate of 
Paradise. 
Kile^ that, yonder. 
Kileji^ a round flat wheaten cake. 
KUeU^ plur. viUle, a peak, a sum- 
mit, a pointed top, a pointed 
shoot in a tree or plant. 
KUema, plur. vUema, a deformed 
person. 
Si vema kucheha kUema, it is 
wrong to laugh at one who is 
deformed. 
Kilemha, plur. vHemba, a turban, a 
customary present at the comple- 
tion of a job and on many other 
occasions. 
Kilernbwey a great-grandson. 
Kileo, plur. vileo, intoxication, an 

intoxicating thing. 
KiUte, plur. vilete, metal rowlocks, 

crutches. 
KiUvu = Kidevu, 



Kili/u, plur. mlifUf the cloth-like 

envelope of the young cocoa-nut 

leaves. 
Kilima, plur. vtHma, a hill, a rising 

ground, a mound of earth. 
Kilimbili, the wrist. 
Kilimia, the Pleiades (?). 
JSKKmo,cultivation,the crop planter!. 

KHimo cha nini? what is the 
crop to be ? 
Kilindiy plur. vHindi, the deeps, 

deep water. 
Kilinga popo (?), rheumatism. 
Kilinge cha maneno, cha uganga, 

speaking in a dark manner not 

generally understood. 
Kilio, plur. vilio^ a cry, weeping. 
Kiliza ku-j to chink money. 
KUla or KuUa, every. 

Killa nendapo, wherevfer I go, or, 
every time I go. 
Kiluthu, velvet. 
Kima^ a monkey. 
Kimaj price, measure. 
Kimajif damp. 
Kimanda^ an omelette. 
Kimandu, the piece of wood put on 

behind the sill and lintel of a 

door to receive the pivots on 

which it turns. 
Kimangat a small kind of grain. 
Kimangay of the Arab sort. Bee 

Manga. 
Kimango. 

Chut kimangOf a full-grown leo- 
pard. 
Kimashamha, belonging to the 
country, a country dialect. 

Ta kimashamba, countrified. 
KimbaumbaUf a chameleon. 
Kimhia /cm-, to run away, to flee. 
KimMza ku-^ to make to run away, 

to put to flight. ^ 



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309 



Kiinbizia Icth, to make to ran away 
from. 

Kitnerima. See Merima, 

Kimeta, a sparkling, a glitter. 

Kimetimetif plur. vimetimeti, a tie- 
fly. 

Kimia, plur. vimia, a circular cast- 
ing-net. 

Kimio, the uvula, an enlarged 
uvula. 

Kimo^ it is or was inside. 

Kimcja, one. See Moja, 

KimporotOf nonsense. 

Kimurtmuriy plur. vimurimuri, a 
fire-fly. 

Kimvunga, a hurricane. 

KiiMJoa hu-, to be tired, disgusted, 
to be cross at having anything to 
do. 

KimwondOf plur. vimuHmdOf a mis- 
sile, a shooting star, because they 
are said to be thrown by the 
angels at the Jins. 

Kimya, silence, perfect stillness. 
Mtu tea himyaMmyaf a still man. 

KitM, 
Kina tin, people like us.' 
Makcuiha haya ya kina Abdallcih, 
these chests belong to Abdal- 
lah's people. 

Kina, plur. inna, a verse, the final 
syllable of the lines, which is the 
same throughout the poem. 

Kinai hu-j to be content without, 
to withhold oneself from desiring, 
to be self-satisfied, to revolt at, 
to nauseate. 

Kinaisha hu-^ to revolt, to make 
unable to eat any more, to take 
away the desire of. 

KtTUimizi or Kiinamizi, stooping to 
one's work. 

Kinandoj plur. ffinmnda, a stringed 



instrament, applied to nearly all 
European instruments. 

Kinara, plur. vinarctf a little tower, 
a candlestick. See also Kanzu. 

KinayOy self-content, insolence. 

Kinayi ku- = Kitiai ku: 

Kinda, plur. makinda, a very young 
bird, the young of birds. 

Kindana kw, to object to, to stand 
in the way of. 

Kinenaf the abdomen. 

Kinga, plur. vinga^ a brand, a half- 
burnt piece of firewood. 

Kinga, a stop, a limit put to a 
thing. 

Kinga ku-, to put something to catch 
something, to guard oneself, to 
ward a blow. 
Kukinga mvua, to put something 
to catch the rainwater. 

Kifigaja, plur. vingaja, a bracelet of 
beads. 

Kingalingali, on the back (of falling 
or lying). 

Kingama ku-^ to lie across. 
Mti v.mekingama njiani^ a tree 
lies across the road. 

Kingamiiha ku-^ to block, to stop, 
to spoil. 

Kinge, too little. 

Chakula kinge, too little food. 

Kingojo, a watch, time or place of 
watching. 

Kingozif the old language of Me- 
linda, the poetical dialect, diffi- 
cult and ill-understood language. 

Kingubwa^ the spotted liyssna. 

Kinika ku-, to be certain or ascer- 
tained about a person. 

Kinjunjuri, 
Kukata kinjunjuri, to shave all 
the hair except one long tuft. 

Kinono, plur. vinono, a fktling. 



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KII^ 



KinoOf plnr. vinoo, a whetstone. 
Kinno. 
Mmbe kinoOi a small yellow kind 
of mango. 
Kinu, plur. vinu, a wooden mcNrtar 
for ponnding and for cleaning 
eore, an oil-mill, a mill. 
Kinu cha kughindihia^ a mill for 

pressing oil. 
Kinu cha moshi, a steam mill. 
KinuM, plur. vinubt, a harp», 

Ya Kinvbij Nubian. 
Kinioa = Kinywa, 
mnwcti plur. vinusfL, a mouth. 
Kinwa mchuziy the imperial, the 

place where the imperial grows. 
KiMfoOf filth, dung. 
Kinyago, plur. rtwyogro, a thing to 
frighten people, such as a mock 
ghost, &o., &o. 
Kinyegere^ a small animal, a skunk 
Kinyemit pleasant, good. 
Kiiwy^ye/u, a tickling, a tingling. 
Kinyezi. See Kinyaa, 
Kinyif having. See -inyi, 
Kinyonga^ plur. vinyonga^ a chame- 
leon. 
Kinyozi, plur. tdnyozi, a barber, a 

shaver. 
Kinyuma = Kinyume* 
Kinyume, afterwards. 
Kinyume^ going back, shifting, 
alteration, an enigmaiio way of 
speaking, in which the last syU 
lable is put first See Appendix I. 
Kinyumbay a kept mistress. 
Kinyunya, plur. fdnyumyct^ a kind 
of cake, a little cake made to try 
the quality of the flour. 
Kingtua^ plur. vinywa, a drink, a 

beverage. 
Kinywajif plur. mnifwaji, a beve- 
rage, a usual beverage* 



Kinza hurf to contradict, deny. 
Kioga, plur. viogfa, a mi|8hroom. 
Kiokosiy plur. viokoai^ a reward for 
finding a lost.thing and returning 
it to the owner. 
Kiojaj plur. vioja, a curiosity. 
Kionda, a taster. 
Kionda miuzi, the imperial, the 
place ^ere the imp^ial grows 
(M.). 
Kiongozif plur. viongoziy a leader, a 

guide, a caravan guide* 
Kiongwe, plur. viongwe, a donkey 
from the mainland ; they are re- 
puted very hard to manage. 
Kioo, plur. vioOf glass, a glass, a 
looking-glass, a piece of glass, — 
a fish-hook (M.). 
KiopoOf a pole or other instrument 
to get things out of a well, &o., 
with. 
Kioslia. miguUf a present made by 
the bridegroom to the kungu of 
1h« bride on the occasion of his 
first visit 
Kiota, plur. viota, a hen*s nest, a 

laying place, a bird's neat. 
Kioto = Kiotck 
Kiowe. 
Kupiga kioioe, to 8ere%m, oiy for 
help. 
KiowevUf a liquidt 
Kioza, putridity. 

Kipa nikonor a pteaeni made by 1^« 

bridegroom to the bride when he 

first sees her faea 

Kipaa, plur. mpaxt^ a thatched roof, 

the long sides of a roof. 

Kipaa eha mbtkt the front slope 

of the roof. 
Kipaa eha nyumaf the back sk^ 
of the roof. 
Kipaie^ a kind of mUmOk 



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311 



Kipajl, a kind of oosmetie. See 

also Kantu. 
Kipaku, plur. vipaku^ a spot or 

mark of a different colour. 
Kipamba, adommenti 
Kipande, plur. vipande, a piece, an 
instrument, a small rtuamer for 
beating roofs. 

Vipande ■ vya hupimia,. nautical 
instruments. 

Kipande kilichonona, a piece of 
fat 
Kipanga, a large bird of prey, a 

horse-fly. 
Kipangoziy a sluggish incurable 

sore on a horse or ass. 
KiparcL, plur. vipara^ a shaved place 

on the head. 
KipeUy plur. vipele, a pimple. 
Kipendi, a darling, a favourite. 
Kipenu, plur. vipenu, a lean-to, the 

side cabins of a ship. 
Kipenyo, a small place where some- 
thing passes through. 
KipepeOy plur. vipepeo, a. fan for 

blowing the fire, a butterfly. 
Kipeto, plur. vipeto, a packet 
Kipi or Kipia^ a cock's spur^ 
E^^it ft rainbow (?). 
JEtjnZa, a curlew. 
MipUipili. 

Nyele za kipUipUi, woolly hair. 
KipindiySk time, a period of time, an 
hour. 

SXpindichote, at every period. 

Kipindi chc^^ atUbuttri, the hour 
of noon. 

Kufa hipinda, to dior a natural 
death, as cattle, &0i 
Ktpindupindtk^ cholera. 
KipingwH plur. viptngtMi a bar* 
Ki^dnij plwt. vtj^'nt, a hilt^ a haft, 



a handle of the same kind as » 
knife handle, a stud-shaped orna- 
ment worn by wcnnen in the nose, 
and sometimes in the ears also. 

Ktpimo, plur. vipimo, a measure. 

Kipofu, plur. vipofu, a Wind pw- 
son. 

KipolepdUy a butterfly. 

Kipooza, paralysis. 

Kipukubay dropped early, cast fruit, 
etc. 

Kipukute, Kipukuse = Kiptikuba. 
Ndizi kipuktUCf little bananas. 

Kipuliy plur. viptdij a dangling 
ornament worn by women in the 
ear; they are often little silver 
crescents, fiv« or six round the 
outer circumference of eadi ear. 

Kipunguoj plur. vipunffuOy defect, 
deficiency. 

KipupwCf the cold seascm (June and 
July). 

^ Kipway plur. vipway rockd in the sea. 

Kirakoy plur. viraka, a patch. 

Kiri ku'y to confess, accept, acknow- 
ledge, assert. 

Kiriba, plur. viribay a wt^r-skin. 

Kirihi ku-^ to provoke. 

Kirihika ku-, to be provoked, to be 
offended. 

Kirihisha ku-y to make offended, to 
aggravate. 

Kirimhaj a cage for wild animals, 
a meat-safe. 

fKirimu ku-y to feast 

' Kiirithi hu-, to bonow, specially to 

' borrow money. 

, KirobotOy plur. virobotOy a flea^ The 
Hathramaut soldiers are nick- 
named VirobotOy and their song 
as they march is pckrodied. by, 
KircMOy EirdbotOy tia moU>y iia. 
ffioAe* 



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Eld 



Kirukanjia, a kind of moufie found 

in Zanzibar. 
Kintkia, a kind of parasite growing 

on fruit trees. 
KiruUf blind rage. 
Kiaa, plur. visa, a cause, a reason, 
a short tale. 
Visa vingiy many affairs, a com- 
plicated business. 
Kisa cha hoko, kernel of a stone. 
Kisnga, a measure equal to two 

Kibabas, 
Kisahanij plur. visahani, a plate, a 

small diteh. 
Kisanduku, plur. visandiiku, a small 

chest, a box. 
Kisarani, a greedy fellow, a miser. 
Kisasij revenge, retaliation. 
Kishada, a tailless kite. 
Kishahaf plur. viahaka, a thicket. 
Kisheda, a bunch of grapes, a paper 

fluttering in the air like a kite. 
Kishenzi, of the wild people. 
Lugha ya hishenzi, a language of 
the interior. 
Kishi, a chess-queen» 
Kishigino = Kisigino. 
Kishinda, a small residue left in a 
place or inside something, as 
in a water-jar less than half 
full. 
Vishinda vingapi wnetiaf How 
many portions (of grain) have 
you put (in the mortar, to be 
cleaned) ? 
Kishindo, noise, shock. 
Kiskogo, the back of the head and 
neck. 
Akupaye kishogo H mwenzio, one 
who turns his back upon you 
is not your friend. 
KishtcarOy a loop of rope to haul by 
in dragging a vessel into or out 



of the water, a loop in the side of 

a dhow to pass an oar through 

for rowing. 
Kisi ku', to g^ess. 
Kukisi tanga, to shift over a sail 

to the opposite side. 
Kisi, Keep her away ! 
Kisibao, plur. visibao, a waistcoat 
with or without sleeves; they 
are very commonly worn in 
Zanzibar. 

Kiaibao cha mikono, a sleeved 
waistcoat. 

Kisibao cha vikapa or vihuoapa, a 
sleeveless waistcoat. 
Kisibu (?), a nickname. 
Kisigino or Kishigino, the elbow. 

Kisigino cha mguu, the heel. 
Kisiki, plur msik% a log. Used in 

slang language for a prostitute. 
Kisiki cha mtmo, a rainbow (M.). 
Kisima, plur. visima, a well. 
Kisimi (obscene), the ditoris- 
Kisitiri, a screen, screen-wull, 

parapet. 
Kisiioa, plur. visiwa, an island. 
Kisiyangu [Tumbatu] = Kizingiti. 
Kisitmso, 

Kisiwiso cha choo chauma, oonsti-^ 
pation. 
Kishoka, plur. vishoka, a hatchet, a 

small axe. 
Kishubaka, plur. vishvbaka, a small 

recess, a pigeon-hole. 
Kishungi, plur. vishungi, the ends of 

the turban doth, lappets. 
Kisma, a part. 
Kisomtio, a paste made of beans, 

mahogo, &c, 
KisongOf plur. visongo, a piece of 

wood to twist cordor rope with. 
Kisoee, a very small bird with back 

blue, and breast yellow^ 



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313 



Kisu, i^ur. visu, a knife. 

Kisua, a suit of clothes. 

Kitugulu, plur. visugtdu, a moimd 
of eartlj, an ant-hill. 

KUungura, plur. visungura, a little 
labbit or hare (?). 

KmiTumOf gonorrhoea. 
KUunona cha damu^ with paseing 

blood. 
Kuunono cha uzdha, with passing 

matter. 
Kisunono cha mkqjoj with constant 
micturition. 

KimstUif a whirlwind (?) a boy's 
kite (?). 

Kinui, plur. vitun, the hip of a 
roof. The main roof starts from 
the long front and back walls, 
and is called the paa; small 
roofs start from the end walls, 
and are carried to the ridge under 
and within the pa^: these are 
the visuH, 

Kisuio = Kisutu. 

KimtUf plur. visutUy a large piece 
of printed calico, .often forming 
a woman's whole dress, a cover- 
lid. 

Kisioa = Kisa, 

KUabUj plur. vitahu, a book. 

KUagaii/Of a small matting bag for 
halua, &0, 

KUakizOy plur. vitakizo, the head 
and foot-pieces of a bedstead. 

KUakOy sitting. 
Kukaa hita1:0t to sit down, to re- 
main in one locality. 

KiUdey plur. mtaley a cocoa-nut just 
beginning to grow, 

KUaU^ sailcloth. 

JTttoZtf, a stone fence, a wall. 

KUambaa, plur. vitambaot a small 
piece of doth a rag. 



Kitamhaa chd ku/utia nikono, a 

towel. 
Kitambaa cha meza^ a tablenapkin. 
Kitambi cfia kileniba^ a piece of stuff 

for making a turban. 
Kitambo, a short time. 
Kitamirif a kind of evil spirit 
Kitana, plur. vitanat a small comb. 
Kitanda^ plur. mtanda^ a bedstead, 

a couch. 
Kitangcty plur. vitq.ngay a round mat 
used to lay out food upon. 
Kitanga cha mkono^ the palm of 

the hand. 
Kitanga cha mzani, a scale pan. 
Kitanga cha pepo, the name of a 
dance. 
Kitanij flax, linen, string. 
Kitanzi, plur. titanzi, a loop, a 

button-loop. 
Kitaowa, the kind proper for a 
devotee. 
AmevcM nguo za kitamoa^ he is 
dressed like a devotee. 
Kitapo, plur. vitapo^ a shivering, a 

shiver. ' 

Kitara, plur. vitara, a curved sword. 
Kitara, an open shed in a village, 
where people sit to talk and trans- 
act business. 
KitoM, a box lock, a lock. 
Kitatangiy a cheat. Also a very 
bright-coloured sea-fish with 
spines, a sea-porcupine. 
Kitawi, a kind of weed. 
Kitam, plur. vitawi, a branch, a 

bough, a bunch. 
Kite, feeling sure, certainty, faith- 
fully (?), aflfection. 
Kana kite haye^ he has no affec- 
tion. 
Kupiga kite, to cry or groan from 
inward pain. 



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KIT 



Kit^^y BobbiDg befbre or ftfter 
oryiDg. 

KiiefuU, the oh<»k, the part of 4he 
fooe over the cheek-bone. 

Kiteku, a tosser. 

Kitembej a lisp. 

Kitemhwi, a thread of flax or flne 
grass. 

Kftendawili, plur. vitendawili, an 
enigma. The propounder says 
Kitendatcifi ; the rest answer 
Tega; he then propounds his 
enigma. 

KitendOf plur. vUendo^ an action. 

Kitengenya, a small bird spotted 
with white, yellow, and red. 

KiteOy plur. viteOy a small sifting 
basket 

Kitesoy a vaee. 

KitewCf loss of the use of the legs. 

KUhiri ku-y to grow large, in- 
crease. 
Umelcithiri Jcuzaa, H lias borne 
more than before. 

Kiti, plur. viti, a chair, ti seat 
Kiti cha frasi, a saddle. 

Kilimhi, plur. vitimbi, an artifice, 
an artful trick. 

Kitinda mirnba, the last child a 
woman will bear; 

Kitindi, See Vitindi. 

KHuho, plur. vitUhOj fear, a terrify- 
ing thing. 

Kititiy plur. vititi, a hare, a rabbit, 

a little thing (M.). 
Kititiy to the full, entirely; alto- 
gether, all at once. 

Kititi cha ^o^art, the depths of the 

sea. 
KHitia^ a child's windmill. 
Kititoangoy chicken-pox. The 
natives say an epidemic of fciVt- 
uanga, always precedes one of 



smaU-pox. Also Htivoangat and 

perhaps tete ya kwanga. 
Kito^ plur. Tito, a pr^ious stone. 
Kiloka (M.) = Kishoka. 
Kitomay plur. rftoma, a small round 

pumpkin. 
Kitomaj orchitis. 
Kitone, plur. ritone, a drop. 
Kitonga^ hydrocele (?). 
Kitongqjtf a village. 
Kitongolongo, 

Kutezama kitongolongo, to glance 
at contemptuously with hall- 
shut eyes. 
Kitoria, a kind of edible fhdt. 
Kitoteo (M.) = Kichocheo, 
KitotOf plur. vUoto, a little child. 
KitovUf plur. vitovu, the navel. 
KitoweOf plur. xitoweo, a relish, a 

something to be eaten with thu 

rice or other vegetable food, such 

as meat, fish, curry, &c. 
Kitu, plur. viiu, a thing, especially 
a tangible thing. 

Si kitUy nothing, worthless. 
Kituay p^ur. vitua, -the shade of a 

tree, &c. 
Kitukoy startledness, fright. 
KitukuUy plur. vitukuuy a great 

grandchild. 
KittdizOy plur. tfitulizo, a soothing, 

quieting thing. 
Kitumhua, plur. vitumhuay a sort of 

cake or fritter made in Zanzibar. 
Kitundoy plur. vitunday a chess 

pawn. y, 

Kitundwiy a water-jar [Tumbatu]. 
Kitungay plur. vitungay a small 

round basket. 
Kitungu (?) a small round earthen 

dish. 
KUunguUy plur. titunguley a bare -or 
rabbit (?). 



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315 



KitunguUy plur. vUungttUf an onioD. 

Kitttnguu somu, garlic. 

Kitungw<ij a small bird Uke a 

sparrow. 
Kituot plur. vittiOt ati -enoampment, 
a restingi-plaoe, a putting down. 

Hana kitvo, be is alwuys gadding 
about 
Kitupa, plur. vUupa, a little bottle, 

a vial. 
Kitutia» 

Bahari ya Mtutia^ a boiling sea, 
deep and rough. 
Kitwa^ plur. vitwa^ the bead. 
KUvfcmgombat a somersault. 
Kitvjakitwa, topsy-turvy. 
Kitwana, plur. v<hr«ma, a slave boy. 
Xttf, thirst. 

Kuuja na kiut to be thirsty. 

Kwma hiUf to feel thirst. 
Kiua, plur. vtVa, an eyelet hole. 
Kiuika ku'y to step over. 
KUiikia = Kiruhia. 
KiuTMiy plur. viuma, a fork. 
Kiuma nibttzi, a small dark-coloured 

lizard. 
Kiumbe, plur. viumbe, a creature, 

created thing. 
Kiumhizi, a peculiar way of beating 

the drum; the people sing the 

while, Sheitani ndoo tupigane 



Kiunga, pith*, viungck^ a suburb, the 
outskirts of a towD. 
Kiungani, near the town, in the 
suburbs. 
Kiungo, plur. vitmgo, a joint, — an 

acid thing put into the mchuzi, 
Kiungujtij the language of Zanzibar. 
Kiungwanat the free or gentlemanly 
sort 
Ya kiungwana^ civilized, cour- 
teous^ becoming a free man. 



Mwanamke wa kiungwana^ a lady. 

Kitmguliaf plur. viungulia, an eiuc- 
tation, a breaking of wind. 

Kiuno, plnr. viuno, the loins. 

Kiuma, plur. m'tmza, the plank laid 
over the body before ihe grave 
is filled in. (Coffins are never 
used.) 

Kiuwaji, murderous, deadly. 

Kivi, the elbow. 

Kivimba, plur. vivimha, the girth of 
a tree, the circumference. 

KivivMy a small swelling. 

Kivukoj plur. iritm^, a ford, a ferry, 
a crossing-place. 

Kivtdi, plur. vimdif a shadow, a 
shade, a ghost. 

Kivumhazij a strong-smelling herb 
said to scare mosquitoes: wash- 

. ing in water in which it has been 
steeped is said to be a preventive 
of bad dreams. 

KivumbOi lortely (?). 

Kivumi, plur. vivumi, a roaring, 
bellowing sound. 

Kivyao = Kizao, 

Kivyazi, birth. 

Kiujambtizaf plur. viwambaza, a 
mud and stud wall. 

KiwambOy something strained 
tightly over a frame, like the 
skin of a drum, a weaving frame. 

Kiwandaj plur. viwanda^ a work- 
shop, a yard, a plot of land. 

KiwangOf plur. viwango, a number, 
position in the world, duties be- 
longing to one*s position, a man's 
place. 

Kitoanja = Kivranda, 

KtiDaOy a great feast [Tumbatu]. 

Kiwavi, plur. vitoavi, a nettle, a.sea- 
nettle. 

Kiioavu ckana (A*), riba. 



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316 



KIW 



KOU 



Kiwe^ plur. viuoe* 

Kiuie cha tuo, a small kind of 
pimple on the faoe. 
Kiioele, an udder. 
Kiteembet a pocket-knife. 
Kivoeo (MOf thigh, lap. 
Kivoetey loss of the use of the legs. 
Kivjtj moon-blindness, a dazzle, 

Ku/anya Mwi, to dazzle. 
Kiioi, plur. viwi, a small stick, a 

piece of wood, a bar, 
Kiuoiko. 

Kiwiko cha mkonoj the wrist. 

Kivoiko cha mguut the ankle. 
KivsiXiwiliy the human trunk, the 

body without the limbs. 
Kiyama, the resurrection. 
Kiyamibaza^ a bulkhead, partition. 

Also := Kiioamhaza. 
KiyambOf neighbourhood, a village. 
Kiza or Giza, darkness. 

Kxdia kiza, to darken, to dim. 
Kizao, plur. vtzoo, a natiye, one 

bom in the place. 
Kizaziy plur. vizazi, a generation. 
Kizee, diminutive of mzee, gene- 
rally used of an old woman. 
Kizibo^ plur. vizibOy a stopper, a 

cork. 
Kizio, plur. vizio, half of an orange, 

cocoa-nut, &c. 
Kiztmhiy plur. vizimbi, a cage. 
Kiziniay a virgin. 
Kizin^a, plur. vizingoy a large log 

half burnt. 
Kizingitiy threshold, the top and 

bottom pieces of a door or window 

frame, bar of a river. 
KizingOf turnings, curves of a river, 

&o., (?) a burial ground. 
KizingOj sharp shore sand used for 

buiLiing. 
Kizivdf plur. vizitoiy deat 



Kizuio = Kizuizi, 

Kizuizi, plur. vizuizi, a stop, a ihing 

which hinders or stays. 
Kizuizo, plur. vizuizo, a hindrance. 
Kiztika, plur. vtzuka, a kind of evil 

spirit, a woman who is staying 
. in perfect secrecy and quiet 

during the mourning for her 

husband. See Eda, 
Kizungu, a European language. 

Ya kizungu, European. 
Kizunguzunguy giddiness. 
Ktzttri, beauty, a beauty, 
Kizushi, an Intruder. 
Kizuu, plur. vizuu, a kind of evil 

spirit, which kills people at the 

order of its master. 
Koj -kOf 'ko, where, whither, whence. 

Ko kote, whithersoever. 
Koa, plur. makoa, a snail. 
Koa (plur. of Ukoa), the silver rings 

on the scabbard of a sword, &c,, 

plates of metal. 
Kchcj a tortoise. 
KochCf plur. makochey the fruit of a 

kind of palm. 
Kodiy rent 
Kodolea ku-, to fix the eyes upon, 

to stare. 
Kofiy plur. makoji, the flat of the 
hand. 

Kupiga kofiy to strike with open 
hand, to box the ears. 

Kupiga makqfi, to clap the hands. 
Kofiay a cap. 
KdfiUiy a caravan. 
KofvMy emaciated, 
Koga = Kuoga. 
Kohaniy a small red fish like a 

mullet 
Kohoy a large bird of prey. 
Kohxiy ku'y to cough. 
Kohoziy expectorated matter. 



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Kor 



KON 



317 



Kotkoij plnr. maihoik(nt a sort of 

evil spirit. 
KoJKiy a gold omament for the 

neck. 
Kcjoa hu-y to make water. 
Koha = Kuoka, 
Koka kth, to set on fire. 
KokOf plur. mahckoy kernels, nuts, 

stones of frait 
KokOf plnr. makoko, brushwood, 
thickets, bushes. 

Mhvoa koko, a homeless dog that 
lives in the thickets and eats 
oafrion. 
Kokomoka ku-t to vomit, to belch 

out, blurt out. 
Kokota ku', to drag. 

Kukokota rcihoy to breathe hard. 
Kokoteza ku-, to do anything slowly 

and carefully. 
Kokoto, plur. makokotOf a small 

stone, a small piece of stone. 
Kokwaj plur. makoktooy nuts, stones 

of fruit. 
KolekoUy a kind of fish. 
Kolea kt^, to become well fiavoured, 

to get the right quantity of a 

condiment. 
Koleoj plur. makoleo^ tcmgs. 
Kologa ku-t to stir. 
Kcma, plur. makoma^^ kind of fruit 
Kama ku-y to cease, to leave ofi; to 
end a journey, to arrive at a 
destination. 

Koma usije 1 Gome no further I 
Komaa ku-^ ta be full grown. 
Komaza ku-, to mock, to make game 

of. 
JCombci^ a galago. 
Komba kth, to scrape out, to clean 
out 

Dafu la kukomba, a cocoa-nut in 
which the liutty part is but just 



forming, which is then reckoned 
a delicacy* 

Kukomba nUu, to get all humoney, 
to clean him out 
K<nnbamo^o^ plur. makornbamoyOy 
. one of the rafters of a thatched 

roof. 
Kombe, plur. makombe, a large dish. 

Kombe la rnkono^A,), the shoulder- 
blade. 

Kombe ta pu>am, oysters (?X 
cockles (?), seaHshells. 
Kambeka ku-, to be cleaned out, to 

have had all one's money got from 

one. 
Kombeo, a sling. 
KombOf plur. makombo, scraps, 

pieces left after eating. 
K*ombo^ a defact, crookedness. 

Kutoa^ l^oinbo, to notice a defect 
Komboa ku-^ to ransom, to buy back. 
Komboka ftu-, to be crooked. 
Kombokombo, crooked. 
£bf?i&ora, a bomb, a mortar. 
KoTTibozi, a ransom. 
£01716, plur. makomey a peaii 

oyster (?), a mussel (?X a shell. 
Komea ku-, to fasten with a native 

look (^dmeo). 
Kiymeot a kind of wooden lock. 
Kamesha ku-, tor make to cease, to 

put a stop to. 
KantiMy plur. makomwe, the seeds of 

a large climbing plant abundantly 

fumitthed with recurved thorns ; 

they are used to play the game of 

&ao with. 
Konda ^ to grow thin and lean. 
Koiidavh large beads worn by 

women, as a belt round the loins. 
Konde, a fist. 

Kupiga moyo konde, to take heart, 
to resolve firmly. 

T 



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318 



KON 



SOB 



Kondafia ku-^ to make to grow lean. 
K*ondo, war (Merimi^ 
K&ndoa^A eheep [Ladl]. 
KondoOf sheep. 

Tuafit k&eendoa, he dies like a 
sheep, silently (which is high 
praise). 
Konga feu-, to grow old Aod feeble. 
Kongoa kvh, to draw out nails, &c., 

to take to pieces. 
Kongoea, Monbas. 
Kongqja Xm-, to walk wiUi diffienlty, 

to totter. 
KongtiUun hvh, to be taken to pieces. 
KongomerOf throat. 
Kongoni = Kunguni* 
Kong^otOf a sort of woodpecker, 

black and yellow. 
Kongwa, a slaye^stiok. 
Kongwe. 

Kutoa kongwet to lead oif the solo 
partofaiong:, in which others 
join in the chorus. 

'hmgiMj orer-old, worn out with 
age. 
Kitmo, a projecting handle, like that 

of a sanoepan. 
Konokono, a snail. 
Konyeaha ku- = Konyetm ku-. 
Konyeza Ant-, to make a sign by 

raising the eyebrows. 
Eonzif what can be grasped in the 
hand, a fist Ml 

Kupiga kcmi, to lap with the 
knuckles. 
Kbo, plar. makoo^ a breeding animal 
or bird. 

Koo la kuku^ a laying hen. 

Koo la mbutiy a breeding goat. 
KoOf plur. makoOf throat. 
Koondet plur. makoonde^ cnltiyated 

land, fields, the piece of a thawJba 

allotted to a slave for his own use. 



Sbfi^oa ku'^ to break off the cobs of 

Indian com. 
K&pa, hearts, in oar^ . 
Kopa^ plur. makopa, a piece of dried 

fnu^o^ whieh has been steeped 

and cooked. 
Kopa kw, to get goods on «t»edit for 

the pni^se of trading with, to 

cheat, to swindle. 
Kope, {dttr. of Dkope^ theeyelaalies. 
Kope, plur. makopCf the wiok of a 

candle. 
Kitpem ktt^ to wink. 
Kopesha kth^ to supply a tiader with 

goods on credit, to give on trust. 

to lend. 
Kopo, plur. mcihtfo, a large metal 

Teasel, a spout. 
Kopoa ku'y to dmg out of one's 

hand, = Chopoa ku-. 
Kara ibii-, to seem sweet to, to be 

loved by. 
Koradanij a sheave of a pulley. 
KorijOf a pucker in sewing. Also, a 
Korja, a score. [score. 

Koroana %«-, to steep in water. 
Korofit a bird of ill omen, a 

messenger of bad lud^* 
Korofisha kth, to ruin a man. 
Koroga ku-^ to stir, to stir up. 
JKbroma, plur. mdkoroma, a eocoa-nttt 

in its last stage but one, when the 

nut is fimned but has not yet its 

full flavour. It has ceased to be 

Ik dafu and is not yet a tioet. 
Koroma ku*, to snore. 
Korong^ a crane. 
Korongo, plur. makorongo, a hole 

dibbled for seed. 
Karoro^ a erected guinea-lbwl. 
Koroaho, plur. fMikaroaho, oashew 

nuts. 
Koru, the waterbuck. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EOft 



-KUB 



SH) 



Kosa hu-f to err, mistake, miss, go 

wrong, do wrong, blunder. 
Kosekana kt^, to be missed, not to 

b^ there. 
Ko9eiha ku-j to lead astray. 
Kositdidku^, to purpose, to intend, 
= Kusudia, 
Kota, plur. makota, the etolks of a 

kind of millet which are ohewed 
•£oto> a Gtook, [like sttgaT'Oane. 
Kota ku; 

Kukota motOy to warm oneself. 
Kotdmay a eurved knife used in 

getting palm wine. 
Koie, all. Bee -ote, 
Kotekote, on every side. 
Koto, 

Kupiga koto (M.), to strike with 
the knut* kles. 
Kovo, plur. makovo, soar. 
Ku' or £t0*. 

1. The indefinite verbal prefix 
answering to ^lere in English. 
Kurlikuwaf there was. 
Ku'kaianda^ and there spread. 

2. The sign of the infinitive. 
Kurpiga, to strike. 
K'W'enda, to go. 

The infinitive may be used as a 
substantive answering to the 
English form in -ing, 

Kufa, dying, the act of death. 

Kwenda, going. 

The kur of the infinitive is re- 
tained by monosyllabic verba, 
and by some others in all 
tenses in which the tense 
prefix ends in an unaccented 
syllable. 

S. The prefix proper to adjectives, 
pronouns, and verbs agreeing 
with infinitives used as sub- 
stantives. 



Kufa kweiu kufema kutampendeMf 
our good deaths will please him. 

4. The prefix proper to pronouns 
agreeing with substantives in 
the locative cafte (-m), where 
neither fhe being or going 

' inside, nor mere nearness, is 
meant. 

JEnenda nywrt^ni kwangut go to 
my house. 

2iko ktoetu, there are in our pos- 
session, at our place. 

5, In a few words a prefix signi- 
fying locality, commonly so used 
in other African languages, but 
generally represented in Swa- 
Lili by the case in -n«. 

Kuzimu, among the dead, in the 
'ku; [grave. 

1. The sign of the negative past 
always preceded by some nega- 
tive personal prefix. 

Sikujua, I did not know. 
SazikufcMj they were of no use. 

2. The objective prefix denoting 
the second person singular. 

Nakupenda, I love thee, or you. 
Alikupa, he gave thee, or you. 
Sikukujw^y I did not know you. 

3. The o' jective prefix referring 
to infinitives of verbs, or to 
hukuy there. 

Kua ku-y to grow, to become large. 
-kuba or -kubufa, great, large. 
Kubdli ku, to accept, assent to, 

acknowledge, approve. 
Kvhalika ku-, to be aooepted, to be 

capable of acceptance. 
KubalUha ku-, to make to accept 
Kubba, a vaulted place. 
-kubwOf large, great, ^er, oliief. 

It makes kubwa with nouns like 

nyumbct, 

T 2 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



320 



KUO 



Kucha, or Kumekueh<iy the dawn. 

Usiku kueha, all night 
Kuchua ku-. 
Kamba im^ikuchua, the rope has 
worn away, chafed, Btranded. 
Kuftdi, a padlock. 
*Kufuru ku^, to beoome an infidel, 

to apostatize. 
Kufuru ku'9 to mook, to deride. 
Kuguni^ihe hartebeest (boeelaphus). 
Kuke. See -ke. 
Mkono wa kuke, the left hand. 
Kukeni, on the female side. 
Kuko, yonder, to yonder. 

Ktoa kuko, beyond, on yon side. 
K*uku,fi hen, a fowl, fowls, poultry. 
Kuku na huku, backwards and for- 
wards. 
'kukuu, pld, worn out. It makes 

kukuu with nouns like nyurnba. 
KuUibu, a hook to steady work with. 
Mule, there, far oflf, yonder. 
Kulee, yonder, very far off. As the 
distance indicated increases the 
4 is more dwelt on, the voice 
raised to a higher and Jiigher 
falsetto. 
Kulehde, there, just there. 
Kulia kU', to beoome great for, to 

beoome hard to. ^^ > 
Ktdiko, where there is or was. 
Kulikonii Where there is what 

= why? (BI.> 
£^uZtA;o,isusedin theordinar^^way 
of expressing the comparative. 
Mwema ktUiko huyu, good where 
this man is, and therefore 
better than he. Because if a 
quality becomes evident in any- 
thing by putting some other 
thing beside it, the first must 
possess the quality in a higher 
degree than the other. 



KUM 

KuUa, often pronounced ^tOa, every, 
each one. 

Kuiulu, nothing at all. 
Nikapatakululu = Sikupataneno. 

KultUu, tiger cowries, Cypraa tigris. 

Kvlungu, a sort of antelope. 

Kuma, the vagina. 

Kuniba ku-, to push against, to tak^ 
and sweep off the whole of any- 
thing, e.g, to clear water out of ^ 
box, to bale a boat 

Kumbatia ku-, to embrace, to clasp. 

Kumbatiana ku-, to embrace (of two 
persons). 

Kumhef What? An expression of 
surprise used especially when 
something turns out otherwise 
than was expected, commonly 
joined with a negative verb. 

Kunibi (Mer.), circumcision. 
Anaingia kumhini, he is being 
circumcised. 

Kunibi, plur. makumbi, cocoa-nut 
fibre, the husk of the cocoa-nut 
an4 the fibrous mass out of which 
the leaves grow. Also, at Mgao, 
gum copal, 

Kunibikumbi, ants in their flying 
stage. 

Kumbisha ku-, to push off upon, to 
lay upon some one else. 

Kuvfibuka ku-, to think of, to r6mem- 
her, to ponder over, to recollect. 

Kumbukumbu, a memorial, a men- 
tion. 

Kumbura, an explosive shelL ^^ 

Kumbu8ha.ku;U) remind. 

Kumbwaya, a kind of drum stand- 
ing on feet. 

Kttmekucha, there is dawn, the 
dawn. 

Kumi, plur. makumi, ten. 

Kumoja, on one side. ** 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ku»t 



KUN 



321 



Kumpunij plur. mdkumpunii a per- 
son who has obtained full know- 
ledge of his trade. 
Kumunta fcu-(Mer.), to shake out 

or off/ 
Kumunto, a sieve of basket-work. 
Kumutika ku-, to desire (?). 
Kumvif husks and bran of rice. 
Kuna, there is, 
Kunaye, depending upon him. 
Kunani f What is the matter ? 
Kuna kwamhaje ? What du you 
say? [Tumbatu]. 
Kuna ku-f to scratch. 
Kuncikucha, there is dawning, the 

dawning. 
Kunaziy a small edible fruit. 
Kunda ku- (M.) = Kunja ku-, 
Kunda, plur. makundaf a green 

vegetable like spinach. 
Kundaa /cu-, to be short and small 

of stature. 
Kundamana ku' = Kunjamana ku-, 
Kunde, beans, haricot beans. 
^undt; plur. makundi, a crowd, a 

herd, many together. 
Kundua ku-, to please (?). . 
'kundufu, giving pleasure. 
Nyumba ni kundu/u, the house 

is commodious. 
Muungu ni mkundufu, God is the 
giver of all good things. 
Kunduka ku-, to grow larger, to 
open. 
<9fo^ umekunduka, he is gratified 
(N.). 
Kmtga kU', to hem. 
Kunga, cleverness, clever. 
Kazi hai/ai ilia kwa kunga, it 
wants to be done cleverly. 
Kungali. 

. Kungali na mapema hado, while 
it is yet early. 



Kunguj mist, fog. 
Kungu manga^ a nutmeg. 
Kunguni, a bug. 

Kunguru, a crow, a bird a little 
larger than a rook, black, with 
a white patch on the shoulders 
and round the neck : it feeds on 
carrion. 
Kung'uta ku-, to shake oft, to shake 

out 
Kung'uto^ plur. makung'uto, a sort 
of basket used as a sieve or 
strainer. 
Kuni, firewood. The singular, 
ukuni, means one piece of fire« 
wood. 
Kunia Ant-, to scrape or scratch 

with, or for. 
Kunia ku-, to raise the eyebrows in 

contempt. 
Kuniita, telling me to come. 
Kunja ku; to fold, to wrap up, to 
furl. 
Kukunja uzt, to wind thread. 
Kujikunja, to flinch, to shrink. 
Kukunja uso or Kukunja vipc^i, 
to frown, to knit the brows. 
Kunjana ku-, to fold together, to 

dwindle, to wrinkle. 
Kunjamana ku-, 

Uso unakunjamana, his face is 
sad, sour, and frowning. 
Kunjia ku-, to fold for, to wrap up 

for, to crease. 
Kunjika ku-, to become folded or 

doubled up, to be creased. 
Kunjua ku-, to unfold. 
Kukunjua miguu, to stretch one's 
legs. 
Kunjuka ku-, to become unfolded, 

to spread over. 
Kunjuliuia ku-, to be open and un- 
folded. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



322 



KUN 



KWA 



Kunrathtf don*t be offended, exouae 
me, pardoB me. 

Kunu alamu, he it known. 

Kunya ku,, to eaie oneselC. S^ 
Nyn. 

Kwiyata hu-y to draw togethe?, 
Kujikunyata, to draw onesell to- 
gether, to shrink. 

Kunyua ku- or Kunyida ^u> to 
touch secretly (with a scratching 
motion) by way of signal or of 
calling attention privately, to 
make a scratch on the skin. 

Kupaa. See Makupaa, 

Kupe, a tick, a eattle tick. 

Kuyua ku-, to shake something off 
onefa dress, out of one's hand» 
&o. 

Kura^ the lot 
Kupiga kura, to cast lotflL 

Kuru, a sphere, a balL 

Kunibw kur^ to oome near to. 
Nalikuruhia, &c., had a good 
mind to, &o. 

Kurumbizii a small yellow bird, 
Tery inqnisitiTe : they say if he 
sees a man and woman talking 
together, he cries, ** Mtu ana$ema 
na mume." 

Kusa ku, to make to grow. 

Ku9amya &»•, to eollect, gather, as- 
semble. 

Kusanyana huit to gather together. 

Kusanyika ku'y to b^ gatheredf to 
assemble. 

KushotOy, on the left 
Mkono wa kushoiiOy the left handi 

M^9i, the southerly winds which 
blow from May till October. 
Kusini, in the direction of the 
Kusi, southerly. 

Ku$udi^ plur. wcikuiudi,^ pm^pose, 
design. 



Kuiudia ht-^ to pnrpoaef to intend. 

Kuta, plur. of JJkvia, walls. 

Kuta ku-, to meet with, to see, to 

find, to come upon. 
Kutana ku-, to come together, to 

meet, to assemble. 
Kutanika ku-, to beoome assembled. 
KiUamaha ku-^ to brio^ together,^ to 

assemble. 
KutUyiuat 
Kutuka ku^^ to be startled, to be 

suddenly frightened. 
KutusJia kU', to startle, to alarm 

suddenly. 
•kuu, great, chief, noble. Ku^ refers 
more to figurative, kutnca to 
physical greatness. It makes 
kuu with nouns like nytuaiba^ 

4na n^akuuy he is vain. 
Kuume, See -tims. 

Mkono wa kMume, the right hand^ 

KuuTnenif on the male aide. 
Kuwdu 

Mkono wa kuvuli, the right hand. 
KuvfOt to be, to beoome (?> See 

Wa. 
Kuwadi, also Kawndi, a prooureas 

(Mtu anayitvfaiim^ha watu)» 
KweUi, twioe oveji, in two ways, 
'kuza, large, full prown. 
Kwa ku'y to make bigger. 
Kuzoy to sell See Uxa, 
Kuzir ail earthen leatei bottle laigec 

than a guduwia, with a handle 

or handles and a nariow neek« 
Kuzikanif a funeral. 
Kuzimu, in the gfav4^ imder thai 

earth. 
Kw', ^ See Kur, 
Kwa, with, as an instrument, 

through, to a person, to or ai 

the place wh^^ any one Uises ; 

for, on account ^ < ^ . 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



. Kwa *ngi (?), generally. 

Kioa, of, after verbs in the infini- 
tive used Q» noonai «nd after tlie 
case in -ni. 

Kwaa ku-^ to strike the lbot> to 
stumble. 

Kvjojei how? 

Kwak^ to hii% with hiniy to or at 
his or her house; his, her, or 
its, after a verb in the infinitive 
used as a substantive, or the 
case in -ni, 

Kwdkoy to thee or with thee, to or 
at thy place, your, thy, of thee 
or you, after verbs in the infini- 
tive used as a noun, and after tiie 
case in -ni, 

Kwale, a partridge (?). 

Kwama hu-^ to become jammed, to 
stick. 

Kwamha, saying (?), if, a£ if, though, 
Ya ktoania^ that [that. 

KwamUha ku-, to jam, to make to 
stick in a narrow place. 

Kwamua ktb-, to unjara, to free» to 

dear. 
" Kwangu, to or at my house, to or 
with me, my, of me, after ,the 
infinitives of verbs used as sub- 
stantives^ and after the case in 
-ni, 

Ktoangua ku-f to acn^pe up* to scrape 
one's shoos, &c 

Kwani for, because^ wherefoxe„ lor 
why. 

KwamiA ku'f to split down^ to tear 
down» to break* 

Kufanjfuka ku-, to be split down 
like the boughs and brsmches of 
a tree, which some one has been 
trying to dinb by them. 

Ktoanza, begumjng; at first, for- 
merly. 



KYfn 



323 



7a X;t«a9um first, the first 

Ngofa ktmuMf wait a bit 
Kwaa^ plur. vMbkwaOi a stumble» a 

stumbling-block. 
Kwaot to or with then^ at or to 

their place; their, of them, after 

verbs in the infinitive used «s 

noons, and after ihe case in -m. 
Kwapa, plur. mdkviapa^ &e arm- 
pit. 

Ktcapanif under the armpit The 
people of the African coast 
weer their swOrds l^ a strap 
over the left shoulder only ; the 
sword hangs under the armpit, 
and is said to be kwapani, 
Kwaruza hih^ to scrape aIong» to slip 

with a scrape. 
Kwata, or Kwato^ a hoof. 

Kupiga kwata, to strike the hoof, 
to strike with the hoof. 
KwatUf a horseshoe (?). 
Ktoayo, a stumbling-block. 
Kwaza ku-, to make to stumble. 

Kukwaza meno, to jar the teeth 
like grit in food. 
Kwea ku'^ to ascend, go up, climb. 
Kwdi, true^ the truthu 

Ta kweliy true. 
Kwelu = Kweu. 

Kwema^ good, well, it is well there. 
Kweme^ the seed of a gourd, very 

rich in oiL 
KwendoL, to go« See Emdfj^ goii^;. 
Kwendaf perhaps. 
KwenUf with you, to or at your 

place, your, of you, after verbs in 

the infinitive used as nouns or 

after the case in -m. 
Kwenyi, till, since, up to the time of^ 

from the time of. 
Kwepa ^tf-, to start out of the way. 
Kweta &t(-» ta raise. 



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324 



KWlfi 



tAD 



Ki€€tUy to or with us^ to or at our 

place, our, of us, after a yerb in 

the infinitive used as a noun, and 

after the case in -ni. 
Ktoeu, clear. 
Kweupe^ white. See -eupe, 

Kuna ktoeupe, grey dawn. 
Kwexa ku-j to make to go up, to drag 

up a boat out of the water. 
Kweza hu-^ to bid up an article at 
an auction. 

KvhwezwOf to have things made 
dear to one by others bidding 
them up. 
Kwiba. See Iba hu-y stealing, to 

steal. 
Kwibana, robbing one another. 
Kwikwe, hiccup. 

KtDtkwe ya ftulta, sobs. 
Kwisha. See Isha kw, ending, to 

end. 
KwOf which. 



L is pronounced as in English. 

L is not dibtinguished from r 
m African languages of the same 
family as Swahili. The distinction 
becomes important in Swahili on 
account of the Arabic words which 
have been incorporated into* it 
Thus— 

Mahaliy means a place, but 
Mahari a dowry. 

Waredi means a rose, but Waledi 
a youth. Slaves, however, fre- 
quently confound eyen these. 

"When r can be used for I, it has a 
light smooth sound, as in English. 

There is a latent I sound between 
every two consecutive yowels in 
Swahili and at the beginning of 



some verbs, which appears in their 
derivatives and in other African 
languages : thus the common pas- 
sive of kufungua is kufungtUiwa, 

So far is ti^is disposition to drop 
an I carried, that even hdeta^ to 
bring, is in old Swahili eta. It is 
characteristic of the Merima dialect 
to retain these Ts. 

L and u are sometimes appa- 
rently interchanged. 

MlangOf a door, is Vulgarly pro- 
nounced Mtoango. 

Vfalme^ a kingdom, may be 
written Ufaume, 

In these cases, however, both 
forms are probably contractions 
from MtUango and Ufdlume, 

L becomes d after n, and is some- 
times confounded with d in inexact 
pronunciation. 

Ndume = Mume or Nume, male. 

If or K-, the prefix proper to pro- 
nouns and verba governed by 
words in the singular, of the 
class which make their plural 
ii> ma*. 

7x1, no. 

La hi', to eat, to oonsnme, to wear 
away, to take a piece in chess, &c. 
The ku-, bears tiie acoent and is 
retained in the usual tenses. The 
passive of kula is ktUiioa. 

Laahu hi; to play, to sport with. 

LaanOi plur. malaana, a curse. 

Laani ku-, to curse, to damn. 

Laanisha ku-y to bring a curse upon. 

Laheka ss Lebeka, 

Labuda, perhaps. 

Ladtt, sweet cakes composed of trea- 
cle, pepp^, and flour or semsem 
seed, made up into balls. 



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LAG 



LET 



325 



Laghai, a rascal. Also Bdgdi. 

Laika, plnr. malaikat one of the 
hairs of the hand or arm. 

Laini, smooth, soft. 

Lainiiha ku-^ to make smooth or 
soft. 

Laitil Would fhatt Oh that! 
expressing regret at something 
. past. 

Lake or Laktoe, his, hers, its. See 

Laki ku-, to go to meet [-cike, 

Lakinif but, however. 

Lakki, a hundred thousand, a laa 

Lako, thy. See dko, 

Lala Xcu-, to sleep, to lie down. 
Nyumba imelala inchi^ the house 
is fallen flat on the ground. 

Lalama ku-, to confess, to cry for 
mercy; used of extorted confes- 
sions. 

Lalamika hu-, to be made to cry 
out, to be quite beaten, to shout, 

' to scream. 

Lalika ku-^ to be slept upon. 

Lalika ku- =: Alika ku-, to inform, 
announce to. 

Lamiy pitch or tar. 

Lana kft-, to eat one another. 

Landa ku-, to be equal with. 

Langu, my. See -angu, 

Lao, their. See 'oo, 

taomu ^ctt-, to blamed ' Also Lau- 
fnii. 

Lapa kti-f or Bapa ku-, to be ra- 
venously hungry. 

Launi, sort, species, form. 

Laumu ^-, to blame. 

Lawa ku-y to come from (Mer.). 

Lavjana ku-, to blame, to scold. 

Laza ktt-, to lay down, to lay at its 
length. 
Kujilaza, to lie down. 

Lazim, of necessity. 



Lazima, surety, bail, necessity. 

Lazimisha ku-, to compel. 

Lazimu ku-, to be obligatory upon. 

-fo, his, hers, or its. 

Lea ku-, to bring up. 
AmelevHU'ifemat he is well bred: 

Lebeka, the humble manner of re- 
plying when called, often short- 
ened into Ebbe, or even Bee. 

Legea ku-y &o., &o. See Regea ku-, 
&o., &0. 

Lekea ku', to be opposite to, to tend 
to. 

Lekeza ku-, to put opposite to. 
Kulekeza bunduki, to level a gun 
at. 

Lekezana ku-, to agree, come to an 
agreement. 

Lelam, by auction. 

Lelimamaf a dance to the music 
made by beating buffalo horns. 

Lema or Dema, a kind of fish-trap. 

Lemaa, disfigurement. 
Mwenyi lemaa, disfigured by dis- 
ease. 

Lernbttka ku-, to be weak, limp. 

Lemea ku-, to oppress, to lie heavy 
upon, to overburden. 

Lengelenge, plur. malengdenge, a 
blister. 

Xenu, your. See -enu, 

Lenyi, See -enyi, 

• Bakuli lenyi mayayiy a basin with 
eggs in it. 

Leo, to-day. 

Leppe, drowsine^ss, dozes, snatches 
of sleep. 

Leeo, a handkerchief. 
Le$o ya kufutia XeamaW, a pocket- 
handkerchief. 

Leta kU', to cause to arrive at the 
place where the speaker is, to 
bring, to send, to fetch. 



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32B 



LEr 



LIN 



LeUa ku-'y to Ivring or tend to or for 
a person. 
Kuletewa^iohKW htoJigki or sent 
to one. 
Letu, aui. See -ttm. 
Letfuka ]ai-«to get sober. 
Lecya ku-, to intoxicate. 
KujUevyii, to make <nieself In- 
toxicated, to get dnink. 
Levyalevya &«•, to be giddy. 
Lewa ku-j to become drank. 
Lewaleuja ht»-9 to swing or sway 

about like a drunken man. 
Id, it is. ' 

Li- or I-, the prefix proper to pro- 
nouns and verbs governed by a 
singular noun of the class wliich 
makes its plural in ma-. 
-2i-, 1. The objective prefix tepte^ 
senting a singular noun of the 
class which makes its plural in 
ma-9 governed hy the verb to 
which it is prefixed. 

2. •U'-f or -ali', the sign of that 
past tense which denotes an 
action complete in past time. 

3. -li- sometimes represents the 
substantive verb, as in oitj^e, he 
who is ; nihali^ and I an i aZt, 
he is, or he being. 

Lia ku-t to breed (M.). 
Lia ku'f to eat for, &c. 
Chumba cha kulia, a room to eat 

in. 
Mkono toa kulia, right hand,l)eing 
the only one ever used to eat 
with. 
Lia ku-y to cry, to weep, to cry out; 
applied to the cries of animals 
generally. 4ifio> to give a 
sound. 
Kulia ngoa^ to weep for jealousy. 
Inalia tpazi, it sounda hollow« 



Xtboil^clothM. 

LiAOf whether it be» tbon^ 

Lihamuy solder. 

Lihani^ a cloth of % purtieiilar 

Idjmmt, a hone's bit [pattern. 

Lika ihi-, to be eaten, to beoome 

worn away, to he eataUa 
Likiza In^, to dismiss, to g;iTe leave 

to go, to release. 
Liko, plor. moKka, a landing-plaoe. 
LUia ku-f to weep for, to cry about. 
Lima Xpu-, to cultivate, to hoe. 
LimOy the feast made by the bride- 
groom on the first day of the 
wedding. 
Limaoy plur. maLimaOt a lemon. 
Limatia ku-^ to delay, to loiter (A.). 
Lhnbika ku-^ to leave till it is fit, to 
wait for fruit till it is ripe, or for 
water till it is collected in the 
dipping hole, to put Mide till it 
is fit 
Limbuka ku-, to taste the first of a 

new crop. 
Limbutha ku-, to bring to be tasted, 
Limiza ku-^ to make to hoe, &o. 
Linalokuja, which is coming. 
Linda ku-, to guard, to watch, to 
keep. 
Kvlinda ndege^ to scare birds from 
com, ^c. 
Lindit pl^r. mdlindif a pit, a deep 

place. 
Li'ndOf a watching place. 
Linga kvr, to swing the head round 

in dancing. 
Linga ku-, to make to match, or to 

be level. 
Lingana ku-, to match, to be level 

vrith or like one another. 
Lingana Arii-, to call, to invite (A.). 
Linganisha ku-, to make to match, 
to compare together. 



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hlM 



327 



Linif Wheat 

Linyi x^ Lenyi. 

Lipa hw, to pay (a <}Qb|>. 

Lipim hu-, to pay (a pcoraon). 

Lipiz<» Jm-^ to cause to be paid^ 

KiifQipita^ to take one's doe, to 
lepay caeseif. 

Kt^iUpiza htutm^ to ayeoge one- 
self, to take one's reyenge. 
XtNm^ a pieoe of doth put in 

behind an opMiing, a flap to 

obyiate the effeetx>f gaping at the 

fastening, a tongue. See Kanzu^ 
Liiha ku-, to feed. 
LitMtha ku-t to cause to be fed, to 

cause people to g^ve one food. 
Liwa Xbm-, to be eaten, to be worn 

away, to be consumed. 
Liwa^ a fragrant wood froei Ifoda- 

gaaoar, wbich is ground up and 

used as a cosmetic, and as an 

i^fiKoation to cure prickly heat; 

Madagascar sandal wood. 
Idwati, pluv. maUwoH, for M WaK 
Liza ka-f to sell to. [a governor. 
Liza ku'j to make to weep. 
Lizana Im-, to make one another 

weep, to cry together. 
'lOt thy, your. 

LOf "lo-, or -lo, which, representing 
a singular noun of the class 
which makes its plural in ma, 

Xe UU, wbatsoerer. 

Hdkufanya lo UfUj he has done 
BoUking at all (neno und^K 
stood). 
Loa iktt-, to get wet with rain, fte. 
Loga Xptf-, to bewitch, to practise 

magio (Mer.). 
Lo or Loo ! Huilo t An exclamatlbn 

of surprise; the nusftber of e*s 

increases in proportion to the 

amount of surprise. 



LoU^alL See-oie. 

Lo lot^^ whatsoever. 
Lozif an almond. 
Lvumga, a kind of bird. 
Luba^ a leeoh. 
Zc«^/ui, language* 
Lii2tt,apearL 

Lumba ku; to make a speech. 
Lumbika icM-, to gathw little by 

little, to pick up small pieoee one 

by one. 
Lumhvoi^ a chameleon (?). 
Luthiha^ flavour, savoun 
hava, sandal wood(?). 



H. 

M is pronounced as in En^sh. 

M before h generally represents 
an fi. W> stands sometimes ibr 
n&,as nyum^a mhaya, for nyu/mha 
n-baya ; sometimes it represents nw 
or nvy as mbingn for n-wingn, 

M is frequently either followed 
by w or it, or else has a sort of semi- 
vowel power, as if preceded by a 
half-rappressed «. 

The natives of Zanzibar very 
rarely say mu; they change it into 
um or rather 'm. Even Mweivyiezi 
Muungttj Almighty Qod, becomes 
^Mnytzimngu, 

It is important to write 'm, and 
not m only, where it represents mu 
it A bar w f(dtow, because otherwise 
the m might be supposed to coalesce 
with them. If any otlier consonants 
follow, it is immaterial, for m must 
then always stand for mii, and be 
capable of being pronounced as a 
separate syllable. 

Any verb may be turned into a 
snhtttantive by prefixing^ "ill er mw 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



328 



M- 



MAA 



to mean one wliodoes, &c., followed 
immediately by the object of the 
verb or the thing done. The last 
letter is eometimes changed into i 
and if ji is added to the substantive 
it gets the sense of one who habit- 
ually does what the verb signifies. 

If-, 'm, mtf-, or mw-, sign of the 
second person plural prefixed to 
verbs. 

If-, 'fn, mu, or mw-^ the singular 
prefix of those nouns which 
make their plural in toa^, if they 
denote animate beings, or in mi-, 
if they do not 

3f-, 'm-, mu; or miu-, the prefix 
proper for adjectives agreeing 
with a singular substantive de- 

• noting an animate being, or with 
any substantive beginning with 
mu'y 'm-, mw'y or ti-. 

-m-, -'m-, or -mto-f the objective 
prefix referring to a singular 
substantive denoting an animate 
being. 

if-, mu; or mw', the prefix proper to 
pronouns governed by the case in 

. -nif when it denotes within or in- 
side of. 

Ma-, the sign of the plural prefixed 
to substantives (and to adjec- 
tives agreeing with them) 
which have either no prefix 
in the singular or begin with J- 

All words intended to denote 
something specially great of 
its kind make their plural in 
wia-. 

Foreign words denoting a person, 
or an office, make their plural 
in ma-. In the vulgar dialect 



of Zanzibar nearly all fdrt^lgn 
words are mado plural by pre- 
fixing mo-. 
Many plural nouns in ma- must be 
translated as though they wer^ 
singulars, the true singular 
being used only to denote some 
one exceptionally large or im- 
portant instance. 
When followed by an t or e, the a 
of ma coalesces with it and 
forms a long e- sound, 
-fwa-. See -we-. 
Maaddmy while, during the time, 

when. 
Maadin = Madini. 
Maadin ya kinywa, what rises 
into the mouth without inter- 
nal cause, water-brash. 
MaafilcanOt bargain, estimate, es- 
teem. 
McMgano, contract, agreement^ 

covenant. 
Maagizo, commission, direction, re^ 

commendation. 
Madkuli, diet; food. 
Maaiamy fixed, recognizable = hilt- 

chotamhuUkana, 
Maana, meaning, reason, cau8&, 
sake. 
Kutia maananif to remember, 
think about. 
Maandcui, biscuits, cakes, &o^, also 

pastry, preserves. 
ifoandtA^o, writing, place for putting 
out food, the act of sprecidinsr a 
meal, a description, things writ^ 
ten. 
Maandishi, things which are writ- 
ten, put out» set in order, &o. 
MaangukOy ruin, fall, ruins. 
Maa*mzi, judgment. 
MaarifOy kno^led^. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



HAA 



MAH 



329 



Maanlf^ underBtood, I understand. 
JlfooM, rebellion. 
Mcuizcdy while. 
McMzimo, a loan. 
Mabaya, bad. See haya, 
Mabakiaf the remnant, what lis or 

was left 
Mabichi, raw. See -hichi, 
MaJbiwi^ heaps, piles of sticks and 

rubbish. See Bi'ijbi', 
Mdbovu, rotten. See -ovu, 
Machache, few. See -chaohe^ 
Machela, a litter, a palanquin. 
Mach'zOf a game, games. 
Mcuiko (eing. jieho), eyes. 

Yu machoy he is awake. 

Mdelu) ya wcUu fjoavnli, or Mazitoa 
ya watu watDili, dragon's blood. 

Macho ya Juct, the sun-rising, 
east. 
Maehukio, hatred, abomination, dis- 
gust 
Machwa ya Jua, the sun-setting, 

west. 
Madahat & graceful manner. 
Madanganya^ deception, trick, 
ifodarofea, arrangements, provision. 
Madefuy beard. 
ifa(2etm, a kiad of tice. 
Madifiit the fibrous enyelope of the 

cocoa-nut leaves. 
Madiniy metal, a mina 
Madoadoa, spotted. 
Madogovi, a kind of drumming, &c. , 

used in exorcisms. 
Maficiho, concealment. 
Mafu, death, dead things. 

Maji mafu, neap tides. 
MafuOy a chest complaint causing 

a cough, a cold in the head, a 

stoppage in the nose. 
Mafundisho, instruction, precept, 
direction. 



' Jfa/undo, cross-beams in a dhow, to 
steady the mast, &c. 

Maftmgvliay unfastening. 
Mafungulia ng*ombe^ about 8 a.bi. 

Ma/upiy short. See -/tfpi. 

Ma/utho, steam from a pot of ma- 
JarU, used as a yapour-bath in 
fever, &c. 

Mafuta, oil, fat. 
MafiUa ya uia, semsem oil. 
Mafuta ya mbarika^ castor oil. 

Ma/uu, crazy, cracked. 

Ma/ya, Monfia. 

Ma/ya (sing, jt/ya), the three stones 
used to put a pot over the fire 
upon. 

Magadiy rough soda. 

Magamba, scales of a fish. 

Maganda, peel, husks. 

Magarasa, 8, 9, and 10 in cards 
(not used in playing). 

Mageuziy changes. 

Ma>ghofira, remission of sins. 

Maghrebbif or Ma>garibij or Ma^ 
f^an&«, sunset, the sunset prayers 
of the Mohammedans, the west, 
Morocco. 

Maghrib ayuk, N.W. 

Maghrib akrab, 8.W. 

Maghvba, the winding of a stream. 

Mago, See Kago, 

Magongonene. See Kantti, 

Ma^ugu, weeds, undergrowth. 

Magundalo, an instrument of tor- 
ture, in which the victim is sus- 
pended, and weights being at- 
tached to him, he is jerked up 
and down. Used for extracting 
evidence. 

Mahaba, love, fondness. 

Mahala or Mahali^ place, places. 
Mahali pa, in place of, inatead of. 
Mahali pote, everywhere. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



S30 



HAH 



HA£ 



Mdhana (Ar.), ezoestiTe worry. 
Maharazi, a shoemaker'B bwL 
Maharif dowry paid by the liusband 

to the wife's relations. 
Mahatij a carpenter's tool used fbr 

marking lines to a measure. 
Mdhatamuj^ shawl worn round the 

waist. 
Mahindit Indian com, maize. 
Mahiri, olerer, quick. 
Mahoka, devil, evil spirits, madness. 
Maisha^ life, oontinuanoe. 

Maisha na milder now and lor 
ever. 
MaUi = Mayiti, a dead body, a 

corpse. 
Majahdba, dock for ships. 
Majana (?), honeycomb. 
Majani, grass. The Bingular,jam, 
means a leaf. 

Bangi ya majanif green. 

Majani ya puHini, gra^^B wort, 
samphire (?). 
Majartbu or Me^erihu^ trial, tempta- 
tion. 
MajazOf reward. 
Majengo, building materials. 
Majeribu = Majaribu, 
Majeruhi, wounded. 
Maji, water, liquid, juice, sap. 

Maji maji, wet. 

Kama maji, fluently. 

Maji kuja>a na kupwcL, the tides. 

Maji ya pepo^ Maji ya haridi, 
ilaji matamu^ fresh water. 

Maji ma/u, neap-tides. 

Mc^i a bakarif blue^ sea-water 
oolour. 

Maji a moto, hot water, a large 
yellow kind of ant which makes 
itsnest in trees. 
Majibu, an answer. 
MajUiOf ooming, or mode of o(^ng. . 



Maj^pa, revenge. 

Majira^ time. 

Mdjiray course of a ship. 

Majonsif grief for a loss. 

Majori, an elder. 

Majunij a cs^e made of opium, S:e,, 

very intoxicating. 
Majutioy regret, sorrow for some- 
thing done. 
MajutOf regret, repentance. 
MakcMy ooal, coals, embers. 

Makaa ya miti^ charooaL 
MakdkUao, oodnroachce ; applied m 

dirision to the Malagazy colony 

in Zanzibar. 
MakaJi, fierce. See 4caU, 
Ma^nadili, places in the stern of 

native craft, the quarter galleries 

of a dhow. 
Makanit dwelling, dwelling-place. 
MaJcaOf dwelling, dwelling-piaoe. 
Makasif scissors. 

Makatazo, prohibition, objections. 
Makaiibu, agreement. 
MakavUf dry. 8ee 'kavu, 
Makazi, dwelling. 
Makengeza, squinting, a squint. 
Makiy thickness. 

Nguo ya maki, stout cloth. 
Makimhiliot refuge, place to run to. ' 
MaJcindano, objections. 
Makinij leisure, quietness. 
MakiHy a thumb-cleat in the side of 

a dhow. 
Makosay fault, faults, mistakes, sins. 
Makoza (obscene) testicles. 
Maksai, a bullock, castrated. 
Makubwa or Makuu^ great. Bee 

'kubwa and 'kuu. 
Makukuuj old. 6ee -Zct^tcu. 
Maktdi, diet. 

Makuiya^ food [Tumbatu]. 
Makumbi, cocoa-nut fibre. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



MAK 

Mahuniibi fa popoo, areoa-mift 

husk. 
Mahwmin fa wumba, eoeoa-fibre 
cleaned for mattreaiesy &e. 

Mdkumif tens. 
Makumi mwmUy twenty. 

Makupaoy the shearei at &e mas^. 
head of a dhow, through which 
the AetieA lead& 

Makusttnyiko, plaoe of assembly, 
assembly. 

Maku8udi\ {Murpoise^ design^ on pur- 
pose, designedly. 

MiakutanOy assemblage* 

Makuti, leaves of the coooa>nut tree. 
Makuti ya vtun^y leaflets made 
. up for thatching. 
Makuti ya kwoflba, leaTOS plaited 

for fences. 
Makuti ya pande^ half leaves 
plaited f(»r ll^oes or zoofs. , 

Makwa, the notching and shaping 
at the end of « pole to reoeire 
^e wall-plate of a house. 

Malaika (plur. of Laika), the hair 
on the hands and arms. 

Malaika, an angel, angels. A baby 
is often called malaika, 

Malaki or Malkiy a king. 

MaXcdOj sleeping'plaoe. 

Malazi, things to lie upoi. 

Malazie = Mxvraihie, 

MaleU, orchilla weed. 

Maleleziy changes of the monsoon, 
time of the easterly and westerly 
winds. 

Maknga^ a singer. 

Mali, goods, property, riches. Pro- 
perly a singular noun making 
no change for the plural, but 
treated. jBometimes as a plural in 
w»a-. 

Malidadi, a dandy. 



MAK 



381 



Mal^d Ar»-, to b^n n building, a 
boat, or a house. 

MaUmio, master, navigator. In ihh 
eanoes on the Zambezi the steers- 
man is called malimo, 

Mdtiviwengu, business, afifkifS, mat- 
ters of this life. 

Mdlindi, Melinda. 

Malio ya kiko, the bubbling sound 
of the water when a native pipe is 
being smoked. 

Maliza ku-, to complete, to finish. 

Malki or Malaki, a king. 

MaXkia, a queen. 

Mama, mother. 
Mama voa kambo, stepmother. 

Mamba, a crocodile. ' 

Mamha, the scales of a fish (M.). 

Mambo, eiroumstanoec, afiairs, 
things (plur. of Jambo). 

Mamiye (Mer.)» his mother. 

Mamlaka, power, authority, domi- 
nion. 

Mamoja, ones, same. 
Mamoja pia, it u all one, I don't 
care. 

Mana = Mwana, 

Manamize^ a name tot a hermit 
orab. 

Manane. 

Utiku wa manane, the dead of 
night. 

Manda, a loaf. 

Mandasi, a pudding. See Maan^ 
dasi. 

Maneikane, myrrh. 

Maneno, language, message, bmri- 
ness, matten, things (plur. of 
Neno), 
Maneno yafumha, deak sayings. 
Maneno ya Kiunguja, Ao., the 
l^gnage of Zanzibar, &o. 

Manga, Arabia. 



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332 



MAN 



MAB. 



Mangaribi^ sunset. See MaghrML 

Mangi^ many. Bee -ngi. 

MangiH or Mankiriy a crofls-pieoe 

at the Bows of a dhow for fastening 

the tack of the saiL 
MangOf a round hard black stone 

used to grind with. 
Mang'ung*um, secretly, in fearful 

expectation. i 

Mani (obscene), semen. 
Mani, a weight, about three rattel. 
ManJanOy turmeric. 

Bangi a.manjanOy yellow. 
Mankiri, See Mangiri. 
if anoZao (sing, noleo), the ring where 

the blade of a knife issues from 

the handle. 
Manukoy smell, scent. 
Manuhato, scent, good smells. 
Manyang*amba, flour balls in a 

sweet Muce. 
Manyiga, a hornet. 
Manyoya^ feathers of a bird, hair of 

a goat. 
Manyunyo, a shower, a sprinkle.. 
MaornboUza, loud wailing. 
Maomvi, begging. 
Jlfoofult, taste. 

Maondoleo, removing, taking away, 
ilfaon^ezt, conversation, amusement. 
McumgOf the back. 
Maonjiy tasting, trying. 
Maoteoy growth from old nUama 

stools. 
Maotwey Mayotte. 
MapalilOf hoeing-up time, hoeing 

between the^crops. 
Mapanay broad. See 'pana. 
MapatanOy agreement, conspiracy. 
ilfajE»6ma, early. 
Mapendknoy mutual affection. 
Mapendeziy pleasing things, the 
being pleased. 



Mapendoy affection, esteem. 
Mapenziy liking, affection, pleasure, 

love, things which are loved. 
Mapepeia^ a preparation of imma- 
ture rice. 
Mapiganoy a fight, a battle. 
MapiiUKty silliness, dotage. 
Mapoeoy remedy, healing things. 
Mapooztty things which do not serve 

lieir purpose, fruit which drops 

prematurely. 
MapultUuy the wildemess. 
Mapumbuy testicles, the scrotum. 
Maray a'time, sometimes, at once. 

Ma/ra mqjay once, at once. 

Mara mhUiy twice. 

Mara ya piliy the second time. 

Mara nyingi, often. 

Mara hwa maray from time to 
time. 

Mara ngapi f how many times, 
how often ? 
3far(M*u/t», double. 
Marahaba, thanks, very well, wel- 
come. 
Marakardka, chequered, spotty. 
Marcuharasha, a sprinkle, sprink^ 

ling. 
Marasliiy scents. 

Mara^hi mawaridi or ya mtomari, 
rose-Water. 
Marathi, disease, sickness. 
Marathiey sociableC 

Suuckiburiy mardtJiie mimiy I am 
not above fraternizing. 
Mare/Uy long. See 'refu, 
Maregeoy return, reference. 
Marehemuy that has obtained mercy; 

deceased. 
Marejeoy return. 
MarfxMy a desk, book-rest. 
Marhaha = Marahaha, 
Marhamuy ointment. 



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MAR 



MAT 



333 



Marigelt, a large pot 

Marijani^ red coral, imitation coral, 
gum copal. 
Marijani ya fethaluka, the true 
red coral. 

MarikcL, a person of the same age. 

Marihiy Merka, a town on the So- 
mauli coast. 

f£arikahu = Marikebu = MerikebUf 
a ship. 

Marindi, the little flap of heads 
worn hy a string round the loins 
hy native women. 

MarUaa, shot, small shot. 

Marithawa^ abundance, plenty of 
space, material, &o. 

MarizcUm, a spout 

Marra = Mara, time, times. 

MarufukUj a forbidden thing, pro- 
hibited. 
Kupiga marufukUf to give public 
notice against 

Marungu (M.), biliousness. 

Masahaba, the companions of Mo- 
hammed. 

Masafii purity. 

Masaibuj calamity. 

Masakaaa (Yao), an encampment. 

Matakini, or Maskini, or Meskini, 
poor, a poor pei son. 

Maaalkheiriy good afternoon. 

Masameho, pardon. 

Masangoy wire. 

Jfa«an«/f , a kerchief used for throw- 
ing over the shoulders, &o. 

Masazo, what is left, remainder. 

Mashairi, verses, poetry. 
Shairi, one line of verse. 

Mcuhaka, doubts, difficulty. 

Mashambaf the country. Plural of 
Shamba, a plantation. 

McuhapOy sediment 

Matihariki, the east, easterly. 



Mashendea, rice which is watery 

and imperfectly cooked. 
MashindanOf a race. 
Mcuhindo, 

Kvoenda kwa mathindOf to trot. 
Mashtaka^ accusation. 
Mashua, a boat, boats, a launch. 
Ma^thUr or McuhuhuTf remarkable, 

notable. 
Mashuiumio, reproaches, revilings. 
Mashutumu, reviling. 
Mashuzi, breaking wind. 

Faihili ya punda ni mashuzi = 
You cannot make a silk purse 
out of a sow*s ear. 
Ma»ta, 

Kwenda moHOf to walk up and 
down. 
Masika, the rainy season, t.6., March, 

April, and May. 
Masikani, a dwelling. - 
Masikini = Masakinu 
Masingizio, slander. 
Masiwa, the Comoro Islands and 

Madagascar. 
Masizi, grime, soot, &c,, on the 

bottom of cooking pots. 
Maskini = Maaakini. 
MasomhOf a girdle of cloth. 
MasH = Miariy Egypt. 
Masriif, provisions. 
Masuay giddiness. 

Nina nutsua, I am giddy. 
Masukuo, a whet-stone. 
MoMitOy reproaches. 
Mata^ bows and arrows, weapons. 
Mataajahu, wonders, astonishment. 
MatakatifUt holiness. 
MaCakOf the seat. 
Matakwa, request, want, desire. 
MatambatfUf the side, a man's side. 
Mata'mko, pronunciation. 
Matamut sweet. See -tamti. 



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S34 



MAT 



MAV 



Matamvudy fringe. 

Matandiko, bedding, habere, t. hat 

is spread. 
Matana, leprosy. 
Maianff<»i large mats, sails. 
Kukaa matanga^ to keep a fbrmal 
mouwiing, generally ioi trom. 
five to ten daysw 
Kuondoa matanga, to put an end 

to the mouiming. 
Matanga kati^ wind abefttil. 
Matangamano, a crowd. 
Matatay a tangle, an emlM'oilment. 

KfUia matata, to tangle. 
NatayOy reproaches, revilings. 
Mate, spittle. 
Mategemeo, props, a prop*, support, 

protection. 
Matekay spoil, booty, prisoners. 
Matembezi, a walk. 
MatengOf the outriggers of a canoe. 
MateiOy afflictions, adversity. 
Mateto, quarrel. 
Mathabahu := Mathbah. ^ 
Mathdbuha, a victim, a sacrifice. 
MathdhaM or Mathkdb, sect, pelrsua- 

sion. 
Mathura, mischief, harm. 
Mathbah, an altar. 
MatheJiebu, manners, habits, customs, 

= Mathahdbi (?). 
Matilo, lift from the after part oi a 
yard to the mast-head of a dhow. 
McUindi, half-gifown Indian corn. 
Maiindo, a slaughter-house, a place 

for killing beasts. 
Matitl 

Kwenda kwa iMLtlti, to tool. 
Matlaa, the east wind. 
Mattaa ayuky N.E. 
Matlaa akrah, 8.E. 
"Mailai = Matlaa, 
MalOf eyes (M.). 



Matoaziy cymbals. 
MatokeOj going-out places. 

Matokeo ya hari, potes of the 
skin. 
Matomoko, a custard apple. 
Matubvjitubioi, mumps. 
Matukano, filthy and insulting ex- 
pressions, such as^ 

^wana kumanyoko, 

Mwana wa hararau, 

Kazoakazoa, 

Matukio, accidents, things which 

happen. 
Matumaini, confidence, hope. 
Maturnhatoi, fteeh coral, cut firom 

below high-water mark: it is 

used for roofs and where lightness 

is an object. 
Maturnbo, the entrails. ' 
Matupu, bare. See -tupn. 
Maturuma, stifieners put on a door, 

the knees in a dhow, i^lbs of a 

boat, &c. 
Matusuy bad and abusive language. 
MatuvumUf accusation, blame. 
Maua (plur. of CTo), flowers. 
MatUizOf questions, questioning. 
Maumivu, pain. 

Maungoy the back, the backbone. 
Mauthttrti, unable. 
Mautif death. 
MavaOj dress, dressing. 
Mavazi, dress, clothes. Plural of 

Vazii, 
Mavii dung, droppings, eseretneiit. 

Mavi ya ehunui, dlross. 
Mavilio. See Vilio, 
Mavulio, cloth'^s cast oflf and given 
to another, clothes wolrn by one 
who is not their own^. 
Macunda, one who btieaki ervry- 

tbing he has to do with. 



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MAV 



MBt 



835 



Mavundevundef broken, scattered 

clouds. 
Xtavumit hum of voices. 
Mavuno, harvest, reaping. 

Mavuno ya nyuki, honeycomb. 
Mavuzi (plur. of Vuzi)^ the hailr of 

the pubes. 
Mawazi, clear. See ioazi. 
Mawe (plur. of Jtiwe), stones, stone. 

Ya mawe, of stone. 

Mawe ya husagia, a hand-mill. 

Mawe, a vulgar. ejaculation, rub- 
bish! 
Ma'Unlif both. 
Mawimbi (plur. of Wimbi), surf, a 

sea. 
Mawindo, game, produce of hunt- 
ing. 
Mayayi, See Yayi, 
Mayiti, a dead body. 
« Maytbgwa, a green vegetable cooked 

like spinach. 
Mazao, firuit, produce. 
Mazikoy burial-place. 
Mazinga ovfibo, sleight of hand 

(Comoro). 
Mazin^iwa, a siege. 
Mazingombwej magic, witchcraft. 
Mazishi, burial clothes, furniture, 

Maziwa, milk, (plur. of Ziwa) 
breasts, lakes. 

Maziwa mabivu, cutdled milk. 

Maiiwa ya ^atu wavjiH, dragon*» 
blood. 
Mazoeat custom. 

MtxzaezOy habits, customs, practice. 
Mazoka, evil spirits. 
Mazu, a kind of banami. 
Mazumgu^mzo, atnusetnent, oonter- 

Mbaliy far off, separate. 
Mhali mbaliy distinct, different. 



PoteUa mbali/ Go and bo hanged ! 
TumwuliB mbaU, let us kill him 

out of the way. 
When used with the applied 
forms of verbs, it means that 
the person or thing is by that 
means got rid of, or put out of 
the way. 
Mbango, a bird with a parrot-like 
beak, a person with projecting 
teeth. 
MbanOy a circumcising instrument. ' 
Mbau (plur. of Ubau), planks. 
*Mbau, plur. mibaUy planking, tim- 
bers. 
*MbaruH, plur. mfbarutiy a weed 
with yellow flowers and thistle- 
like leaves powdered with white. 
MbastMy giddiness. 
Mbata, a cocoa-nut which has dried 
in the shell so as to rattle, with- 
out being spoilt. 
Mbatif wall-plate. 
MbavUy ribs, side. 

Mbavuniy alongside. 
Mbawa, wing feathers. See Vbawa. 
Mbayaniy clear, manifest. 
Mbayuwayuy a swallow (A.). 
Mbega, a kind of monkey, black, 
with long white hair on the 
Mbegu, seed, seeds. [shoulders. 
*Mb€Ja, 
*Mbeja ^a kaniy young man of 
strength. 
MbeUy before, in front, furthet on. 
Mhele yay before, in front of. 
Kiv6ndelea mbeUy to go fbrwaid. 
Mbeleni, in the front. This word 
is used in Zanzit)at with an 
obscene sense. • 
Mbeyu :^ Mbegu, seed. 
Mbila, plur. mibibOf a eashew-nut 
tree. 

z 2 



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336 



MBI 



MOH 



Mhiehiy fresh. See 'hiM, 
Mbigiliy small thorns, briers. 
Mbili, two. See -iriZt. 

Mbili mhiliy two by two. 
JIfbilivjtU, the wrist (?). 
MbingUy plur. of Uwingu^ the skies, 

the heavens, heaven. 
Mhio, running, fast. 

Kupiga mhio, to run, to gallop. 
Mbioniba, mother*s sister, aunt. 
Mlnrambi zaJeo^ be comforted. A 

Swahili greeting to one who has 

just lost a relative. 
Mbisif parched Indian com. 
MbiUf a proclamation, public notice. 
Mbivu, ripe. See -bivu and 'toivu, 
Mhizi, 

Kupiga mbizi^ to dive. 
Mhoga, vegetables, greens. 

Mhoga mnanaat a kind of mint. 
*Mhoga, plur. miboga, a pumpkin 

plant. 
Mholeo^ manure. 
Mbonaf Why? for what reason? 

Used especially with negatives. 
Mhoni ya jtchOf the apple of the 
Mbono^ castor-oil plant (?). [eye. 
3f/>oo, the penis. 
Mboto, a climbing plant yielding a 

superior kind of oil. 
MbovUf bad, rotten, corrupt See 

-otu and -bovu, 
3f //u = ImhUf a mosquito. 
Mbui, a buffalo*s horn, which is 

beaten as a musical instrument. 
Mhnja, a swell, dandy, gracefully. 

Kusema mhuja, to say elegantly. 
Mbuluy a crocodile (?). 
Mhunguy a hurricane (Kishenzt). 
Mbuni, an ostych. 
Mbuyuy plur. mihuyuy a baobab 
tree, a calabash tree. They are 
generally looked upon as haunted. 



Mbftzif a goat, goats. 
Mbuzi ya hukunia nazi, an iron 
to scrape cocoa-nut for cooking 
with. 
Mbtoaj a dog, dogs. 
Mbioa wa mwitu, a jackal, 
jackals. 
Mhwayiy wild, fierce. 
Mhwe, little pebbles, little white 

stones larger than changarawL 
Mbioeha, a fox. 
Mbweu, eructation, belching. 
Mcha^ one wha fears. 

Mcha Jlfunn^u, a God-fearing man. 
Mchafu, filthy. 

Mehago, the pillow end of the bed. 
Mchahaclio, footsteps (?). 
Mchana or Mtana, daylight, day- 
time, day. 
Mchanga or Mtanga, sand. 
Mchaioi, plur. wachawi^ a wizard. 
M'-hayi, lemon grass. 
Mche, plur. Miche, a plant, a slip, a 

seedling. ^ 

Mrhe, a kind of wood much used in 

Zanzibar. 
Mchekeshaji, plur. teachekealiaju a 
merry body, one who is alwa3-8 
laughing. 
Mchele, cleaned grain, especially 

rice. 
Mchelema, watery. 
Mcheshi, a merry fellow, a laugher. 
Mchezo, plur. michezoy a game. 
Mchezo wake huyUf it is thisman's 
turn to play. 
Mchi, plur. michi, oiMH, plur. mitt, 
the pestle used to pound or to 
clean corn with. Also a SiTew 
of paper to put groceries in (,?). 
Mchicha, plur. michicha^ a common 
spinach -like plant used as a 
vegetable. 



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MCH 



MEK 



337 



Mchtkichi, plur. michikichit the 
palm-oil tree. 

Mchiliziy plur. michilizif the eaves. 

MchirOy plur. wachiro, a mangouste. 

MchoohorOj passage, an opening be- 
tween. 

Mchofu = Mchovu, 

Mchongomay plur. micTiongoma, a 
thorny shrub with white flowers 
and a small black edible fruit. 

MchorochorOy a rapid writer. 

MchovUf plur. wachovu, weary, lan- 
guid, easily tired, tiring, tire- 
some. 

Mchuniba, a sweetheart, one who 
seeks or is sought by another 
in marriage. 
Mke mchumbat widow (?). 

MchumhulurUf a kind of fish. 

Mchunga (or Mtunga), plur. wa- 
chungay a herdman, a groom, nne 
who has the care of animaJs. 

Mchungajiy a herdsman, shepherd. 

Mchuruzi, plur. Wachuruziy one who 
keeps a stull, a trader in a very 
small way. , 

Mchuziy otMtuziy curry, g^avy, soup. 

Mchtca, white ants. 

Mda or MucUiy a space of time, the 
space, &o. 

Mday plur. mida (?), a piece of plank 
propped up to support a frame- 
work, &c. = *munda. 

Mdago, a kind of weed. 

MdcUasinij cinnamon. 

Mdardkaniy an Indian stuff. 

Mdaioari. 
He mdatoariy the softer Arabic hy 
the he. 

Mdeli = Mdila. 

Mdila, plur. midtlay a coffee-pot, . 

MdomOy plur. midomo, the lip. 
Mdomo wa ndege, a bird's beak. 



Mduduy, plur. waduduy an insect. 
Mduduy a whitlow. 
MdukuOy a push in the cheek. 
Mdumu, a mug. 

Me-y see Ma^. Many words are pro- 
nounced with ma- at Mombas, 
and with me- at Zanzibar. 
-me-y th6 sign of the tense which 
denotes an action complete at 
the moment of speaking, an- 
swering to the English tenso 
with have. Sometimes it is 
used to denote an action com- 
plete at the time referred to, 
and must then be translated by 
had. 
This tense may often be used 
as a translation of the past 
participle. 
Tu hayiy ax) amekufa f Is he 

alive or dead ? 

Most Swahili verbs denoting a 

state have in their present 

tense the meaning of entering 

that state or becoming, and in 

the -Twe- tense the meaning of 

having entered or being in it. 

In some cases the -me- tense is 

best rendered by another verb. 

Anavaay he is putting on, amevaay 

he wears. 
In some dialects the me is pro- 
nounced ma. 
Mea ku-y to grow, to be growable. 
MedUUy tortoiseshell. 
Mega ku-y to break a piece, or gather 
up a lump and piit it in one*8 
mouth, to feed oneself out of the 
common dish with one's hand, as 
is usual in Zanzibar. 
Mekameka ku-y to glitter, to shine. 
Meko (plur. of Jiko)y a fireplace. 
Mekoni, a kitchen, in the kitchen. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



838 



MKM 



MFU 



MemHuha hu- (A,)* to aparkle. 
Mende, a cockroach, cockroacbe*. 

Also a slang term for a rupee. 
Mengi or Mangi, many. See -n^*. 
Meno (plur. of Jfino), teeth. 
Menomeno, battlements. 
Menya hu-y to shell, to husk, to 
Menya few-, to beat (Kiyao). Qieel. 
MerikebUf a ship, ships. 
•Merikehu ya seHkalit a ship be- 
longing to the government. 
Merikehu ya mizinga or manowari, 

a man-of-war. 
Merikebuya toja,a merchant ship. 
Merikehu ya milingote mitatu, a 

full-iigged ship. 
Merikehu ya milingote mivjili na 

nuaau, a barque. 
Merikehu ya dohaan or ya moshi, 
a steamship. 
IHerima, the mainland of Africa, 
especially the coast south of 
Zanzibar. 
Wamerimaf people who live on 

the coast south of Zanzibar. 
Kimerima, the dialect of Swahili 
8p6ken on the coast south of 
Zanzibar. 
Merimeia ku', to glitter, to shine. 
Meshmaa, a candle, candles. 
Mesiki or Meski, musk, scent 
Meskiti = Moskiti^ a mosque. 
Metameta, to shine, to glitter. 
Methili or MethaUt ^^^i & par^blQ. 
Meza, a table. 
Meza ku't to swallow. 
Mezawwereh. 

Waraka mezawwereh, forgery, 
Mfaa, centre piece of a door. 
Mfalms, plur. wafalme, a king. 
Mfano, plur. mifajw, a likeness, 
Mfano wa maneno^ a proverb, a 
parable. 



M/mnyi biashara, plur. wafanyiy a 

man who does busine&is» a trader, 

a merchant. 

Mfarijiy plur. wafariji, a comforter. 

Mfathiliy plur. vja/athUi, one who 

does kindnesses. 
Mfelejiy a water channel. 
MfiUsika, a bankrupt. 
Mfinangi, plur. wafinangiy a potter. 
Mfineiiiy plur, mifinefsiy a jack fruit 

tree. 
il//M, plur. wa/tt, a dead person. 
Mfuaj plur. wafua, a smith, a 
worker in metal. 
Jf/tta chumat a blacksmith. 
JW/wa /ei^, &c., a silversmith, Ac 
Mfuasiy plur. wafuasi, a follower, a 

retainer, a hanger-on. 
Mfuko, plur. mifukOy 9^ bag, a 

pocket. 
Mfuma, plur. wafumja, a weaver. 
Mfumhatiy plur. nw/um6a</, the side- 
pieces of a bedstead. 
Mfunguo, a name applied to nine of 
the Arab months. 
Mfunguo wa mosi, is the Arab 

*8haowah 
Mfunguo wa pili^ is the Arab 

Th'il Kaofiia, 
Mfunguo wa tatu, is the, Arab 

ThHl Hajj, 
Mfunguo wa *nne, is the Arab 

Moharram. 
Mfunguo wa tanOf is the Arab 

Safr, 
Mfunguo wa sita, is thQ Arab 

Rabia al aowal. 
Mfunguo wa fdba, is the Arab 

Rahia aJ akhr. 
Mfunguo wa nune, is the Arab 

Jemad al aowal. 
Mfunguo wa kenda, is the Arab 
Jemnad aJL akhr^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



MFU 



MiK 



8S9 



Mfunguo uoa is often so pro- 
nounced as to Bouud like 
Fungua, 
The other three months, Rajab, 
Shaahan, and Uamathan^ keep 
tiieir Arabic names. 
M/uOf plur. mi/uo, a stripe, 

Karatasi ya mifuo^ ruled paper. 
Mfupat plur. mifupa, a bone. 
MfutOt winning five games out of 

six at cards. 
Mfyozij an abusive person. 
MgalOt plur. wagala, a Galla. 
Mganda, plur. miganda, a sheaf or 

bundle of rice. 
Mganga, plur. toagangay a medicine 
man, a doctor, a dealer in white 
magic. 
Mgao, a place near Cape Delgado. 
MgaiDOt a deal in card-playing. 
Mgenit plur. "^ageni^ a guest, a 

foreigner. 
Mghadf a horse^s canter. 

Kwenda mghad^ to canter. 
Mgine = MtcinginCy another, other. 
Mgogoroy an obstacle in a road, a 
stumbling-block. In slang, a 
nuisance, crush, worry. 
Mgoja or Mngoja, plur. wagojay one 
who waits, a sentinel. 
Mgoja mlangOf a door-keeper, a 
porter. 
Mgomha, plur. migomba, a banana 

tree. 
Mgomhfcey buirs-mouth shell. Cassis 

rubra, 
Mgomvit plur. wagomviy a quarrel- 
some person, a brawler, 
Mgonda^ a slaveys clout. 
Mgongo, plur. migongot the baok* 
the backbone. 
Nyumha ya mgongo^ a penthouse 
roof. 



Mgonjiva or Mgonjua., plur. w<^g<m- 
jvmy a sick person, an inyalid. 

Mgete = MUnqotei a mast 

MgMnda^ cultivated land, 

Mgunya, plur, Wagunya^ a native of 
the country between Siwe and 
the Juba. 

MgurugurUf plur. wagurugurii^ a 
large kind of burrowing lizard. 

Mguuj plur. miguUf the leg from the 

knee downward* the foot 

Kwenda kwa migutky to walk. 

Mh; See Muh. 

MhaJbori, See Kamu, 

Mhimiliy plur. mihilimi, a girder, i^ 
beam, a bearing post, a prop, 

Mkulu, a large tree lizard. 

Mhunzi, plur, wdhunzi^ a black- 
smith. 

3ft-, plural prefix of substantives, 
and of adjectives agreeing with 
them, which begin in the singular 
with m-, or 'm-, mu-j or mw-, and 
do not denote animate beings. 

-m», an objective suffix denoting . 
the first person singular. This 
suffix is poetical, not nsed i« 
Zanzibar. 

Mia, a hundred. 
Miteen^ two hundred. 

MialamUf the ends of a piece of 
cloth. 

Miashiri^ pieces lying fore and aft 
to receive the stepping of the 

Miayo, yawning, a yawn. [niapt 

Miba or Miiha^ thorns. 

Mibau^ timbers, 

Mifuoy bellows. 

Mikdka, marriage. 

Mikavnlbe. 
Kupiga mikamhe, in bathing, to 
duck down and throw overonf 
leg, striking the water with iU 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



840 



MIL 



MJU 



Mila, a custom. 
MUamba, 

Kwenda mUamha, to go round by 
a new road to avoid war or 
some other obstacle, to strike 
out a new way. 
Milele, eternity. 

Ya mildey eternal. 
Milhoiy jins, which having been 

merely singed, not killed by the 

missiles of the angels, lurk in 

by-places to deceive and harm 

people. 
Miliki = Milki. 
Miliki ku', to reign, to possess. 
Milkif kingdom, possession, pro- 
perty. 
Milurr^t a speech, an over-long 

speech. 
Mimha, pregnancy. 

Kuwa na mimha or Kuchukua 
mimha, to be pregnant. 

Kuharibu mimha, to miscarry. 
Mimbaray the pulpit in a mosque. 
- MiTni, I, me. 

Mimina ku-, to pour, to pour over. 
Miminika ku-, to be poured over, to 

be spilt, to overflow. 
Mingiy many. See -ingi. 
Mingine, others. See -ingtne. 
Mini (Ar.), right. 

Mini wa shemaliy right and left. 
Minyonoaf a kind of flowering 

acacia. 
Miongoni mwa, in respect of, as to, 

on the part of, from among. 
Miraha^ mubcles. See Mrciba. 
Miritaa, shot. 
MiBhithari, crooked. 
Misko^ Russia, 
itftm, Egypt. 
Miteen, two hundred. 
Miunsif a whistling. 



Miusit black. See -eusi. 

Miwa (plur. of Mua\ sugar-canes. 

Miwalif midribs of a palm-leaf. 

Miwani, spectacles. 

Miyaa, leaves for making mats. 

Miye, me, it is I. 

Mizanit balances, steelyard, scales. 

JIfm, roots (M.). 

Miziziy roots, rootlets. 

Mja na maji, one who has come 
over the sea, a foreigner. ALjo, 
a slave. 

Mjakaziy plur. wajakazi^ a w«man 
slave. 

Mjangay Bembatooka bay in Mada- 
gascar. 

Mjangao, melancholy, silent sorrow. 

MJanja, plur. toajanjaf a cheat, a 
shameless person. 

Mjaniy a widow. ^ 

Mjaairi, plur. wajasiri, a bold ven- 
turesome man. 

Mjaasim, inquisitive. 

Mjeledif a whip. 

Mjemha, a plough (?). 

Mjiy plur. miji, a town, a city, a 
village, the middle part of a piece 
of cloth. 

Mji, the uterus. 

Mjiari, plur. mijiari^ tiller ropes. 

Mjiguuy plur. mijiguUf large long 
legs. 

Mjinga, plur. vajinga, a raw new 
comer, a simpleton; applied es- 
pecially to newly arrived slaves, 
ignorant, inexperienced. 

Mjisikafiri, a kind of lizard. 

Mjoli^ plur. wajoli, a fellow-servant. 
Mjomha, plur. wajombaf uncle. 
Mjugu, 
Mjugu nycusa^ ground-nuts. 
Mjugu tnatoe, a hard kind of 
ground-nut 



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MKO 



.341 



Mjukuu, plur. wajuhuu, a cousin, a 

grandcbild. 
Mjumha, plur. wajumha, an uncle. 
Mjumbahdka, a kind of lizard. 
Mjumhe, plur. wajumbe, a mes- 

Benger. 
MJume, a weapon-smith. 
Mjutnuy studded with brass. 
MJusij plur. wajusi, a lizard. 

MJtm wa hanzu. See Kanzu, 

Mjusi kafirij a rough kind of 
small lizard. 

Mjusi salarrMf a smooth kind of 
small lizard. 
Mjuvi, plur. wajuvi, a chattering, 

officious person. 
Mjuzi, plur. wajuzi, a person of in- 
formation, one who knows. 
Mkaa, plur. wakaa, one who sits. 

Mkaa jikoni, Mr. Sit-ln-the- 
kitchen. y 

Jf/foa, an astringent wood used 
in medicine. 
Mkabalay opposite. 
Mkdbil^ future. 
Mkadi, plur. mikadi, the pandanus 

tree; its flowers are valued for 

their smell. 
Mkaidi, obstinate, wilful. See 

'kaidi. 
Mkajay a cloth worn by women, 

given as a present at the time of 

a wedding. 
MkcUi, fierce. See -kali. 
Mkamilifut perfect. 
Mkamehe, plur. mikamshe^ a kind of 

wooden spoon. 
Mkandaa, plur. mikandaa, a kind 

of mangrove tree full of a red 

dye much used for roof beams. 
Mkanju, plur. mikanjuf a cashew 

tree (M.). 
Mkaragazo.a strong tobacco. Also, I 



manfully, again and again 

(slang). 
Mkarakalat a medicinal shrub. 
Mkamma (in arithmetic), division. 
Mkasasi, a handsome tree, whose 

wood is useless. Hence the 

proverb, 

Uzuri wa mhasasi, 
Vkipata^ majit boH. 

Mkasiri, a tree whose bark is used 

to dye fishing-nets black. 
Mkatdba, a written agreement. 
Mkatale, the stocks. 
Mkate, plur. mikate, a cake, a loaf. 

Mikate ya mofuy cakes of mtama 
meal. 

MikUte ya kusongaj ya kumimina, 
&c., cakes of batter, Ac. 

Mkate vaa tumbako, a cake of 
tobacco. 
Mkazot nipping, pressing tight. 
Mke, plur. wake, a wife, a female. 

Mke aliofiwana mumewe^tL widow. 
MkebCf a pot to burn incense in, a 

drinking pot. 
Mkeka, plur. mikeka, a fine kind of 

mat used to sleep upon. 
Mkeo = Mkewo, 

Mkereza^ plur. wakerezaf a turner. 
Mkewef his wife. 
MkewOf your wife. 
Mkia, plur. mikia, a tail. 
Mkimhizi, plur. wakimbiziy one who 

runs away. 
MkindU, plur. mikindu^ a kind of 

palm whose leaves are used to 

make fine mats. 
Mfcizi, a kind of fish. 
Mkdba, plur. mtkoha^ a scrip, a 

small bag. 
Mkoche, plur. mikoche, a kind of 

branching palm with an edible 

fruit. 



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3ia 



MKQ 



MLI 



Mkojo, urine. 

Mkoho, plur. mihoko, a mangrove 

tree. 
MkokotOy plur. intibZ»>to, the mark 

made by a thing being dragged 

along. 
Idkoma, plur. mtkomay a large tiree 

bearing an edible fruit, 
Mkamhozi, plur. wakonibozif a 

redeemer. 
3f/conc?o. 

Mkondo tea maji, a current, 
MkongojOf plur. miJcongqJQ, an old 

man*8 staff for him to le^m upon 

as he walks, 
Mkonoy plur. miJeono, the arm, es- 
pecially from the elbow to the 
fingers ; the hand, a sleeve, a 
projecting handle like that of a 
saucepan, a measure of nearly 
half a yard, a cubit 

Ta mkono, handy. 

Chiw eha mkono^ a handbook, 
Mkorofit ill-omened* 
Mkvbwa, great, the eldest. See 

Mkuchyo, Magadoxa^ 

MkufUy plur. mikufu, a ohain, es* 

peoially of <^ light ornamental 

kind. 
Mkufunziy plur. wakyfurmy a 

teacher. 
Mkukey plur. mikukey a spear with 

a sharp point and ttiangular 

blade. 
Mkuku, the keel of a ship. 
Mkule, a gar-fish. 
Mkulima^ plur. imkulimon a cult,^- 

vator, a field labourer. 
Mkulimanif plur. vjakvlimcmit an 

interpreter. 
MkulOf plur. mikulOf a pottle-shaped 

matting bag to strain tut through. 



Mkumavi, a kind of red wpod much 

used in Zanzibar. 
Mkumbi(Mga^), gum^OOpal ti^©. 
Mkunga (?), midwife. 
Mkungu, plur. mikun^ the frQit. 

stalk of the banana. 
Mkungu, plipr. mikwigUt a kind of 
earthen pot, 

MkungH wa kufunihia, a pot lid. 

Mkungu wa kulia, a dish. 
Mkuu, plur. loqkuUf a great man, a 
chief. 

Mkuu wa aMkari, a conunandhig 
officer. 

Mkuu wa genzit a guide, 
Mkuza^ IsLTge, full grown. 
Mkwainba, a kind of thorny shrub. 
Mktdasiy plur. waJcvx^sh ft wefdthy 

person, rich. 
MkwBt plur. wakwCf a father or 

mother-in-law, a son or daughter- 
in-law. 
Mkweme, a climbing plant bearing 

a gourd with rouAd flat seeds 

rich in oil. 
Mkwezi^ a climber, one who goea 

up. 
Mlafif plur. walafi, a glutton, 
Mlala, plur. milaUit hyphtone, ^ 

branching palm. 
Mlamha, a dark-coloured bird thi^ 

eats insects, and drives away 

other birds, even the crows. 
Mlanijoy pl\ir, miiangq, ^ door, n 

gate. 
Mlanza^ a pole for carrying thlpg?. 
Mlaribay plur. walar^kOt u^nref, 
MUf there within. 
Mlevif plur. walevi, a dn^nkafd. . 
Mleziy plur, waUzi^ a nui^ one 

who rears children. 
Mlezo, plur. milezo^ a broy. 
Mlima, plur, milima^ a mpimtaiiu 



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343 



MHngate^ plur. mUin^ot^ a mast. 

MUngote wa kalmi or galmi, the 
aluall misen^mast cwrriod by 
large dhowi. 
MUngote wa mq/t, the bowsprit. 
Mliwii, plur. toalimit a guard. 
Mlishiy plur. toalishi, a feeder, a 

shepherd. 
Jdlislm, the month Shaaban. 
MUzawu^ a waterspoi^t on a houpe. 
Mlole^ the comb of a cock. 
Mhmo, plur. mUomOf a lip. Also, 

Mmojoy one, a certain man. See 
-^mojcL 

*Mna^ there is within. 

Mnada, plur. mtftodo, a sale, an 
auction. * 

Mnadir an anotioneer, huckster* 

Mnadi ftu-, to sell by auction* 

Mriafiki, plur. iranq/^H ft l^ypocrite. 

Mnaja, a prophet gou^S to ask a 
thing of God. 

Mnc^jimu, plur. fi7afui^'mtf, an as- 
trologer. 

MneiiUi, plur. loaitoiii^ a profane 
person, blasphemer. 

Mnar<ij plur. mtnara, a tower, a 
minaret, a beacon. 

Mruizit plur. mifiovi, a oocoa*Dut 
tree. 

Mnenoy one who speaks. 
Mnena kweli, one who speaks the 
truth. 

Mnene^ stout. See •nwsn 

Mneniy plur. waneni, a speaker, an 
eloquent person. 

Mngazidja, plur. TTanpoxic^'a, a 
native of Great Comoro. 

Mngwana, plur. wangtoanojtt. gentle- 
man, a &ee and civilised person. 

Mmio (?> 

ifno, exceedingly, excess! velj. Uno 



always follows the word qualified 
by it. 

Mnofu, meatincss, fleshinett. 

Mnono, fat. See -nofUK 

Mnunuzit plur. wavunuzif a buyer, 
a purchaser, a customer. 

MnyamavUy plur. toanyamavut 9 
silent person, still, quiet. 

Mnyang^anyi, plur. wanjiang^anyif a 
robber, one who steals with vio- 
lence. 

MneyOf a tickling, itching, a creep- 
ing sensation. 

Mnyiriri, plur. minyiriri, the arms 
of the cuttle-fish. 

Mnyonge, plur. tDanyonge^ an insig- 
nificant, mean person, 

Jlfnyororo, plur. minyororo, or mnyoo, 
plur. winyofiy a chain, 

Mnyvm, plur. wanyicOy a drinker, 
one who drinks. > 

Mo, -mo, or -wo-, the particle de- 
noting place inside something 
Mumo humot there inside, [else. 

MoalU, Mohilla. 

Mo/a, small round cakes of mtama 
meal. 

MohuUa, a fixed time, a term. Also 
MuhtiUa, 

Moija, plur. mamojat one, same. 
Mamqja pia, it is all one. 

-moja, one. 
Moja mqja, one by one. 

Moja haada wa moja, alternately. 

Mtu mmqja, a certain man. 

Moja tuapo, any one. 

Mola, Lord. Used of God. 

Moma, a kind of poisonous snake. 

Momhee, Bombay. 

Moris, Mauritius. 
Kutoka Mor<9, to score twenty- 
nine or more in a game at 
cards. 



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MOB 



MBA 



Kwenda Mor<$^ to mark less than 
twenty-nine in a game at cards. 
MororOf soft. See 'Ororo. 
MosM, plur. mioahif smoke. 
Most, one (in counting). 

Ya mosiy first. 
Moskitij a mosque, the ace of spades. 
MotCf all. See -ote, 
MotOf plur. miotoy fire, a fire, heat. 

Ya mot-o, hot 

Kupata moto, to get hot 
3foyo, plur. mioyo or nyoyo, heart, 
mind, will, self. 

Ya moyo, willingly, heartily. 
Mpagazij plur. wapagazi, a caravan 

porter. 
Mpajit plur. toapaji, a giver, a 

liberal person. 
Mpdka^ plur. mipaJca^ a boundary, 

Mpaka mmqja^ adjacent, [limit 
Mpaha, until, as far as. 

Tutacheka mpdka hulia, we shall 
laugh till we cry. 
Mpambiy plur. wapambiy a person 

dressed up with ornaments. 
Mpanzi, a sower. 
Mpapayif plur. mtpapayif a papaw 

tree. 
Mparamuzi, plur. miparamuzi, a 

sort of tree said to be unclimb- 

able. 
Mpatanishi, plur. wapatanUhi^ a 

peacemaker, one who brings about 

an agreement 
MpatOi interlaced work, lattice. 
Mpeektoat plur. wapeekwaj a person 

sent, a missionary, = Mpelekwa. 
Mpekuzij plur. wapekuziy one who 

scratches like a hen, an inquisi- 
tive person. 
Mpelelezif plur. toapelelezi, a spy. 
Mpenzif plur. wapenzi, a person 

who is loved, a favourite. 



Mperay plur. mipera, a guava tree. 

*Mpta, new. See -pya, 

Mpiga randij plur. wapiga, a for- 
tune-teller, one who prognosti- 
cates by diagrams. Formerly 
they did so by throwing sand, 
whence the name. 

Mpikoy plur. mipikOf a pole to carry 
burdens on. 
Kuchuktia mpikonit io carry on 
a pole over the shoulder. 

Mpingo, ebony. 

Mpiniy plur. mipini, a haft, a 
handle. 

Mpiray india-rubber, an india-rub- 
ber ball. 

Mpishi^ plur. wapiski, a cook. 

Mpofuy plur. wapofuf the eland. 

Mpotevu, plur. wapotevu, a wasteful 
person. 

Mpotocy plur. wapotoe, perverse, 
wilful, good-for-nothing. 

MpumhafUf plur. wapumbafu, a fool. 

Mpungaj rice, either growing or 
while yet in the husk. 

Mpungatij plur. mipungatij a kind 
of cactus. 

Mpuzi, plur. wapuzit a silly chat- 
terer. 

Mpwa, the sea-beach (M.). 

Mptoeke, plur. mipweke^ a ahor 
thick stick, a bludgeon. 

Mpya, new. See -pya. ' 

Mrahay plur. mirdba, muscles. 
Mtu loa mirdba t/itnne, a very 
strong man. 

Mrahha, square. 

Mradi, preferably (?). 

Mrammot the rolling of a ship. 

Mrashij plur. mircuhiy a loug-neoked 
bottle, often of silver, used to 
sprinkle scent from; a womau*a 
name. 



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MSH 



345 



Mremo, plur. waremo, a Portuguese. 

Also Mrenu. 
Mrenaha^ the thorn-apple plant. 
Mrenu, plur. Warenu, a Portuguese. 
MriikU plur. warUhij an heir, an 

inheritor. 
Mrtiba, plur. miruha^ a leech. 
Mrungurat people who rob and com- 
mit violence at night. 
MruttUu, sulphate of copper, blae- 
Msaada, help. [stone. 

Mtafaxa, plur. misafarc^ a caravan. 
Msafirif plur. wasafiri, a traveller, 

one on a journey. ' 

Msahafuy plur. misahafu, a koran, 
a sacred book. 

Macihafu wa Sheitani, a butterfly. 
MtahaUf plur. woMhau, one who 

forgets, a forgetful person. 
Miaji, teak. 
Msala. See Musala. 
MsalabOf a cross. 
MsalUi, a betrayer of secrets. 
Msamehe, plur. tocuamehe, forgiving. 
Msangao, astonishment. 
Msapata, a kind of dance. - 
Maasoj sandpaper, a shrub with 

leaves like sandpaper. 
Msayara, kind, gentle. 
Msazo, remainder. 
Mselehhha, plur. wodelehisha^ a 

peacemaker. 
Mgemaji, plur. wa$emaji^ a talker. 

an eloquent person, 
i&emt, plur. fjoasemif a talker, a 

speaker. 
MsetOi a sort of food, a mixture of 

tntama and chooko. 
MsetM, plur. mueto^ a sort of 

Castanet tied to the leg. 
Mshabaha^ similar. 
JfMAa/kira,plur. mtVio^ra, monthly 

pay, wages. 



MshaJcfkif small pieces of meat 
cooked 6n a skewer. 

Mshale or Mshare, plur. mUhale, an 
arrow. 

Msharika, plur. VKuhanka, a 
partner. 

Mshayi = Mchayi. 

Mftheheri or Mfhehiriy plur. TTa*^- 
^en, a native of ^heher in 
Arabia, many of whom are settled 
in Zanzibar. The butchers atd 
coarse mat makers are almost all 
Sheher men. 

Mahikiy one who holds. 
Mshiki shikio, the steersman. 

Mshindani, plur. vjcuhindani, ob- 
stinate, resisting. 

MnhindiOf woof. 

Mihindo (obscetie), coitus. 

Muhipay plur. muhipa, a blood- 
vessel, a nerve, any disease affect- 
ing these, hydrocele. 

Mshipavuy plur. toashipavuj obsti- 
nate. 

Mshipi, plur. mishipiy a net, a girdle. 

Mshoni, plur. toaahoni, a tailor, a 
sempster. 
Mnhoni viatu, a shoemaker. 

MshonOy plur. mishoTio, a seam. 

Mshtaka, plur. mUhtaka, an accusa- 
tion, a charge before a judge. 

Mshtaki, a prosecutor. 

MahuJeOy coming down, coming away 
from performing one's devo- 
tions. 
Mshuko wa magariMy about a 
quarter of an hour after sunset 
Muhuko wa alaairi kanri, about 
5 P.M. 

Mshuko wa eaha, about an hour 
after sunset, or from 7 till 
8 p.m. 
Mahumaa = Meshmaa, 



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MSf 



MTA 



Ms^t plnr. misibat a calamity, a 
grief, mourning. 

Msifu, a flatterer. 

Msifu^mnOj plur. vj<mfu*mno, an 
excessive praiser, a flatterer. 

Misijana, a bachelor (?). 

Msimamiziy plur. wcLsimamizi, an 
overlooker, a steward, the head 
man over a plantation, who is 
nearly always a free man, often 
an Arab. 

Msinji, plur. misinji, foundations, 
trench for laying foundations. 

Mainzii plur. inisinzit a sort of man- 
grove tree. 

Miio, a piece of stone to tub Uwa 
on. 

Msio, a fated thing, what will de- 
stroy or aflect a person. See 
Jfno. 

Msirii plttt. tooHriy a confidential 
person, one trusted with secrets. 

Msitani [Pemfoa] 33 Barazani, 

Mniiu, a forest. 
MtUu wa mitiy a thick wood. 

M$9wiaHt plur. miitonuiH, a nail, an 
iron nail. See Marcuhi, 

Msondo, a very tall drum, beaten on 
special occasions* 

Mtonyo, a whistlings 

Metctdi, plur. wistadit a skilful 
workman, a good hand. 

MdahamUi or Mstahimili, plur. tod- 
ikihimtli, a patient, enduring, 
long-suffering person. 

Mstaki, plur. waHakh a prosecutor- 

Mstamut a shoe; a piece of wood 
fixed to the keel, with a hole to 
receive the heel of the mast. 

Mttarii plur. mittari, a line, a line 
ruled. 
Kupiga nutari, to draw a MOe. 

Mfstofele, a custard applo^ 



Miuaki^ plur. mituakU a tooth stick, 
a little slick of the zainbdrau 
tree, used as a tooth-brush. It 
is prepared by chewing the end 
until it becom^il a mere bunch of 
fibres. 
Mmfi^ plur. mimfi, a tr^ bearing a 
pod of soft cotton, BriodeDdron 
anfractuosum. 
Msukwni, plur. misttftant, a rtrdder. 
Msukano. See Keke, 
Msulnhitua, a peacemnket. 
Mmmari = Mtomari, 
Msumenot plur. mieumendy a saw.« 
Msumhtdet the name of Liongo*s 

sword. 
Msunohariy fir tree^ deal. 
Msumakif plur. mi$ntitdk{, the 
wooden button which is grasped 
between the toes to hold on the 
wooden clogs commonly worn by- 
women and in the house. 
Msuzoy the handle of a millstone. 
Mstoetii = Msneniy cholera. 
Mta or Mtaa, plur. mtto, a districl» 
a quarter of a town. 
The mita Of Zanzibar, starting 
from the western point and 
going round the outside first, 
and then into the middle, 
are i ShanganS, Baghani, Gere- 
zani, Forthani, Mita ya pwani, 
Kiponda, MbuyUni, Malindi, 
Funguni, Jungiani, Kokoni, 
MkunaziHi, Kibokoni, Kidu- 
tani, Mzambarauni, Rijuka- 
kuni, Yuga, Mnazimoja^ Hji 
mpya, Mtakuja, Jume^i, Soko la 
Mahogo, Kajifiehetii, Mf^ttBi, 
Migomboni, Tiuyani, SlAoyi. 
Hurumzi, Kutani, M wavi. All 
these are on the peninsola, 
which joins the nudoland o^ly 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



MTA 



MTO 



S47 



. at Mnazi mojau ^anguni is 
on the point where the creek 
enters, which almost surrounds 
the town. Grossing the creek 
by the bridge, there are the 
following , mita : — Ng*amboi» 
Mchangani, Guliohi, Kwa 
Buki, Yikokotoni, Kisimani 
kwa kema, Mchinjani, Mwem- 
bemjugn, Kikwajuiii, Mkadini, 
and then Mnazi moja again. 
Micuda = Mtala. 
Mtaharij credible. 

Mtai, a scratch, a slight superHoial 
cut. 
Ku^a mtai, to scratch. 
iltaimho, plur. mitainibOf an iron 

bar, a crowbar. 
Mtajiri, plur. tcatajirif a merchant, 
a ricli man. More correctly 
Tajiri. 
MtaliosOy the rustling of new or 
clean clothes. 
Kupiga mtdkcuOy to rustle. 
Mtala = Mtaala, practice, study. 
Mtaii, plur. mitali, bangles, anklets. 
Mtamaf millet, Caffre com. 
Mtama mtindiy half-grown stalks 

of mtama. 
Mtama tete, fully formed but not 
yet ripe. 
Mtamhaj plur.7n«tofn5a,a young she- 
animal which has not yet borne. 
Mtanibo, plur. mitamhoy a spring, a 

trap with a spring, a machine. 
Mtanashatif a swell, dandy. 
Miandif a loom. 
Mtando, the warp in weaving. 
Mlanf, plur. tocUaniy one who belongs 

to a kindred tribe or ruce. 
MUwwa, plur. wataowa, a devout 

person. 
MtaramUf shrewd, wise. 



Mtatago^ a tree or beam thrown 
across a stream. 

MtegOf plur. mitego, a trap. 

Mtendaji, plur. watendaji, an active 
person. 

Mtende, plur. mitendcy a date palm. 

Mtepe, plur. mitepe, a kind of dhow 
or native craft belonging chiefly 
to Lamoo and the coast near it. 
Mitepe are sharp at the bows 
and stem, with a head shaped 
to imitate a cameFs head, orna- 
mented with painting and tassels 
and little streamers. They carry 
one large square mat sail, and 
have always a white streamer or 
pennant at the mast-head : their 
planking is sewn together, and 
they are built broad and shallow. 

Mtesi^ an adversary, a quarrelsome 
litigious person. 

Mtesteshiy comic. 

MteuUy plur. watenle^ chosen, select. 

Mthaminif a surety. 

Mthidimu, a cheat, a thief. 

Mtij plur. mitif a tree, polo, wood. 
Mti katif a tall post set in the 
ground between a prisoner's 
legs^ so that when his feet are 
fettered together he can only 
move in a drcle round the poet. 

Mlishambaj a charm of anj^klnd. 

Mtif scrofulous and gangrenous 
sores. 

Mtiba, a darling, a term of endear- 
ment 

Mtiif plur. watii, obedient. 

Mtima^ heart, chest (old Swahili 
and Eiyao). 

Mtindiy buttermilk. 

MtindOy size, form, shape, pattern. 

Mtiniy plur. tnt/tnt*, a fig tree. 

MtOy plur. fnitoy a Hver, a stieuia 



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348 



MTO 



Mto wa ItonOf a branching ri?er, a 
delta. 
Mto, plur. mito, a pillow, a cushion. 
Mtobtoe, a kind of wood of which 

the best hakora$ are made. 
Mfo/aat plur. mitojaa, an apple- 

IDce fruit. 
Mtohi, a swelling of the glands at 
the bend of the thigh followed 
by fever. 
Mtomoy firmness, good building. 
MtomondOf-plur. mitomondOyihe Bar- 
ringtonia ; its fruit is exported to 
India. 
Miondo, the day after the day after 
to-morrow. 
Mtondo goo, the day after that. 
MtondoOt plur. mitindoo, Callo- 
phyllum inophyllum ; oil is made 
from its seeds. 
M'ongozi, plur. toatongozi, a man 
who dresses himself up to allure 
women. 
Mtoro, plur. watoro, a runaway. 
MtotOj plur. watoto, a child. Used 
also generally of anytliing 
small of its kind, when men- 
tioned in connection with 
something larger to which it is 
attached; e.g. young shoots, 
small boats, &o. 
Mtoto toa toatuj a child of some- 
lK)dy, having relations, a woman 
of respectable family as dis- 
tinguished from one of slave 
parentage, a woman therefore 
who has somewhere to go if she 
leaves her husband, or he her. 
Mtolo wa mezOf a drawer of a 
table. 
Mtovu, without manners, shameless. 
MtUj plur. watu, a person, a man, 
somebody, anybody. 



MUA 

Hakuna m^ii, there is nobody. 
Mtu gani f of what tribe ? 
Mtu wa eerkali, a man in govern- 
ment employ. 

Mtulinga, plur. mittdinga, the col- 
lar bone. 

Mtulivu, plur. tmi^tt;u, a quiet 
man. 

Mtumainif plur. watumainit san- 
guine, confident 

Mtuwiba, plur. mitumba, a bale of 
cloth made up for a caravan. 

Mtumbuizif plur. watum,Jfuiziy a spy, 
an inquisitive person (A.). 

Mtumbwi^ plur. mitumbwiy a canoe 
hollowed out from the trunk of 
a tree, distinguished from a 
galawa by having no outriggers, 
and being generally of larger 
size. 

Mtume^ plur. mitume, an apostle, a 
prophet. Applied especially to 
Mohammed as a translation of 
his title. Apostle of God. 

Mtumhef plur. watuwake, a woman, 
a wife. 

Mtumishif plur. watumishi, a ser- 
vant 

Mlumwa, plur. watumtoa, a slave, a 
servant. 

Mtundiif mischievous, perverse, 
troublesome. 

Mtungi, plur. mitungi, a water-jar. 

Miupoy plur. mitupa, Euphorbia. 

Mtupuj bare. See 'tupu. 

MttUuy plur. mitutu (Ar.), a mul- 
berry tree. 

Mtuziy curry, gravy (M.). Also 
Mchuzi. 

Mtwango, plur. mittoango^ a t>e8tle 
for .pounding and cleaning corn. 

Mu'. See M-, 

Muoj plur. miwa, a sugar-cane. . 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



MUB 

Muhaihari/u, extTSLYAgAnt , 

Muda or Mda, a space of time, tehn. 

Muda wttf the space of. >^ 
Mudu hu-, 
Ku^imudu^ to gain a little strength 
after illness. 
Jfii^odtmtt, plur. wahddimu, a ser- 
vant, one of the original inhabi- 
tants of Zanzibar. These waha- 
dimu pay two dollars a year for 
each household to the Munyi 
mkuuj of which Seyed Majid now 
(1870) takes one ; they also work 
for him. They all live in vil- 
lages in the country, and speak a 
language of which there are at 
least two dialects, materially 
different from the Swahili of the 
town. 

Muharahu, plur. wdkardbtiy mis- 
chievous, destructive. 

Muharibim^ plur. waharibim, a de- 
structive person, one who ruins 
himself, destroys his own chances. 

Muhdruma, a kind of silk handker- 
diief, worn instead of a turban. 

Muhindi, plur. Wahindi, a native 
of India, especially an Indian 
Mussulman, of whom ther6 are 
two chief sects settled in Zanzi- 
bar, the Khojas and Bohras. 

Muhindi, plur. mihindi, the Indian 
com plant Also Mdhindi, 

Muhogpf cassava, manioc 

Muhtasari, an abridgment, a sum- 
mary. 

Mtthulla, time, a fixed period. 

Muhuri, a seal. 

Mujiza, plur. miwjiza, a wonderful 
thing, a miracle. Also Mvmjiza, 

Muli or Mulia, clever, knowing. 

Mvlilia ku; to show a light, to 
gleam. 



TyitJS 



849 



MvXki, a kingdom. 
Mume^ male. See "ume, 
Mumimi, Azrael, the angel of death. 
Mumunye, plur. mamitmunye, a kind 
of gourd resembling a vegetable 
marrow. It often grows of such 
a shape that its hard rind, when 
ripe, can. be used for botties, 
ladles, and spoons. 
Mumyani, a mummy. Mummy is 

still esteemed as a medicament. 
Munda, plur. miunda, a piece of 
plank to serve as cap to a post 
See also Mda, 
Mundu, plur. miundu, a bill, a 

small hatchet. 
Munyiy a chief, a sheykh. The 
Munyi mhuu is esteemed the true 
Sultan of the Swahili, at least in 
the island of Zanzibar and the 
parts adjacent. He is descended 
from an ancient Persian family, 
the heiress of which married, 
some generations since, an Arab 
from Yemen. The title is now 
(1874) in abeyance. His chief 
residence is at Dunga, near the 
centre of the island. 
MuomOy plur. miomOf the moustache, 

the lip. 
Musala, plur. miscday an oval mat 
used to perform the Mohammedan 
devotions upon. 
Musama, pardon. 

Musimif the northerly winds, which 
blow in December, January, and 
February. The musimi is some- 
times reckoned to extend till 
June. 
Musimo = Musimi, 
Mustarehe, enjoyment 
Mustarifu, with a competency, 
neither rich nor poor. 

2 A 



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350 



MUT 



MWA 



Mutaahtr, credible. 

MtUia^ obedieDoe. 

Muuajf, plur. vxmajii a mnrdeier, 

a slayer. 
Muuguzi^ plur. wauguzi, a nnree, 

one who nurses sick people. 

Muumishif plur. toaumuhi,^ cup^r. 

Muundi wa mguu (Ajy^e shin. 

Muungu, God, plur.Sw|^ngu. The 

Swahili rarely use Muungu or 

*Mungu alone. They almost 

always say Mwenyiezi 'Mwngu, 

Matkini ya Muungu, a poor free 
person. 
Muzimo, a place where offerings are 

made to some spirit supposed to 

haunt there. Baobab trees are 

generally supposed to be haunted 
Mvi, grey hairs. [by spirits. 

Mvili, the shade of a tree. 
Mvinje, Cassiorinus. 
MvinyOf strong wine, spirits, wine. 
Mviringoy round, roundness. 
MvUa, Mombes. 
Mvivu, idle. See -vivu, 
Mvua, rain, rains. 

Mvua ya mwdka, the rain which 
falls about August 
Mvuje, assafoetida. 
Mvuhe, vapour, steam. 
MmkutOy plur. inivukuto, a krer. 
MvuUma, plur. wamiiana^ a young 

man whose beard is just begin- 
ning to grow. 
Mmde, the lesser rains, about 

Ootober or November. 
MvuUniy in the shade. 
Mvuma, plur. mivuma, the borassns 

palm. 
MvumilivUj plur. wavuimilivu, 

patient, long-suffering. 
Mvumo, a rubber, six games won by 

one side (in cards). 



Mvunda, or Mvunja, plur. wavunda^ 
a breaker, a destroyer, one who 
ruins. 
Mtmngu, the hollow of a tree, a 
hollow tree. 
Mvungu wa hUanda, the space 
under a bedstead. 
Mvuvi, plur. wavuvi, a fisherman. 
Mw: SeeJIf-. 
MwUf of. 

Mvjoa, plur. mitoaa, strips of the 
leaf of a tree called mkoma (?), 
used to make coarse mats and 
baskets. 
Mwafa hu-f to forgive. 
Mwafdka, a QonspiraQy, an agree- 
ment, a bargain. 
Mwaga feu-, to pour away, to empty 

out, to spill. 
Mwagia ku^ to pour upon, to empty 

out for. • 

Mwajitifuni, a self flatterer. 
Mwdka, plur. micika^ a year. The 
year commonly uaed in Zanzi- 
bar is the Arab year of twelve 
lunar months. There is also 
the Persian year of 365 days, 
Beginning with the Nairuz^ 
called in Swahili the 8Qbu a 
mwaka. From this day the year 
is reckoned in deeades, euh 
decade being called a muxmgo. 
The year is called from the day 
of the week on which it oom- 
menoes : Muniha juma^ Mwdka 
aViamisi, &c. 
Mujdkajcma, last year. 
Mwaka juzi, the year befoio last 
Mnodka kwa mwaha, yearly. 
Mwake, his, hers^ its. See -oike. 
Mw€Lko, thy. See -aim. 
Mwalu See Mwana imoaHi, 
MwcMt plur. mttMiZt, a sort of p^ 



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MWA 



MWE 



351 



nvith very long and strong leaf 
stalks, which are used for doors, 
ladders, and other purposes. 

MtoalimUf plur. waalimu^ a teacher. 

MimmdU, treatment, mode of treat- 
ing. 

Mioamba, plur. miamha, a rock. 

Mummboy plur. miamha, the wall 
plate in a mud and stud house. 

Mvoamua, plur. waamua, a judge. 

MtDamua, husband's brother. 

Mwamuziy plur. waamuzh a judge. 

Mwana, the mistress of the house, 
a matron. It is polite in Zanzi- 
bar to speak of one's own mother 
as mwana, 

Mwana^ plur. tmtano, a son, a child. 
Mwanangu, my child. 
Mioanao, your child. 
Mtoanaioe, his or her child. 
Mwanetu, our child. 

Mvxina Adamu, a child of Adam, 
t.e.,.a hnrna^ being. 

Mwana maji, a seaman. 

Mtoana maua, a sprite represented 
as a white woman with an ugly 
black husband. 

Mwana mhe, plur. waana wake or 
waanaaJcey a woman. 

Mwana mhe wa hiungtoana^ a lady. 

Mwana mume, plur. toaana waume 
or waanaume, a man. 
Mwana mwalu a young woman 
whose breasts are not yet flat- 
tened, one who has not yet left 
her father's house. 

Mujanamiziy a soldier crab. 

Mwandikaji, plur. waandikaji, a 
waiter, a table servant. 

Mtoandiko, plur. miandikOf a manu- 
soript, handwriting. 

MwandUhi, plur. waandithi, a 
writer, a olerk, a secretary. 



Mwanrja, plur. mianga, light, a 
light, a kind of rice. 

Mwangalizi, phir. waangalizi, an 
overseer, one who overlooks or 
looks to. 

Mwangaza, plur. miangazay a light 
hole, the small round holes which 
are often left near the ceilings 
of rooms in Zanzibar* 

MvoangOy plur. tntangfo, a lamp-stand, 
a piece of wood about eighteen 
inches long, from near the bottom 
of which two small pieces project 
at right angles, to hold the com- 
mon clay lamp of the country. 
The mwango is generally huug * 
against a wall. 

Mipango = Mlango, 

^MwangOy plur. miwango^ a kind of 

Mimngu, my. See -angu. [shrub. 

Mwangwiy echo. 

Mwani, seaweed. 

'Mwanzi, plur. miwanzi, a bamboo. 
Miwanzi ya pua, the nostrils (?X 

MwanzOf plur. mianzo, beginning. 

Mwaoy a worry, bother. 

Mtcapuzay a simpleton. 

Mwashi, plur. waashiy a mason. 

Mwaihiniy one who calls to prayer 
at the mosque, a muezzin. Also 
Muethihin, 

Mwavuliy plur. miavuli, an um- 
brella. 

Mwawazi, the Disposer, a title of 
God. 

Mvoaya lew' = Mwaga ku-t to pour 

away. 
*Mweliy plur. waweliy a sick person. 
Mwemay good. See -ema. 
Mwembamba, thin. See -emharnba, 
Mwembcy plur. miemhey a mango tree. 
Mwendanguuy a great and irre- 
parable loss. 



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352 



MWB 



MWI 



Mioendo, going, gait, journey. 
MwenendOy going on, bebayiour. 
Mioengej plur. mienge, a bundle of 

straw, &c., used to carry a light. 
Mioenyejit plur. wenyeji, a host, a 
person who has a home in the 
place. 
Mwenyewe, plur. toenyewe, the owner, 
self, myself, thyself, himself, 
&c, 
Mbau za mwenyewBy some one 
else's planks. 
Mioenyif having, possessing. See 
-enyi. 
Mwenyi ezi Muungu, Almighty 

God. 
Mwenyi chongo, a one-eyed per- 
son. 
Mwenyi inchif the lord of the 

country. 
Mwenyi kichaa, a lunatic. 
Mwenyi kvhuttibit, a preacher. 
Mwenyi kupooza, a paralytic 
Mwenyi maXiy a rich man. 
Mwenzanguy plur. wenzangu, my 

companion. 
Mwenzi, plur. wenzi, a companion. 
Mwere, a kind of corn or seed like 
linseed, growing on a close spike 
like a bulrush flower. 
MwerevUf plur. werevu, a shrewd 

person, a man of the world. 
Mwewe, a hawk, a kite, a kind of 

fish. 
Mweya feu-, to steal. 
'MwezOt plur. waweza, able, having 
power over. 
Mioeza mwenyewe^ one's own 
master. 
Mioezi, the moon. 
Mwezi, plur. mtezt, a month. The 
months in Zanzibsir begin on 
the day on which the moon is 



first seen, unless the old month 
has already had thirty days ; if 
so, the day which would have 
been the 31st, is the 1st of the 
new month. 
Mwezi mpungufu, a month of less 

than thirty days. 
Mwezi mwandamu or mwangamuy 

a month of thirty full days. 
Mwezi ngapi 1 what is the day of 

the month ? 
Mioezi wa sitOf the 6th day of the 
month. 
Mwiba, plur. mti&o, a thorn. 
Mwiba^i^ plur. webaji, an habitual 

thief, a thievish person. 
Mtcigot a sort of large dove with red 
bill, white neck, and black body. 
It cries Kooo I Then one answers, 
''Mudgor* KoooI--'*Niagulie!" 
Kooo I — *' Kwema nendako f " 
Kooo /—then one may go on. If it 
answers not, it is a bad omen. 
Mwiko, plur. mOko, a spoon, a 
mason's trowel. Also a measure, 
directicm, prohibition, especial- 
ly of a medical practitioner. 
Kushika mwikoj to live by rule, to 
live abstemiously. 
Mwili, plur. miili, the body. 
Mwimot pliur. mUmo, side piece of 

a door frame. 
*Mwinda, plur. wawinda^ a hunter. 
Mwingajinit a common plant whose 
leaves are said, when rubbed in, 
to cure the aching of the limbs in 
fever ; a decoction of the roots is 
said to be useful in dysentery. 
Mwingi, much, full. 
Mwingi toa maneno, full of 
words. 
Mwinyi = Mwenyi^ having, with. 
See -enyi. 



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MWI 



MZO 



353 



MusWho, plur. miUhOf end, conclu- 
sion. 

Mwithi (Patta) = Mwiti, 

MuntOf calling, summons. 

MwitUf forest. 
Ya mvjitUf wild. 
Mhwa wa mtoitUf jackals. 
Mmvif plur. wevif a thief. 

•JtfWcM, plur. wamvUf a jealous 
person. 

Mujizi (A.) = JUiIwivi, 

Mtooga, plur. waoga, one who fears, 
a coward. 

Mwdkosi, J)lur. toaokoBi, one who 
picks up anything. 

Mujokozi, plur. waokozi, one who 
saves, a saviour. 

Mwomhaji, plur. vsaombaji^ a beg- 
gar. 

Mwomhezif plur. vxwTnbezi^ an inter- 
cessor. 

Mwmo = Kcfowo. 

Mwongoj plur. miongot a decade of 
ten days, used in reckoning the 
nautical or Swahili year, from 
the tiku a mwaha, 
Mwongo mwangapi, in what de- 
cade is it? 

'MioongOf plur. waioongo, a liar, a 
false person. 
Simekuwa *mvoongo f am I not a 
liar? 

MwongofUf plur. waongofUf a con- 
vert, a proselyte. 

Mwujiza, plur. miitjiza^ a miracle. 

Jfzoa, plur. wazaa, a parent. 

Mzaahtbii a great-grandmother. 

Mzdbibu, plur. mizabibu, a vine. 

Mzahttf sport, ridicule, derision. 
Kumfanyizia mzaha^ to deride 
him. 

Mzalia, plur. wazaJiat a native, a 
dlave bom in the country. 



Mzalishaf plur. wazalisha, a mid- 
wife. 
Jlfsar amu, a pool of water, 
ilfza^it', plur. wazazif a parent, fruitful. 

/$i mzaziy barren. 
Ifzee, plur. iffozea, an old person, an 

elder. 
Mzemhe, plur. imz(;m&«, a careless 

person. 
Mzigej a locust. 
Mzigo^ plur. mizigoy a burden, a 

load. 
Mzima, an extinguisher, one who 

puts out. 
Mzima^ plur. waztma, a living or 
healthy person. 

Mtu mzima^ a grown person. 
Mzimu, See Zimwit Muzimo, 

Kuzimu, 
Mzinga^ plur. mizinga, a hollow 
cylinder, a hollowed piece of 
wood used as a beehive, a can- 
non. 

Reale ya mzinga, a pillar dollar. 
Mzingi or Mzinji, plur. mizingU 

foundations, trench for laying in 

the foundation. Also Msinji. 
Mzingile mioambiji, a puzzle, a 

labyrinth. 
MzingOj the circumference, brink. 

Mzingo wa, around. 
MziOf that which would be deleterious 

to any one ; each person is said to 

have his special wzto— of one it is 

cuttle-fish, of another, red fish, 

and BO on. Also Msio. 
Mzishi, plur. uoazishi, a burier, one 

who will see to one's funeral, a 

special friend. 
Mzo, sixty pishi, 
Mzofa/af on tiptoe. 
Mzoga, plur. mizoga, a dead body, a 
carcase. 



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354 



MZO 



/ N 



Mzomari, See Martubi = Zomari, 
Mzungu, plar. mizungu, a strange 

and startling thing. 
Mzifngu, plur. Wazungu, a Enro- 

pean, one who wears European 

clothes. 
Mzungu wa pUi, queen in cards. 
Mzwngu wa tatu^ knave in cards. 
Mzungu wa ^nne, king in cards. 
Mzungukoj plnr. mizungvJso, a wan- 

deiing abont. 
Mzushif a heretic, an innovatq^. 
Mzuzi, plnr. wazuzi, a tale-bearer, 

one who reports maliciously or 

nntmlj tl^e word of others. 
Mzuzu, plur. wazuzu, a simpleton. 
JfztoeO) used to. 



NiB pronounced as in English. 

An t sound is generally connected 
with an initial n. It sometimes 
precedes more or less distinctly, 
and may be written in or 'it, making 
the n a distinct syllable. Some- 
times the n flows ipto the following 
letter, so that the i sound is alto- 
gether lost. Very often it follows 
it as in the common syllable ni or 
ny. It is characteristic of the Zan- 
zibar dialect to make the initial i 
sound distinct Thus inehi, a co1^l- 
try, is at Mombas 'ntu 

Ni is often contracted into '« or 
», and where n would be dropped 
ni sometbnes is so, as in the flrst 
person of the future tense, nUapenda 
or 'ntapenda or tapenda, 

^cannot be placed before 5, ch^ 
f, hj, p,ry 8, t,v, or w. 

Before b, w, and perhaps v, it be- 
comes m, and w change3 into h 



Before Ic, j>, and perhaps <, it is 
dropped, and the consonant 
gets an explosive sound. 

Before Z, r, and perhaps <, the n 
remains, but the other conso- 
nant becomes a d. 

Before ehj J^ m, n^ and s^ it in 
merely dropped. 

N can stand before d^ g^ J, y, 
wndz, 

^before ^ is u two isases at least 
ccmtracted into K 

Hapenda = Nikapenda, 

Hipenda c= Nikipenda^ 

There is a soond in Swahili which 
is treated as a simple consonant, 
which does not oocur in European 
languages as an initial sound. It 
is Tery nearly the same with tl^ 
final ng in English, in such words 
as loving, going, &p. The sounds of 
n and g seem both audible, but so* 
blended that neither of them can be 
carried on to the following vowel. 
It is here written ny', to distinguish 
it from the common sound ng^ in 
which the g passes on to the follow- 
ing vowel. There is some little 
difference in the way in which dif- 
ferent persons pronounce it ; it has 
sometimes more of a ^ sound, and 
might be so written it it be under- 
stood that the two letters are so 
fuped together that neither can be 
heard as if it stood alone. It has 
been sometimes written a, which is 
either a mistake or very misleading. 
That the sound really is ng, may be 
proved by the fact that such words 
as begin with it are treated as words 
biginmng with n, and that when 
other prefixes are applied they are 



Digitized by'vjOOQlC 



N- 



N- 



355 



treated as if the root began with g. 
It is not, however, a very common 
sound in Swahili. 

There is another sound com- 
pounded of n and i, which is very 
fairly represented by the Spanish Hj 
or by ni in such English words as 
companion, &c. It is pronounced 
perhaps in Swahili with a slightly 
broader and more nasal sound. It 
is here written ny, to distinguish it 
from the common syllable ni, in 
which the i has a vowel sound. 

The ny sound in the dialect of 
Zanzibar sometimes represents an n 
in more northern Swahili, as in 

KUnwa or kUnytcci, to drink. 

The change from n to ny has in 
many verbs the effect of giving a 
causative meaning, as in kuponct, to 
get well, kuponya^ to make well, to 
sava 

N't or nt-, the sign of the first per- 

• son singular of verbs, I. 

-n-, or -ni-, the objective prefix 

proper to denote the first person, 

me. 
N- (see ny-). 

1. A prefix fluently occurring 
in substantives which do not 
change to form the pluraL If 
followed by d, gr, J, or «, it is 
pronounced with them and does 
not form a distinct syllable. 
Before other consonants it forms 
a distinct syllable, and may be 
written 'n- or sometimes in-, 

2. The plural prefix of substan- 
tives which begin in the singular 
with I*-, followed by a conso- 
nant The tt is dropped and n 
prefixed before d, g, j, and z. 



Before b, and perhi^s v, the n 
changes into m, before w the nw 
become mfr. Before 2 or r the 
nl or nr become nd. Before h, 
p, and t, the n is dropped and 
the other consonant gets an ex- 
plosive or aspirated sound, and 
may be written k\ p', and t' ; 
before ch, /, m, n, and «, the n is 
merely dropped. Where, how- 
ever, dropping the u- would 
leave the word a monosyllable, 
the u- is retained, and ny pre- 
fixed. 
N- (see fiy-)» The prefix proper to 
adjectives agreeing with sub- 
stantives of the class which docs 
not change to form its plural 
of whichever number, or with 
plural substantives which make 
their singular in u-. Where the 
simple form of the adjective 
begins with a vowel, ny- is pre- 
fixed, except -ema^ good, which 
makes njema or ngema. The 
changes before a consonant are 
the same as those given just 
above for the plural nouns in u-. 
Nyumha mbaya, not nbaya, 

„ ehcuihef not nchaehs. 

„ ndogo. 

n • f^Ph ^^^ nfupC 

„ ngema, 

„ njema, 

„ kvhwa, not nkufnm, 

„ fnqfa, not nfno/o. 

„ nancj not nnane, 

„ panoy not npana, 

„ *mpya, not npya or pya, 
' „ nde/Uf not nre/u, 

„ tatu, not ntaiu, 

„ • mht'Uf not ntoili or nptli, 

u muH, 



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356 



NA 



NAN 



No, and, also, with ; by, of the agent 
of a passive, and with, of the 
sharer in the action of a reci- 
procal verb. 
Na when joined with a pronoun 
commonly forms one word with 
it. l^ 
Nami, and I, or with me. 
Naioe, and then, or with thee. 
Nao, nayOf nacho, nalo, and or 

with them, it, &c., &c., &c. 

Na joined with the verb huvja, to 

be, or with the personal prefix 

only, constitutes the verb to 

have. The object is frequently 

joined with the na, — ana, or 

anajso, anacho, &c., &c.^ he has. 

Alicho nachot which he has. 

Alichohuioa nachOf which he had. 

Atdkachokuwa nacho, which he 

will have. 
Atakuwa nacho, he will have it. 
The verb huwa na is used some- 
times iu the sense of being, as 
Palikutoa na mtu, there was a 
man. 
Hakuna, there is not. 
KuTia, there is. 
Zinazo, they are. 
•^na-, the sign of the present tense 
of a continuing action. 
Anahwenda, he is going. 
Anasema, he is saying. 
This tense has sometimes the 

effect of a present participle. 
Akamioona anakuja, and he saw 

him coming. 
N.B. — ^At Mombas the -na- tense 
is used as a past tense. At 
Zanzibar it is the most, usual 
present. 
Na or *Nna = Nina, I have. 
Naam or Na^am, yes. ' 



Nabihuha hu; to exhort. 

Ndbii, a prophet. 

Nadi ku, to proclaim, to make a 
bid for a thing, to sell by auction. 
See Mnadi. 

Nddfra, rare. 

Nafaka, com, com used as money. 
Mtama, or millet, was formerly 
used in Zanzibar as small 
change: it was superseded by 
the introduction of pice from 
India about the year 1845. 

Nafasi, space, room, time, oppor- 
tunity. 

Nafisisha ku-, to give space, to make 
space. 

Nafsi or Nafusi, self, soul, breath. 

Nafuu, profitable. 

Nahau, spelling, grammar. 

Nahma kit, to revenge. 

Nahotha ya maji, water-tank. 

Nat, a sort of anvil fixed in a forked 
piece of wood. 

NajUi = Nejjis, profane. 

Nakhoiha or Nahoza, captain of a 
vessel, master mariner. 

Nakili ku-, to copy, to transcribe. 

Nakiahi, Naksh, or Nakshi, carving. 
Kukata naksh, to carve, to orna- 
ment with carving. 

Nakuhiwa &u» to be carved or in- 
laid. 

Nakl^ a copy. 

Nako, and it was there. 

Ndkttdi, cash, ready money. 

Nama ku- = Inama ku-, to bend 
down, to bow the head. 

Nami, and I, or with me. 

Na'mna or Namuna^ sort, pattern. 

Namua ku- (Mer.), to take out of a 
trap, to extricate. 

Nana or Na*ana, mint. 

Nana, mistress (N.). 



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NAN 



NBI 



357 



Nanazt, plur. mananazi, a pine- 
Nane, eight. [apple. 

-nane, eight 

Ta nane, eighth. 
Nanga, an anchor. 

Kutia nanga, to anchor. 
. NangonangOy a wonn (?). 
Nanii Who? 

Nanigwanzvla, a kind of lizard. 
Nao, and they or with them, and it 

or with it. 
Naoza = Nahhotha, a captain. 
NapOy and there, and here. 
Nasa ku-, to catch in a trap. 
Nasi fctt-, to warn. 
Nasibu, luck, fortune. 

Kioa nasibu, by chance, perhaps. 
Naxibu hu, to appoint. 
Nasiha ku-, to suggest. 
Nasihi ku-, to entreat, to beseech. 
Nastahiba, I see it better, prefer. 
Nasuff an abscess. 
NcUa ku't to be adhesive, to stick. 
Nathari, choice. 
Nathiri, a look, a glance, a vow. 

Kuioeka nathiri, to vow. 

Ktumdoa nathiri^ to perfurm a 
vow. 
Nathiri ku-, to glance. 
Natoa, a blemish (?). 
Navli, freight. 
Naioa ku; to wash oneself. 

Kunatoa mikono, to wash one's 
hands. 
Nazdr, quarrel. 
Nazi, a coooa-nut, a folly ripe nut. 

Nazi kavu, copra, cocoa-nuts dried 
fit for pressing. 
Nazin - NathiH. 
Naaiyana hi-, to quarrel. 
'Ncha, the point, the end, tip, a 

strand in cordage. 
Nchi. Seelnchi, 



Ndaa (M.), hunger, = Njaa, 
Ndama, a calf, the young of a 

domestic animal. 
Ndani, within, inside. 
Ndani ya, inside of. 
Kioa ndani, inner, secret. 
Ndani kwa ndani, secretly. 
Ndaroho, 
Kusema cha ndardbo, to speak a 
secret language. 
Ndefu = Ndevu, the beard. Sing. 

udevu, one- hair of the beard. 
Ndefu, long. See -re/u, 
Ndege, a bird, birds, an omen. To 
see a woman with a loud is lucky, 
and would be called ndege njema. 
To see a man by himself carrying 
nothing is unlucky, and is ndege 
mbaya. 
Ndere. 

TTnga wa ndere, a magic poison. 
Ndewe, a hole pierced in the lobe of 

the ear; 
Ndezi, a kind of animaL 
Ndi', a prefix used with the short 
form of the pronoun to express, 
it is this, this is the one, I am 
he, you are he, &o. 
I, Ndimi, 
Thou, Ndiwe, 
He or she, Ndiye, 
It, Ndio, ndiyo^ ndicho, ndilo, 

ndipo, ndiko, ndimo. 
We, Ndisi, 
You, Ndinyi. 

They, Ndio, ndiyo, ndivyo, ndizo. 
Ndiyo yalio, that is just it, that 
is how matters stood. 
Ndia (M.) = Njia. 
Ndimi, tongues. See Ulimi. 
Ndio, yes. 

Ndiwa (M.) or Njivoa, a pigeon. 
Ndizif bananas, plantains. 



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358 



NDI 



NG'A 



Ndizi Bungalay a tliick sweet 
kind of banana. 

Ndizi mjenga, a long kind of 
banana used in cooking. 

Ndizi msusa, a large ridged kind 
of banana. 
Ndotty marriage. 
Ndonya, a lip-ring, WOTn by tlie 

Nyaasa. 
Ndoo and Ndooni QH,} = Njoo and 

Njooni, come. 
Ndoo, a pail, a bucket, 
NdotOf a dream. 
Ndovu, an elephant. 
Ndugu, a brother or sister, a oousin, 
a relation. 

Ndugu kunyonyoy a foster brother, 
Ndui, small-pox. [&o. 

Nduli, savage, giyen to slaying, a 

man wholly without patience. 
Ndume, male, from -Iwhe or -ume. 
Ndusi, a box. 
Nebii = Nahiij a prophet. 
Neema, gruoe, favour. 
Neemesha kw, to enrich. 
Nefsi = Nafsi = NafuH, self. 
Negesha fcw-, to charge with, to at- 
tribute falsely to. 

Ahamnegesha mwivii and he 
called him a thief. 
NejjiSf or Nejisi^ or Najisi, profane, 

blasphemoi^s. 
NeUi, a pipe, a water-pipe. 
Nembo, tribal marks. 
Nena hu-, to speak, to name, to 

mention. 
Nenand ku-^ to talk against one 

another, to quarrel. 
-nene, thick, stout, fat, whole, com- 
plete, plump, sleek. 
Nenea kw, to talk to, of, at, for, or 

a^inst, to blame^ to scold, tp re- 
commend. 



Nenepa ku-^ to grow fat, used es* 

pecially of persons. 
Neno^ plur. maneno, a word, a thing. 

Sikufanya neno^ I have done no- 
thing. 
Nenyekea ku-, to be humble, to con- 
descend. 
-nenyekevu, humble, condescending. 
Nepa ku-, to sag, to dip in the 

middle as a long rope does. 

Neupe or Nyeupe^ white. See -eupe, 

Neusi or Nyeuai, black. See -eueu 

-ngor or -nge-y the prefix of the 

present conditional tense. 

ni-nge-ku\oay I should be. 
NgadUy land crabs. 
-ngavoOy though. 

Ng'aa ku- = Ng*ara ku-, to shine. 
-ngali'i the i»:efix of the past con- 
ditional. 

niiagali-kataa, I should have re- 
fused. ^ 
Ngama, the hold of a ship. 
Ng^amha, a hawkshead turtle, from 

which tortoiseshell is procured. 
Ng*amb0t th^other side of a river 

or creek. 
Ngamia or Ngamiya^ a cameL 
Ng^anda, a handful. 
Ngano, a tale, a fable. 
Ngano, wheat. 

Amektda ngano^ he has been dis- 
graced; that is, having been 
as if in paradise, he has now 
to eat the food of ordinary 
mortals. 
NgojOy a shield or buckler ; they are 

circular and very small. 
Ngara, the yoimg oob of Indlaa 

com. 
Ng'ctra ku-^ or Ng^ala^ or Ng*a4i, to 

shine, to glitter, to be transparent, 

to be clear. 



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NOA 



NOU 



359 



Ngariba, a oiroumciior. 

N'gariza hu-, to fix the eyes, to glare. 

Amening^ariza maeho^ he glared 
at me. 
Ngatoa, a civet cat (?). 

The ngatoa is a larger animal 
thantiie/tinyo* 
Ng*aza ku-, to make to fihiney or to 

be brilliant. 
Ngazif a ladder. 
Ngazidja, Great Comoro, 
'A^e, a BoorpioD. 

-nge-, sign of the conditional pre- 
sent, wonld. 

YangedtmUf they would still con- 
tinue. 
Ngedere, a small black monkey. 
Ngema, good. See •etna, 
Ngeu, ruddle used by carpenters to 

mark out their work. 
'ngi or -ingi, many, much* 
Ngilizctf 8ee Ingiliza^ 
•ngine, other, different 

Wangine — utangine^ some— other. 
Ng*oa ku-, to pull up, to root up, to 

pull out 
Ngoa,\\m^ 

KuLia ngoa, to weep for jealousy. 

Kutimia ngoa yak'we^ to satisfy 
his desires. 
Ng*ofu, the roe of a fish. 
Ngoja ^, to wait, to wait for. 
Ngqje^ Angoxa. 

Ngojea ku't to wait upon, to watch. 
Ng*oka ku-, to be rooted up. 

Moyo unaning^okoy I waa startled 
out of my wits. 
A^i^rope. 

Ngoma, a drum, a musical perform- 
ance generally. 
N^ambe or Chombej an oz, a oow, a 
bull, cattle. 

N^onibe ndume^ a bolL 



Ngome, a fort. 

Ng*onda ku-, to cure or dry fish, &c. 

Ng^onga, 

Ana ng*<mga (A.), he is inclined 
to vomit. 
Ng^ong^By the strips of leaf or fibre 

used for sewing matting, <nd for 

tying. 
Ng*<mg*Ot the thick edge of a strip 

of matting. 
Ngonot the share of her husband's 

company which is doe to eacu 

wife. 
Ngovi = Ngoztf skin. 
Ngozif skin, hide, leather. 
Nguddro, a mangouste. Also, a 

sort of bird = Mchiro, 
Ngumi or Nyamgumit a whale. 
Ngumi, 

Kupiga ngumi, to strike with the 
fist 
Ngumut hard. See -gumn. 
Nguc^ calico, cotton doth, clothes. 

Nguo ya meza, a table-cloth. 

Nguo ya mokh stout cloth. 

Kutendck nguot to stretch the 
threads for weaving. 
Ngurif a shoemaker's tool shaped 

like a skittle. 
Nguruy a kind of fish. 
Nguruma hu-, to roar, to thunder. 
Ngurumo, a roar, distant rolling 

thunder. 
NguruvUi a ^hid of jackal with a 

bushy tail. 
Ngurutoe or Nguuwe, a pig, swine. 
Nguruzif a plug. 
Nguue s Nguruwet a pig. 
Nguuey red paint. 
Nguvoy a kind of fish. 
Nguvuy strength, power, authority. 

£wa nguvii, by or with strength, 
by force, strongly, rankly. 



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360 



NGU 



NJI 



Nguzo, a pillar, pillars. 
-ngwana, free, civilized. 
Ngtoe. See Ugwe. 
Ngwe, an allotment or space for cul- 
tivation. 
NgufenUf a crocodile, a seal. 
NgmrOf a large kind of ant. 
Ni, I am, was, is. 
Ni is used to express is or was, for 
all persons and both numbers. 
Ni (M.), by, with the agent of a 

passive verb. 
Ni , *N't or JV-, I, the sign of the 
first person singular. Before the 
'ta- of the future it sometimes 
disappears. 
-ni' or -n-, the objective prefix de- 
noting the first person singular. 
-ni, added to substantives, forms a 
sort of locative case, signifying 
in, at, into, to, from, from out 
of, near, by. 
1. When followed by pronouns, 
&c., beginning with 'to or mw, 
this case implies within, inside 
of, or the coming or going to 
or from the inside of the thing 
named. 
'2. When followed by pronouns, 
&c., beginning with p, it signi- 
fies nearness to, or situation at, 
by, before, near. 
3. When followed by pronouns, 
&c., in kw, it denotes going or 
coming to or from, or at, from, 
and in, in a vague sense, or of 
things far off. 
-ni, added to verbs in the impera- 
tive forma the second person 
plural. It is sometimes suffixed 
to common phrases, as kuaherini, 
good-bye, and iwendezetuni^ let us 
go, and is explained as ai short 



form for enyi, or nyie, you ! you 

there! 
-•ni, enclitic form for nini, what ? 
-nt, enclitic for nyi as an objective 
suffix (N.). 

Navxumbianiy I tell you. 
Nia^ mind, intention, what one has 

in one's mind. 
Nia huy to have in one's mind, to 

think to do. 
NihaaOf which I inhabit 
Nikalif and I am or was. 

Nihali niktenda^ and I am going. 
Nilf blue (for washing). 
Nikwata, the little wall lizard. 
Niliy I being. 

NUi kali ya kutua Juu yake, I 
being on his back. 
Nina, I have. 
Nina, mother (N.). 
Ninga, a kind of green bird some- 
thing like a dove, a woman's 

name. 
Ning*inia ku-, to swing. 
NingHniza ku-, to set swinging. 
Nini^ Whatt 

Kwa nini, or Ja ninif why ? what 
• for? 
Ninyi, ye, you. 

Ninyi nyote, all of you, all to- 
gether. 
Nipe, give me. See Pa ku-. 
Nira, yoke. 
Nuha, starch (?). 
Njaa, hunger, famine. 
*Nje, outside, forth. ^ 

*Nje ya, outside of, 

Kvja *nje, outwardly, on the out- 
side. 
Njema, good, very welL See -ema. 
Njia or Ndia, a way, a path, a road, 
means. 

Njia panday cross roads* 



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NJI 



NY- 



361 



NjiH^ a kind of animaL 
NJiujay a pigeon, pigeons. 
Njiwa manga^ tame pigeons. 
Njitoa ya mwitu, a wild pigeon. 
NJombOf a fish barred with black and 

yellow. 
Njooy come. 
Njooni, come ye. 
Njozit an apparition, vision. 
Njuga, a dog-bell, a small bell 

worn as an ornament, 
NJugUf ground nuts. 
Njugu nyasMt soft ground-nuts. 
Njugu mawe^ hard ground-nuts. 
Njumu, inlaid with silver, inlaying 

work. See Mjumu, 
Njuwa = Njuga. 
Nnaohaa, where I am living, which 

I am inhabiting. 
-nne, four. 

Ya 'nne, fourth. 
Noa kut to whet, to sharpen on a 

stone. 
Noher, a servant 
Ndkoa^ the second head man at a 

plantation, generally a slave. 
NoleOi plur. manoleo, the metal ring 
round the haft where a knife is 
set into its handle. 
Nona hu-, to get fat, applied espe- 
cially to animals. 
Nong*ona ku-y to whisper, to mur- 
mur. 
Nong*oneza ku-f to whiflper to. 
N(mg*onezana ku-j to whisper to- 
gether. 
-nonaf fat 
Nonoa ku- (?). 
NoondOi or Nondo, a moth. 
Nehi (A.), eyebrow. 
KsOy the kidneys. 
'Ntay wax, bees*-wiix. 
'Nti = Inchi, land, country, earth. 



Nuele or Nwele = Nyele^ hair. 
Nuia ku', to have in one's mind, to 

intend. 
Nuka ku', to give out a smell, to 
stink. 
Tumbako ya kunvka, snuff. 
Ntikato, plur. manukatOy a good 

smell, a scent. 
Nukiza ku-, to smell out like a dog. 
Nukta, a point, a vowel point 
Nuna ku-, to sulk. 
Nundu, a hump, a bullock's hump. 
Nungu, a porcupine. 
Nungu [Pemba], a cocoa-nut. 
Nung^uaUca ku-y to murmur, to 

grumble. 
Nunua ku-, to buy. 
Nunulia ku-, to buy for. 
Nunutiioa Xeu-, to have bought 
fol: one. 
Nura ku-y to say the words of an 

oath. 
Nuru, light 
^u«a A^-, to smell. 

Tumbako ya kunusa, snuff. 
Nu8s, or Nu8u, or Nussuy half. 
Nuiuru ku-y to help. 
Nioa ku- or Nytoa ku-, to drink, to 

absorb. 
NweUo, plur. manwdeo, pores of 

the Bkin. 
Nwewa ku-, to be absorbed, to ^be 

drunk. - _ 

Ny-y a common prefix to substan- 
tives which do not change to 
form the plural, where the root 
begins with a vowel. 
Substantives in u- or to- followed 
by a vowel make their plural 
by substituting ny- for the -u. 
Dissyllables in u- make their 
plural by merely prefixing ny-, 
Ny-y the prefix proper to adjectives. 



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362 



NYA 



agreeiog with subetanliTes of 
either number of the class 
which do not change to form 
their plural, or with the plural 
of substantives in tt-, when the 
root of the adjective begins 
with a vowel, except -ema, 
good, which makes njema or 
ngema, 
Nya hit', to fall (of rain) ; the fttt- 
bears the accent, and is re- 
tained in the usual tenses. 
Mvua inakunya, the rain is fall- 
ing (Zanzibar). 
Mvua yanya, rainfalls (M.). 
Nyaa, nails of the fingers (N.). 
Nyaka hu-, to catch. 
Nyakua fcu-, to snatch. 
ffydtOi sheaths. See AUu 
Nyalio, cross pieces put in the 
bottom of a pot to prevent the 
meat touching the bottom and 
burning. 
I^yama, flesh, meat, an animal, 
animals, beasts, cattle. 
Nyama mbwayif savage beasts. 
Nyamaa ku-, to continue silent, not 

to speak, to acquiesee. 
-nyamavu, silent. 

Nyamaza ku-, to become silent, to 
leave off talking, to oease (of 
pain). 
Nyamgumij a whale. 
Nyanana, gentle. See 'Onttna. 
•^yangdlika, a sort of a. 
Kibn kinyangdlika, a sort of a 

thing* 
Mnycmgdlika ganit What sort 
of a man is it ? 
Nyang*anya ku-, to lob, to take by 

foroe. 
Nycmgari, large (spider) shells. 
Iifyanii an ape, apes. 



Nyanya, a small red irnit used as a 
vegetfjble, &c. 

Nyanya ya hizungu, a sort of 
small tomato. 
Nyetnyfua kn^, to profane, contemn. 
Nyara, booty. 
NycLsif grass, reeds. 
Nyati, a bufialo, buffaloes. 
Nyatia ku-, to creep up to, to stalk 

(an animal, &c.). 
Nyauka kw, to dry up, to wither, 

to shrivel. 
Nyawe, his mothet (M.). 
NyayOy plur. of uayo, 
Nyea ku-, to cause to itch, to itdi. 

Imentnyea, I itch. 
Nyefua ku-y to devour like a beast 

of prey. 
Nyegi. 

Kuwa na nyegi, to be in heat. 
Nyekundu, red. See -ekundu, 
NyeU, or Nuele, or Ntbeley the hair, 
sing. unyeUy one hair. 

Nyde za kipilipili, woolly hair. 

NyeU za singa, straight hair. 
Nyembamba, thin. See -embanha, 
Nyemelea ku-, to go quietly and 

secretly pp to a thing in order 

to seize it. 
Nyemi, a great dance. 
Nyenya ku-, to talk a person into 

telling something. 
Nyenyekea ku-, to be humble. 
Nyenzo, rollers, anything to make 

things move. 
Nyepesit light See -epeti. 
Nyesha hi-, to cause to fall. 

Kunyesha mvua, to cause it to 
rain. 
Nyeta kw, to be teasing, ill-eondi* 

tioned, never satisfied. 
Nyeupe, white. See -eupe. 
NyeuH, black. See '•euH, 



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-KYB 



NYW 



363 



"nyevUf damp. 

Nyie or Enyie, joa there, I say; 
used in calling people at a dis- 
tance. 

Nytka, mldemess, cat grass (A.). 

Nyima hu-, to refnse to, to withhold 
from, not to give to. 

Nyiminyhni, into little Hts. 

Nyingi, many, much. See -ingi. 

Nyinginey other, another. See 

Nyin^inia leu-, to feway, swing. 

Also Ning'tnicL 
Nyinyi, you. 
Nyinyoro, a bulbous plant which 

throws up a large head of red 

flowers. 
Nyoa, plur. manyoa, a feather, = 

NyoycL 
Nyoa hu-, to shave. 
Nyoi (?), a locust. 
Nydka, a snake, a serpent, snakes. 
Nyoka ht^, to be straight, to be 

stretched out 
Nyonda, temptation, trial. 
Nywdo, a moth. Also Noondo* 
Nyonga, tha hip. 

Nyonga ya earara (A.), the loins. 
Nyonga Xw-, to twist, to strangle. 
Nyonganyonga ku-, to go from side 

to side, to wriggle. 
'nyonge, mean, insignifieant, vile. 
Nyongoy bile. 
Nyong'onyeya hu; to be weary, 

languid, to get slack and power* 

less. 
KyonyahWi io Btiokt 
Nyonyesha ^u-, to su^e* 
Nyonyo, 

Mafnia ya nyowyOf castor oQ (?). 
Nyonyoa Aru-, to {duck tt bbd^ to 

pull out feathers. 
I^yonyoha ts Nyonyoa. 



Nyonyoia few-, to make to smart. 
NyoToro, soft See -ororo. 
Nyosha ku-y to stretch, to straighten, 
to extend. 

Kujinyosha, to lie down, to take 
a nap. 
Nyota, a star, stars, point of the 

compass. 
Nyote, all, agreeing with ninyi, you. 

See -ote, 
Nyoya, {dur. ma/nyoya, feather. 
Nyoyo, hearts. See Moyo, 
NyuOj plur. of tio, a courtyard, en- 
closure. 
Nyukij a bee, bees. 

Asali ya nyuki, honey. 
Nyukua ku-, to tweak, to pinch 

sharply. 
Nyumaf at the back, afterwfu^s. 

Nyuma ya, behind, after. 

Nyumaye, after it, afterwards. 

Kurudi nyuma, to go back. 
Nytmba, a house, houses. 
Nyurfibo, the wildebeest, catoblepas 

gorgon. 
Nyumbu, a mule, mules. 
Nyundo, a hammer, hammers. 
Nyuni, a bird, birds (M.). 
NyungOy plur. of Ungo, 
Nyungu, a cooking pot 
Nyungtmyungu, sores in the leg, 

said to be caused by the biting of 

worms bearing the same name. 
Nyunyiza hu-, to sprinkle, to 

sprinkle upon. 
Nyunyuntka feu-, to murmur (?). 
Nyw^i, the eyebrow. 
Nywa fei/- or Nwa kii^, to drink. 

Buck up, absorb. The feu- bears 

the accent and is retained in the 

usual tenses. 
Nywea feu-, to get very tliin, to 

waste away. 



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864 



KYW 



ONB 



Nywetiha hu-, to give to driok. 
Nzi, plur. manzi, a fly. Also Inzi, 
Ntige, a locust. 
Nzigunzigu, a butterfly. 
Nzima, sound. Bee 'zintM. 
NzitOf heavy. See -zito. 
Nzuriy fine. See -zuri. 



is pronounced a little more like 
aw than is usual in English. 

U before o sometimes becomes a 
w, but very often disappears, as: 
Koga for kuoga, to bathe. This 
word and some others in o are 
sometimes incorrectly conjugated 
as if beginning in ho, 

-0 or -0-, sign of the relative, re- 
ferring to substantives in the 
singular which make their plural 
in mi-f or to singular substantives 
in «-. 

-0, the short form of woo, they or 
them. 

Oa hu', to marry, used of the bride- 
groom. Pfiissive, hiwl&uja. 

Oana ku-, to intermarry, to marry 
one another. 

Oatoa ku-j to become married (of 
the mau). 

Oaza ku-f to marry. 

Oga ku-f to bathe, frequently pro- 
nounced koga, 

Ogofisha ku-, to frighten, make 
afraid, to menace, to threaten. 

Ogofya hur, to frighten.^ 

Ogolea ku-, to swim, to swim about. 

Ogopa ku'f to fear, to be afraid. 

Oka ku-f to bake, to cook by fire 
only.-^ 

Okoa ku'i to save, to take away. 



Okchi hi-, to become saved, to 
Okota ku^ to pick up. [escape. 

Ola, woe. 

Ole wanguy wenu, &c., woe mito 
me, unto you, &c 
Olewa ku-y to marry or to be mar- 
ried, used of the bride. 
Oleza ku'f to make like, to follow a 

pattern. 
Omba hi-, to pray to, to beg of, to 

beseeclu 
Ornbeoi kvh, to intercede for, to beg 

on behalf of, to pray for. 
Omboleza ku-, to wail. 
Omoj the head of a ship. 

Fepo za omo, head winds (?)• 
Ona ku-y to see, to perceive, to feeL 

Kuona kiUf to feel thirst. 

Kujionaj to think oneself^ to 
affect to be. 

Naonaf I think so. 
Onana ku-, to meet. 
Onda ku' (M.) = Onja Ait*-, to taste, 

to try. 
Ondoy plur. tnaoncZo (A.), the knee. 
Oii^lfOa ku; to take away. 
Ondoka ku-, to go away, to get up, 
to arise. 

Ondoka mbele yangu, depart from 
me. 

Kuondoka katika tUimwengu huuj 
to depart out of this world. 
Ondokea kvh, to rise to^ or out of 

respect to. 
Ondokelea ku-^ to arise and depart 

from. 
Ondolea ku-f to remove, to take 
away from, 

Kuondolea huzuni, to che^. 
Ondxidm ku-, to make to go away, 

^ take away, abolish. 
Onea ku-, to see for, to anticipate 

for, to bullj) to opiHTess. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ONE 

Onekana leu-, to become visible, to 

appear, to be to be seen. 
Qngea ku-j to spend time, to waste 

time in talking. 
Ongeza fct*-, to make greater, add to. 

Kuongeza urefUf to lengthen. 
Ongezeka Tcu; to increase. 
Ongoa ku-, to convert, to lead 

aright. ' 
Ongofya ku-y to deceive by promises. 
Ongoka ku-, to be converted, to be 

led aright, to be healed. 
Ongokewa kii-, to prosper. 
Ongonga A;u-, to feel nausea. 
Ongoza feu-, to drive, to lead. 
Ongua ku-, to hatch. 
Ongtdiioa ku-, to be hatched. 
Onguza ku-, to scorch, to scald. 
Onja ku; to taste, try, examine. 
Onya ku-, to warn, to make to see. 
Onyesha ku-, to show. 
Opoa ku% to take out, to fish up. 
Opolea kWi to fiuh up with, for, by, 

Or/a, ot.Oro/a, or Ghorofa, an upper 

room, 
-ororo, soft, smooth. It makes /ororo, 

with nouns lik& kasha, and 

nyororo with nouns like nyumba. 
Osha ku-, to wash. 
Osheka ku-j to have been washed. 
Osiaf learning of old times. 
Ota ku-, to dream QcuLota, Mer.). 
Ota ku-j to grow. 

-ote or oi'e, all, every one, the 
whole. It vai'ies like the pos- 
sessive pronouns. 

Merikebu zote, all the ships. 

Merikebu yote, the whole ship. 

Twende tote, let us go together. 

Tvoende wote, let us both go. 

Lo lote, cho c^iQte, &c., whatsoever* 
Otea ktt-, to lie in wait for. 



PA 



365 



'Ovu or -hovu, lotten, bad, corrupt, 
wicked. It makes nibovu with 
nouns like nyumba, 

Ovyo, trash, any sort of thing. 

Otoama ku-, to be steeped. 

doamisha kw, to steep. . 

Oza fett-, to rot, to spoil, go bad. 
Also, to marry (of the parents). 



P is pronounced as in English. 

P, at the beginning of a word, has 
frequently an aspirated or rather 
an explosive sound, such as Irish- 
men sometimes give it. This is 
very marked in the name of the 
island of Pemba or P*emba. P*epo, 
the plural of upepo, wind, has a 
very strong explosive sound given 
to the first p, but in upepo both p's 
are smooth, like an ordinary Eng- 
lish p. It is probable that this 
explosive sound represents a sup- 
pressed n. 

P followed by a y sound some- 
times becomes/; kuogopa, to fear, 
kuogofya, to frighten; kxmpa, to 
swear, kuafya, to make to swear. 

Pa- or P-, the prefix proper to ad- 
jectives, pronouns, and verbs 
of both numbers governed by 
mahali, place or places. 

The prefix proper to pronouns 
following the case in -nt, when 
it denotes nearness, at, by, near. 

The prefix pa- is often applied to 
a verb in the sense of the 
English there. 

Palina or palikuwa na, there was. 
Eapajia, there is not. 
2 b 



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PA 



PAK 



It is not quite bo indefinite as hu-. 

Pa hii-, to present with, to give to. 
The ku bears the accent ; kupa 
cannot be used witiiout a person 
as its object, and the objective 
prefix bears the accent. AH- 
kiipUf he gave yon; alfmpaf he 
gave him. The passive is ku- 
pavxi or kwpewa^ and means, to 
have given to one, to receive. 

Paa^ a gazelle, a small kind of 
antelope. ' 

Vaa, plur. mapaa, a thatched roof. 
Nyuniba ya mdpaa manner a roof 
of four slopes. 

P<m ku-, to ascend, to go np. 

Paa kur, to scrape. 
Kupaa samaki, to scrape the 

scales off a fish. 
Kupaa sandarusi, to clean gnm 



Kupaxt moto, to take fire and 
carry it on a potsherd, &o. 
Paanda, a trumpet. 
Paangey a horsefly, a gadfly. 
PaangOy plur. mapaangOy a cave, 

a den. 
Paaza ku-, to make to rise. 

Kupaaza pumzi, to draw in the 
breath. 
Paaza ku-^ to grind coarsely, not to 

make fine meal. 
Paeha, a twin. 

Kuzaliwa pacha, to be born twins. 

Paoha ya nje, a child of which 
its mother was pregnant while 
suckling a previous child. 
Paehika kvr, to put an arrow on 

the string, to stick a knife in 

one's girdle, &c. 
Padiri or Padre, plur. mapad/hi, 

a padr^, a priest, a clergyman, 
i'fl/tt, lungs. 



PAga ku-, to strike bard, to hftrpioon 

a whale. 
Pagaa ku-, to carry on the shoulders, 
to possess (of an evil spirit). 

Amepa^awa na pepo, he is pos- 
sessed of an evil spirit. 
Pagaza ku-, to make to bear, applied 

to an evil spirit causing a man to 

fall sick. 
Pagua ku-, to take off, strip off (as 

boughs and leaves). 
PahaU, in the place, at the place. 
Paja, plur. mapaja^ the thigh. 
Paje, red mtama [Pemba]. 
Paji la .U80, the forehead. 
Paka, a cat, cats. 
Paka ku-, to rub in, to smear on. 
Pakaa ku- = Paka ku-, 
Paka^ha, plur. mapakaeha, a basket 

made by plaiting together part 

of a cocoa-nut leaf. 
Pakacha, plur. mapakaeha, people 

who prowl about at night to do 

mischief. 
Pakana ku-, to border upon. 
Pakanya, rue. 

Pakasa ktt- (Mer.), to twist rope. 
Pakata ku-, to hold a child on the 

lap or in firont. 
Pake, his, hers, or its, after mahali, 

or the case in -ni signifying 

nearness. See -ake. 
Pakia ku-, to load a ship, to be 

loaded with, to carry as cargo, 

to have on board. 
PaMoha ku-, 

Kupakicha migun, to cross the legs 
in sitting; reckoned improper 
in Zanzibar. 
Pakilia ku-, to embark for, to put 

on board for. 
Pakiza ku-, to stow on board shLip, 



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PAK 

FakOy thy, yoiir, after mahali^ or 
the case in -ni denoting nearness. 
See 'oko, 
Pdkua ku; to take out of the pot, 

to dish, to lade out. 
Pakuna ku, to scratch. 
Pakutokea, a place to go out at, an 

outlet. 
Pale, there, that place, of things 

not Tery for off. 
Palepdle, just there, at that very 

spot. 
Palia ku', to hoe. 
Kupalia nwtOj to pick up for, and 

take live embers to a person. 
Kupaliwa na mate or maji, to 
choke with spittle or with 
what one is drinking, so as to 
send it into one's nose, ears, 
&o. 
Palikuwa nOf there was or there 

were. 
Palilia hu-, to hoe up, to draw the 
earth up round growing crops, to 
hoe between crops. 
Paliliza ku-, to cause to be hoed. 
Paliza ku', to lift up the voice. 
Palu, plur. mapalu, little cakes of 

sugar, bhang, and opium. 
Pamba, cotton. 

Pamha ku-, to adorn, to deck out, 
furnish. 
Kupaniba merikebUf to dress a 

ship. 
Ku^mpainba mayiti, to put cotton 
in ears, mouth, &c of a dead 
person before burying him. 
Pambaja ku-f to embrace. 
Pambana ku-, to meet in a narrow 
place where two cannot go 
abreast; applied to ships it 
means, to go alongside, to get 
foul of one another. 



PAN 367 

Pamhdnisha /few-, to bring together, 

to compare. 
Pamhanua ku-, to distinguish, to 

separate, to discriminate. 
Panibanulia ku-, to describe by 

distinguishing. 
Pambanya ku-, or Pamhanyiza ku-, 

to overbear by loud talking, &c. 
Pamhauka or Pamhazuka ku-, to 

become light in the morning. 
Pamhazua ku-, to speak plainly. 
PamheU, in front. 

Pambo, plur. mapambo, adornment, 
dressing. 
Pambo la nynm&a, house furniture. 
Pamqja, in one place, together. 

Pamoja na, together with, with. 
Pana, there is or are, was or were. 
'panay broad, wide. It makes pana 

with nouns like nyuniba. 
Pana ku-, to make mutual gifts. 
Panapana, flat, level, even. 
Panapo, where there is, are, was or 

were. 
Panchayat, five head men (Hind.), 

governing council. 
Panda (M.) = Panja. 
Panda, a bifurcation, as where a 
road divides into two, where 
two streams jpin, where the 
bough of a tree forks. 
Njia panda, cross roads, or where 
three ways meet; there is a 
superstitious custom ctf empty- 
ing rubbish and 'dirt at such 
places. 
Panda hu-, to mount, to get up, 
ascend, ride, to go on board, to 
go ashore (of a ship). 
Panddi kw, to set aside. 
Panda ku-, to plant, to sow. 
Pandana ^u-, to lie across ciie 
another. 

2b2 



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868 



PAN 



PAS 



Pande mbUi^ on both sides. See 

Upande, 
Pandishq ku-, to make to go up, to 

hoist, to raise. 
Panga ku-, to rent, to hire a house. 
Panga ku-, to put in a line, to set 

in order. 
PangOj plur. of upanga. 
Pangana ku-, to be in rows. 
Pangincy another place, other places. 
See -ngine, 

PanginepOf elsewhere. 
PangUha ku-, to let a house to. 
Pangisha ku-, to make people sit in 

rows or in order. 
Pangu, my. See -angu, 
Pangusa ku-, to wipe.. 
Panjc^ the forelock. 

Mapanja^ the recedins; of the 
hair on each side of the fore- 
lock. 
Panua kur, to widen, to make 

broad. 
Panulia ku-, to widen for, to set 

wide apart 
Panuka fcu-, to become broad, to 

widen. 
Panya, a rat, rats. 
Panyamavu, a quiet place, a calm 

spot See -nyamavu. 
Paza ku-y to set up, to raise. 

Kupanza mtambo wa hunduki, to 
cock a gun. 
Panzif a grasshopper, a kind of 

fish. 
Panzi ya nazi, brown rind of the 

cocoa-nut kernel. 
Pao, their. See clo. 
Poo, clubs (in cards). 
P*apa, a shark. ♦ 

Papa hapa, just here. 
Papa ku-i to transude, to allow 

l^ansudation. 



Papasa ku-, to touch gentlj% to 

stroke, to feel, to grope. 
Papasif ticks, especially those found 

in native huts. 
Papatika ku-^ to flutter like a bird. 
Papaiua ku-, to shell, to husk. 
Papayi, plur. mapapayt, papaws, a 

common kind of fruit. 
Papayuka kti*, to |3e delirious, to 

wander. 
Papayuza ku-t to make delirious. 
Papta ku', to eat all one can get, to 

eat without bounds. 
Papua kU', to tear. , 
Papura kti-f to daw, to scratch 

deeply. 
Papuri, thin cakes flavoured with 

asafoetida^ 
Papurika ku-, to be lacerated. 
Papuriana ku-, to pick holes in one 

another's reputation. 
Paraf a scraping, sliding. 
Para, plur. mapara, cakes of sem- 

sem. 
Parafujo, a screw. 
Paraga ku-, to climb a tree. 
Parahara, a large kind of antelope. 
Parapara ku-, to paw the ground 

like a horse. 
Paruga ku-, to be rough and grat- 
ing. 
Paruza ku-, to grate, to graze, to be 

harsh and rough, to strike a 

match. 
Paruzana ku-, to graze (as of two 

boats, &c.). 
Pasa ku-, or Pasha ku-, to come to 
concern, to become a duty. 

Imekupamje 1 What have you 
to do with it ? 

Imenipasa, I ought 
Pasha ku-, to lend money to, to 
give privately or beforehaiMl. 



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PAS 



PEL 



'S69 



Kupcuiha motOf to warm up, to 
set before the fire. 
Pcmi, a clothes-iron. 

Kupiga paHy to iron. 
Patipo^ without, where there is not. 
Pontic, without there being. 
Pasua ku-y to cleave, to split, to 

Pasuka hw, to become rent, to 
burst, to crack, to be split. 

Pamkapasuka kth, to be split up, 
rent to pieces. 

Pata, a drawn game at cards where 
each side marks sixty. 

Pata ku-j to get, to reach, to suffer, 
to find an opportunity, to suc- 
ceed in doing, to happen id 
Kupata is often used with other 
verbs where we use may or 
might : 
Apate kujOi that he may come. 
Kisu ehapatoy the knife is sharp. 
Kim hakipatif the knife is blunt. 
Kilichompataf what happened to 

him. 
Chapataje f What is it worth? 
Kupata haaara, to lose. 

Pata few, to make a lattice, as by 
weaving sticks or canework. 

Patana ku-, to agree, to come to an 
agreement. 

PatanUha few-, to bring to an agree- 
ment 

Patasi, a chisel. 

Paihivoa ku-, to be bom. 

Pati, a coloured kind of stuff. 

Patia ku; to get for. 

Patiala, a great cheat, a thorough 
rogue. 

Pattkana Aru-, to be procurable, to 
be got. 

PatUiza ku-, to visit upon, to re- 
member against 



Pato, plur. mapato, what is got, 

gettings, income, proceeds. 
Pattay a hinge. 
Patvoa ku'f to be eclipsed. 
Properly, to be got, referring to 
the superstition that a huge 
snake has seized the moon or 
sun. 
Pan (plur. of Upau\ the purlins 
'of a roof, the small sticks tied 
horizontally to fasten the thatch 
to. Also, rafters (?). » 
Payo, plur. mapayo, one who can- 
not keep a secret. 
Payuka ku-, to blab, to talk without 

thinking. 
Payuza ku-,. to make over-talkative. 
Tembo limempayuzdy the palm 
wine has made his tongue go. 
Pazia, plur. mapazia^ a curtain. 
Pea^ a rhinoceros. 
Pea ku', to sweep (M.). 
Pea ku-y to grow to fall size, to get 
its growth, to become such that 
there is nothing more to do, to 
.reach its limit. 
Pekecha ku-y to bore a hole, to get 
fire by twirling a stick, to trouble 
people by tales and tale-bearing. 
Peketeka ku-, to scorn, to have no 

fear about one. 
Pekee, onliness. 

Wa pekee, only. 
Peke yanguy Ac, by myself, I alone. 
Peke is never used in Zanzibar 
without a possessive pronoun 
following it, and signifies that 
the person or thing is alone, or 
that it is the only one. 
PekeyetUy by ourselves, or we 
alone. 
Pekua ku-y to scratch like a hen. 
Pele, plur. of upeUy the itch. 



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870 



PEL 



PET 



Peleka Jcu-, to caoBe to arrive at a 

place distant from the periton 

speakiDg, to send, to take, to con- 
duct. 
PeUkea ku-, to send, take, or conduct 

to a person. 
Veldeza ku-, to spy out, to look 

curiously into. 
F*ejnbey horn, comer, ivory. 

Pembe ya nyoka, a small white 
horn, esteemed to be a great 
medicine. 

Kutoa na pembe pembe, to have 
corners, to be angular, to be all 
comers. 

Pembenij in the comer. 

Penibe za mvoaka, the four seasons, 
points of the world. 
PemJbeay a swing. 
Pembeleza kvr, to beseech. 
Pembeza ku-, to rock, to lull. 
Penda kur, to like, to love, to wish, 

to approve, to choose,' to prefe^ 
Pendekeza kvr^ to make pleasing. 

Kt^ipendekeza, to ingratiate one- 
self with, to flatter. 
Pendelea fcu-, to favour. 
Pendeleo, plur. mapendeleo, a favour. 
Pendeleza ku-, to make another love 

one. 
Pendeza ^u-, to please, to become 

pleasing. 
Pendezewa ku-, to be pleased, to be 

glad. 
Pendo, love. 

Pendo la malt, the love of riches. 
Pengi, many places. See -ingi. 
Pengo, a notch, a place where a 
triangular bit is broken out. 

Ana pengo, he has lost a front 
tooth. 
Penu, your. Bee -enu. 
Penya ku-, to penetrate. - 



Penyesha %u-, to pierce, to put 

through, to cause to penetrate. 
Penyij having (of place), where is 
or was. 

Penyi mtende, where the date tree 
Pepa ku-j to stagger. [was. 

Pepea ku-, to fan. 
Pepeo, plur. map^peo, a fan, a screw 

propeller. 
Peperuka &«-, to be blown away. 
Peperusha ku-, to blow away. 
Pepesa ku-, to wink. 
Pepemka ku-, to totter. 
Pepeta ku-, to sift, to toss in a flat 

basket, so as to separate the chaif 

and the grain. 
Pepetua ku-^ to force open. 
Pepo, a spirit, a sprite, an evil 
spirit. 

Pepo mbaya, an evil spirit. 

Peponi, paradise, in paradise. 

Pepo (plur. of upepd), much wind. 

Pepo za chamchelaf a whirlwind. 

iiaji ya pepo, fresh water. 
Pepua ku-, to sift apart the whole 

horn the broken grains. 
Pera, plur. mapera, a guava. 
Peso, plur. pesa or mapesa, pice, the 

Anglo-Indian quarter anna, ther 

only small coin in Zanzibar; 

sometimes a dollar is worth 140, 

sometimes only 112. 
Pe8a ku- (M.) = Pepeta ku-, 
Peta ku-, to bend round, to make 

into a ring. 
Peta ku' = Pepeta ku; 
Petana ku-, to bend round, to be 

bent in a circle. 
Pete, plur. pete or mapete, a ring. 

Pete ya masikio, an earring. 
Petemana ku-, to be bent round. 
Peto, plur. ma.peto, a bundle, a thing 

carried, a large matting bag. 



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PET 



pia 



371 



Petu, onr* See -etu, 
-pevu, Ml grown. 
Pevua kt^, to make full grown. 
Kujipevwiy to think onesdlf a 
man. 
Pevuka hu-y to become full grown, 

to reach its full size. 
Pewa hu'y to get from some one, to 

be presented with, to receive. 
Pezi, plur. mapezi, a fin. 
-pi subjoined to the personal sign 
makes the interrogative which ? 
See Api* 
Nitawezapi ? How can I P 
'pia or 'pyay new. 
Pia^ all, tiie whole, entirely. 

Pia yote, completely, utterly. 
Pia, a top, a humming-top. 
Piga ku-f to strike, to beat, to flap. 
Kupiga na inchi, to strike on the 

ground. 
Kupiga is used of many actions in 
which the idea of striking does 
not always seem to be implied. 
Kupiga homba, to pump. 

„ htmduki, bastdot, &c., to 
fire a gun, a pistol, &c 
n chapa, to print. 
„ fcUakif to prognosticate 

by the stars. 
f, /undo, to tie a knot 
„ kdde, to shout. 
„ kengeUy to ring a bell. 
^ kUemba, to wind a cloth 
round the head so as to 
. make a turban. 
^ kiowe, to scream. 
„ kofi, to box the ears, to 

slap. 
„ kura, to cast lots. 
„ makofi, to clap the hands. 
„ magote, to kneel. 
^ rnbindaf to whistle. 



Kupiga mbio, to run, to gallop. 
„ mbizVf to dive. 
„ miao, mieonoy or miunzif 
to make a whistling 
noise. 
„ mikambe, in bathing, to 
duck under water and 
. fling over one leg. 
kupiga mizinga ya ealaamUf to 
fire a salute. 
T, mstari, to rule a line. 
M mtakaso, to rustle like 

new clothes. 
„ mvuke, to smoke meat, 
„ nyiayoy to gape. [&c 
, „ pasi, to iron. 
„ pembe, to gore, 
n pigoj to strike a blow. 
„ pua, to snort 
„ ramlif to prognosticate 

by diagrams. 
„ randa, to plane. 
„ teke, to kick. 
„ umemey to lighten, to 

flash. 
„ uwinda, to draw the ends 
of the loin cloth be- 
tween the legs and 
tuck them in. 
„ yotoe, to cry for help. 
M zomariy kinanda, &q^ to 
play upon the flageo- 
let, guitar, &0. 
Pigana ku-, to fight. 

Kupigana kwa mbavu, to wrestle. 
Piganisha ku-, to make to fight, to 

set on. 
Piganiahana ku-, to set on to fight 

together. 
Pigilfa ku-, to beat as the stone 
roofs are beaten. Small wooden 
rammers are used, and a great 
number of people are engaged for 



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372 



PIG 



POF 



about three days, with mnsio and 

songs ; the object of this beating 

is to prevent the roof cracking as 

it dries, and to consolidate it 

while moist 
Pigiza ku-j to make to beat. 

Kupigiza tanga, to go so close to 
^e wind that the sail flaps. 
PigOj plur. mapigoj a blow. 
P-Uca ku-f to cook. 
Pikia ku'i to cook for. 

Kupikiujaj to have cooked for one. 
PUaOt piUaw, an Indian dish. 
P'ili, a large kind of snake. 
Pibi, two (in counting). 

Ta pill, the second. 

Ta pili yake, the next. 

Tide wa pili, the other. 

Mara ya pUif a second time, again. 
PhUipili hohoy red pepper. 
Pilipili manga, common pepper. 
Pimaj plur. mapima, a fathom. 
Pima fctt-, to measure, to weigh. 

Kupima maji, to sound. 
Pinda ku-, to bend. 

Kupinda na mguut talipes. 
Pindana ftw-, to bend together. 
Pindi, plur. mapindi, a twisting, a 

wriggle, cramp. 
Pindiy if, when (?), although. 
Pindo, plur. mapindo, the longer 

edge of a cloth, selvedge. 
Pindua ku-, to turn over, to upset. 

Kupinduakwa damalinij to wear 
ship. 

Kupindua kwa goshini, to tack. 
Pinduka &i*-, to be turned over, to 

be upset. 
Pinga kvr^ to hinder, to block the 
way, to lay a wager. 

Kupinga chomho kwa shikio, to 
turn a dhow on one side by 
means of the rudder. 



Pingamizif a meddler, one who in- 
terferes to spoil a bargain, or to 

give trouble. 
Plngia hur, to fasten a door, &c., bj 

means of a bar. 
PingUi. 

Pingili ya muOf the piece of a 
sugar-cane which lies between 
two knots. 
Pii^o, plur. mapingOf a bar. 
Pinguy fetters, consisting generally 

of two rings and a bar. 
Pinif plur. mapini, a haft, a hilt. 
Pipa, plur. mapipa, a barrel, tub, 

cask, pipe. 
Pipya, new. See -pya. 
Pirikana ku-, to be strong and well 

knit. 
Pisha ku-f to make to pass, espe- 
cially without intending to do eo, 

let pass, make way for. 
Ptahana ku-, to pass while going 

opposite ways. 
PMt, a weight of about 6 lbs. = 4 

mbaha, 
Puho, cautery, marks of cautery. 
PUiy parched maize. 
PiH = Fisi. 

Piswa ku', to become silly, to dote. 
Pita ku, to pass, surpass, excel. 
Pitisha ku-, to make to pass, to 

pass. 
Po, -po, or 'po-, a particle signifying 
where, or when, while, as, if. 

Po pote, everywhere, wherever. 
Poa ku-, to become cool, to become 
Podo, a quiver. {well. 

Po/tt, plur. mapqfu, scum, bubble, 

froth. 
Pofua ku-, to spoil the eyes, to make 

bUnd. 
Pofuka ku; to have the eyes spoilt, 

to become blind. 



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POG 



paT 



373 



Pogo, on one side. 
Kwenda pogo, to go onesidedly, 
not straight. 
PotrUa, the wrist-stitching of a 

coat. 
Poka ku; to take suddenly and 
violently, to rob. 
Kupokwa, to be robbed. 
Pokea ku-, to receive, to take from 

some one else. ' 
Pokelea ku-, to receive for or on 

account of another. 
Pokezana ku-, to go on with by 

turns. 
Pokezanya kti-, to shift a burden or 
work from one to another as each 
gets tired. 
Pokonya fcii-, to snatch away, to 

extort. 
PoU, a little, slightly. 

Amengua poUf he is not very well. 
PolepoUt gently, moderately .quietly. 
Pomhe, native beer. 
Pomhoo, a porpoise. 
Pomoka ku-y to Ml in, to cave in. 

See Bmnoka, 
Pomosha ku-^ to cause to fall in. 
Pana fctt-, to get well, to become 

safe. 
Ponda ku'y to pound, to beat up, to 

crush. 
P(mdeka ku-^ to be crushed. 
Ptmdekana ktir, to crush and bruise 
one another, as mtama stalks do 
after much rain and wind. 
P<mOy a kind of fish said to be 
nearly always asleep. 
Ana usingizi kama pono, he is 
never awake. 
Ponoa ku-j to strip off. 
Ponya kth, to make well, to cure, 
to save. 
Jiponye! Lookout! 



Ponyesha hu-t to cause to be made 

well, to cure. 
Ponyoka ku-, to slip off, slip out of 

one's hands. 
Ponza ku'j to put in danger. 
Poopoo, a bullet, a musket ball. 
Pooza, plur. mapooza, a thing which 

never comes to perfection. 
Pooza ku-, to become useless, to 
wither and drop. 
Mwenyi kupooza, a paralytic. ^ 
Poozesha ku-, to paralyze. 
PopOj a bat. 

PopoOf the areca nut, commonly 
chewed with betel-leaf, lime, and 
tobacco. 
Popotoa ku'j to wring, twist, strain, 

distort. 
Popotoka ku', to be distorted. 
Pora, a young cockerel not yet old 

enough to crow. 
Poroa kw, to cool, to get thin or 

watery. 
Poromoka ft«-, to slip down a steep 

place. Also Boromoka. 
Posa ku', to ask in marriage. 
Posha ku'j to give rations to. 
Posho, rations. 
Po8o, a demand in marriage. 
Posoro, an interpreter, a middle- 
man. 
Pot€y all, of time or place. See 

-ote, 
Potea ku-, to become lost, to get lost, 
to perish, to become lost to. 
Kisu kimenipotea, I have lost my 
knife. 
Potelea ku-, to perish. 

Potelea mhali, go and be hanged. 
Poteza ku-, to cause to be lost, to 

cause to perish. 
Potoa ku', to go crooked, to turn 
aside. See Jipotoa, 



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374 



POT 



PUN 



'potoe, dbstinate, good for nothing. 

Potoka fctt-, to become crooked, to 
be turned and twisted. 

PovUf scum, skimmings, bubble, 
froth. 

Povuka hU' = Pofuka Ast*-, to be- 
come blind. 

Poza hu; to cure, to cool by lading 
up and pouring back again. 

Ptta, the nose, the apex of an arch. 
Mwanzi wa pua, the division 
between the nostrils, the nos- 
tril. 

Pua, steeL 

Pua ku', to shell beans, ppas, &c 

Pugi, a very small kind of dove. 

Pujua Tcu', 
Kujipujua, to cast off all shame. 

PuTcusa fctt-, to rub the grains off a 
cob of Indian com, to make to 
fall off, to shake fruit from a tree, 
to throw coins among a crowd, 
&c. 

Pukute. 
Pukute ya «?aK, rice so cooked 
that the grains are dry and 
separate. 

Pukutika ku-f to shed, to drop like 
leaves in autumn. 

Pulika ku', to hear, to attend to 
(A.). 

PuUkana ku-^ to hear one another. 

Puliza ku-f to puff or blow with the 
mouth. A^, to let go an anchor, 
to let down a bucket into a welL 

Puliki, a spangle, spangles. 

PuMu, plur. mapululu, wilderness, 
waste country. 

Ptduni or Pululuni^ in the wilder- 
ness. 

Pwma ku'j to throb. 

Pumba, plur. mapumhaf a clod, a 
lump. 



Pumhaa Zpu-, to be sluggish about 
Pumbazika kvr, to become a fool. 
Pumbo or puwhu, the scrotum. 
JiapumbUi or koko za pumbu^ or 
mayayi k/a pumbOy testicles. 
PwnUy an asthma, the lungs. 
PumtM ku; to breathe. 
Pumuzij breaUu 
Kupaaza py^muzi, to draw in the 

breath, to inspire. 
Kuahusha pumuzi, to breathe out, 
to expire. 
Pumzi = Pumuzi. 
Pumzika ku-, to rest, to breatb one- 
self. 
Pumzikio, plur. mapumzikio, a rest- 
ing-place. 
Puna ku-f to peel, scrape, scrape off. 
Punda, a donkey, donkeys. 

Punda mUia, a zebra. 
PundCj a little more. 

Mrefu pundsy a little longer. 
Punga (sing. Vpunga), the flower 
and very first stage of the cocoa- 
nut. 
Punga ku-, to swing, to sway, to 
wave. Swaying the arms in 
walking is thought to give 
elegance to a woman's caniage. 
Kupunga pepoy to expel an evil 

spirit by music, dancing, &c. 
Kukunga upepo, to be fanned by 
the wind, to beat the air. 
Pungia ku-y to wave to, to beokon 
to. 
Kupungia nguo, to wave a cloth 
up and down by way of beckon- 
ing to some one to come. 
P'unguy a kind of fish, a large bird 

of prey. 
Pwngua ku-y to diminish, waste, 

wear away. 
Punguaniy a defect (H.). 



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PUN 



BAH 



375 



Punguka ku', to become smaller, to 

fall short. ^ 

Pnnguza hu-, to dimmish, to make 
less, to lessen. 

Kupunguza tango, to reef a Bail. 
Punja ku-, to swindle, to sell a 

little for the price of a large 

quantity. 
Punje, grains of com. 
Puoj nonsense. 
Pupa, eagerness, excessive rapidity. 

Kida kfjoa pupa, to eat so vora- 
ciously that one's companions 
get little or none. 
Puputika ku-, to fall in a shower. 
Pura ku-, to beat out com. 
Puruka kU', to fiy oflf. 
Purukusha ku-, 

Kujipuruktisha, to refuse to 
attend to, to make light of a 
Puta ku; to beat [matter. 

Putika kw, to be well beaten. 
Putugalif a fowl [Pemba]. 
PuuDO, nonsense. 
Puza ku', to talk nonsense, to 

chatter. 
Puzia ku-, to breathe, to blow with 

the mouth. 
Puzika ku-, to talk nonsense, to be 

detained gossiping. 4 

Pwa ku-, to ebb, to become dry. 
Pwaga ku- = Kupwaya, 
Pwai ku; to be loose, to waggle 

about See Pufaya, 
Ptoani, the shore, on the beach, 

near the shore. 
Pvaaya ku-, to give a final cleaning 

to rice by repounding it 
Pvaaya ku-, to bo loose (of clothes). 
Pwayika ku- to be quite clear of 

husks, dirt and dust. 
PvooML ku-, to cook muhogo cut up 

into small pieces. 



Pti^ea ^-, to be dry. 

SatUi imenipujea, I am hoarse. 
Pwekee^ only, alone (A.). 
PweUka ku-, to be dried up, to be 

left high and dry. 
Pwevsa ku-y to become or be left 
dry. 

Kupwewa na Muti^ to become 
hoarse. 
Pfjoeza, a cuttle-fish. 
-pya, new, fresh. It makes 'mpya 

with nouns like nyumba ; jipya, 

with nouns like kasha ; and pipya, 

with nouns of place. 



E is pronounced as in English. 

The Arabic B is much stronger 
and more grating than the English, 
more so perhaps than even the 
Scotch and Irish r. In Arabic words 
it is correct to give the r this strong 
sound, but in Swahili mouths it 
is generally smoothed down to- 
wards that iudeterininate African 
sound which is frequently written 
as an Z. The Swahili, however, 
often prefer to write and pronounce 
it as a smooth English r. (3ee L.) 

Radi, a crack of thunder, crashing 
thunder, thunder near at hand. 

Radu = BadL 

Raff, the wall at the back of a re- 
cess. 

Rafiki, plur. rafiki or marafiki, a 
friend. 

Raha, peace, joy, ease, pleasure. 

Rahani, a pledge, a mortgage. 

Rahisi = Rakhisi. 

Rahman^ a chart, a map. 



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376 



BAI 



BIS 



Bai leu-, to put morsels of food into 
a person's mouth as a mark of 
honour or affection. 

Bajabuy the seventh month of the 
Arah year. It is esteemed a 
sacred month because Moham- 
med's journey to Jerusalem is 
paid to have taken place on the 
27tkofit. 

Rak%isiy or Bahiei, cheap. 

Rakhisisha ku-y to make cheap, to 
undervalue. 

Bakibisha feu-, to put together, to 
set up and put in order. 

Bakibyueoj the composition of a 
word. 

Ramaihani, the month of fasting. 

Bamba, plur. maramhat a piece of 
Madagascar grass cloth. 

Baniba ku-, to lick. 

Bamba, a chisel-shaped knife used 
by shoemakers. 

Bamli, sand (Ar.). 
Kupiga ramli, to divine by dia- 
grams. 

Bammuy sadness. 

Banda, a plane. 
Kupiga randa, to plane. 

Banda feu-, to dance for joy. 

Bangif colour, paint. 

Barua ku-, to rend, to tear. 

Baa il mali, chief possession. 

Batihia kvr, to sprinkle. 

Bast, head, cape. 

Bdtaha, wet. 

Bdtely or ratli, a weight of about a 
pound. 

Bafhif satisfied, content, gracious, 
approving, approval, blessing. 
Kuwa rathif to be satisfied, to be , 

contei^t with. 
Niujie rathiy forgive me, excuse 
me. 



Kunrathh don't be offended. 
Bathiana ku-^ to consent, assent. 
Batibu ku-, to arrange. 
BaUi = Bdtel 
BauH ku-, to trim a sail. 
BayiOt a subject, subjects. 

Bayiat al Ingrez, British subjects. 
Be or Bet, the ace in cards. 
Bea or Beale, a dollar. 

Beale ya thahahu, an American 
gold 20-dollar piece. 

BeaU Fransa or ya Kifransay a 
French 5-frano piece. 

Beale ya Sham or Fetha ya Sham, 
black dollars. 
-refu, long. It makes ndefu with 

nouns like nyumha. 
Begea ku- = Bejea ku-, 
Begea ku- or Legea ku-, to be loose, 

slack, relaxed, feeble. 
Begesha ku- or Begeza ku-, to loosen, 

to relax. 
Behani =^ Bahani, 

Kuioeka rehani, to pawn. 
Behema, mercy. 

Behemu ku-, to have mercy upon. 
Bet = Be, 

BeJea ku-, to go back, return, refer. 
Bejeza ku-, to make to go back, to 

repay. 
Bekdbisha ku-, to put on the top of. 
Bekeb'u ku-, to ride. 
•remo, Portuguese. 

Bihanif a scented herb, sweet basil. 
„ ya kipata, with notched 

leaves. 
„ ya kiajjemi, with long 
straight leaves. 
Binga ku- = Kulinga, to sway to 

the tune of a song (only the chief 

men may do this). 
Biiosi, lead. Also Lisasi. 

BisaH ya hunduki, a bullet. 



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BIS 

RUimu X;u-, to make a first hid 

when anything is oflfered for sale. 
Ttithi ku-, to inherit (rth- as in thing). 
Riihia ku- (-th- as in this), to be 

contented with, to acquiesce in. 
Rithika ku-, to satisfy, to content. 
Hiza, a door chain. 
Rizikit necessaries, all that a man 

has need of. 
RdbOf a quarter, a quarter of a 
dollar. 

Boho Ingreza, an English sotc- 
reign, 
Jtobola^ a packet or parcel of goods. 
JtodcLt sheave of a pulley. 
Bofya, 

Kupiga rofya, to fillip. 
Itoho, soul, spirit, breath, life. 
Roho, greediness, the throat 
Rubaniy a pilot, a guide. 
Bttdi ku-f to return, to go back, to 

correct, to keep in order. 
Rudiana ku-, to object to. 
Rudika ku-y to be made to return, to 

be kept in order, to be capable of 

being kept in order. 
Rudisha kit-, to make to return, to 

give back, to send back. 
Rttdufya ku-^ to double. 
Rufuf, the shelf in a recess. 
Euhuaa = Ruksa, leave. 
Ruhusa kvr = Rukhvsu ku-, to give 
Raka ku-, to fly, to leap. [leave. 
Rukaruka ku-, to hop. 
Rukia ku-9 to fly or leap with, &c. 
RukacLf or Rukusa, or Rukhtisa, leave, 
permission, liberty. 

Kupa ruksa, to give leave, to set 
at liberty, to dismiss. 

Ruksaf you can go. 
Rukhusu ku- or Ruhusu ku-, to give 

leave, to permit, to allow, to dis- 
. miss* 



S 



377 



Rukhuthu ku-f to run, 

Rukioa ku'. 
Kuruktoa na akili, to lose one*8 
senses, to be stunned. 

Rungu, a club, a mace. 

Rupia, a rupee. 

Rwpta = Rdbota, a bale. 

Rmasi = Risasi, lead. 

Rtuiha ku-f to make to fly, to throw 
up or offi to throw a rider, to 
splash about 

Rushia ku-, to throw upon, to splash. 

Rushwa, a bribe. 

Ruiuba, dampness. 

Ruivbika ku-^ to be damp. 

Rutvbisha ku-, to make damp. 

Ruwasa^ a pattern from which any- 
thing is to be made. 

Ruzuku ku-, to supply with needful 
things, especially of God provid- 
ing for His creatures. 



S. 

8 is pronounced as in several, or 
like the as in German. 

8h is pronounced as in English, 
or like sch in German. 

8 and eh are distinct in Arabic 
and are generally distinguished in 
good SwahiU. There are, however, 
many words in which they are used 
indifferently; and in common talk 
the sh seems to be rather the more 
common. Many natives seem un- 
conscious of any difference between 
them. 

8 is used for the Arabic fha by 
persons who cannot pronounce th. 

In the Pemba dialect eh is often 
used for ch, 

Mouhungvja = Machungwa, 



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378 



SAA 



SAK 



Saa^ hoar, clook, watch. 

8aa ngapii what o'clock is it? 
According to Arab reckoning 
the day begins at sunset. Mid- 
night is unku saa ya sita ; four 
A.H. Boa a kumi ; six a.m. ma 
a thenashara ; noon, ma a sita. 
JSaa ! You I I say I You now ! 

Njoo saa ! Come along, do I 
Saa hu-, to remain over, to be left. 
Saala, plur. mamala, a question. 
Saanda, a shroud, a winding-sheet. 
Saba^ or Saha'ay seven. 

Ya sahay seventh. 
Sabaa, a stay (in a dhow). 
Sababu, cause, reason. 

Kwa sahabu ya, because of, be- 
cause. 
Sabainiy seventy, = Sabtmni, 
Sabatcuhara, seventeen. 
Sabuni, soap. 
Sabuni ku-, to bid, to be in treaty, 

to buy. 
Saburi, patience. 
Saburi ku-t to wait. 
Sabmnif seventy. 
Sadaka, an offering, an alms, an act 

of charity, anything done for the 

love of God. 
Sadiki ku-, to believe. 
Safari, a journey, a voyage, used for 
•* time "or "turn." 

Safari Mi, this time. 
Saff, serene. 
Safi, pure, clean. 
Safi ku-, to clean. 
Safidi ku-, to clear up, to make 

smooth and neat. 
Sajihi, rudeness 
Sajika ku-, to be purified. 
Safina (Ar.), a vessel. 
Biifiri few- to travel, to set out on a 

journey, sail, start. 



Safirisha ku-, to make to travel, to 

see any one off. 
Safisha ku', to make pure or clean. 
Safu, a row, rows, a line. 

Safu za kaida, regular rows. 
Safura, biliousness, gall, a com- 
plaint in whi6h people take to 

eating earth. 
Saga kw, to grind. 

Kusagwa na gari, to be run over 
by a cart. 
Sagai, a spear, a javelin. 
Sagia kvr, to grind with or for. 

Mawe ya kvsagia, millstones, a 
mill, a handmill. Two loose 
stones are often used, the upper 
one is called mwana, and the 
lower mama, 
Sdhani, a dish. 

Sdhari, checked stuff for turbans. 
Sahau kvr or Sahao ku-, to forget, to 

make a mistake. 
Sdhauliwa ku-, to be forgotten. 
Sahib, sir. 
Sahibu, a Mend. 
Sahili. 

Kutia sahili, to sign. 
Sahihi, correct, right. 
Sahihi ku-, to be correct, to be 

right. 
Sahthisha ku-, to correct. 
Saili ku-, to ask, to question. 
Sailia ku-, to ask on behalf of. 
Saka ku', to hunt. 
Sakafu, a chunammed floor, a floor 

or roof of stone, covered with 

a mixture of lime and sand, and 

beaten for about three days with 

small wooden rammers. 
Sakama ku-, to become jammed, to 
Sakani, a rudder. [stick fast. 

Saki ku-, to come close to, to touch, 

to come home. 



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SAE 



6EL 



379 



Sakifu ^ti-, to make a ehunofmrned 
floor or roof. 

/Sala, prayer, the prescribed Moham- 
medan form -of deyotion inolud- 
ing the proper gestures. 

ScUctama = Salama. 

Salaam, or Sdlaamu, or Salamu, 
compliments, safety, peace. 
Kupiga mizinga ya talamUy to 
fire a salute. 

Salahisha hu-f or SeUMsha, or SvHu- 
huiha, to make to be at peace. 

Salala, the meat near the backbone, 
the undercut of meat. 

Salama^ safe, safety. 

Bali Jethy to use the regular Moham- 
medan devotions, to say one's 
prayers. 

Salia ku; to be left, to remain. 

Salimu ^u-, to salute. 

Salimia ku-y to salute, to send com- 
pliments to. 

Saliti ku-, to betray secrets. 

Saluda^ a sweetmeat made of saffiron, 
sugar^ and starch. ' 

Satna ku-y to choke, to be choked. 

Samadi, manure. 

Samakif a fish, fish. 

Samani, tools, instruments, ma- 
chine. 

Samaioati, the heavens. 

Samawiy blue, sky colour. 

Sarnbtua, u little pasty. 

Samehe ku-^ to forgive, to pass over. 

Samiri ^u-, to load a gun. 

Sa'mliy ghee, clarified butter. 

Sana, very, much. It is used to 
intensify any action. 
Bema tana, speak loud. 
Vuta Sana, pull hard. 
Sanamaki, senna. 

Sanamu, an image, a likeness, a 
statue, a lecture, an idol. 



Sandale, sandal wood. 
SandarvM, gum copal, gum amiui. 
Sanduku, a chest, a box. 
Saniki ku-, to make excuse. 
Sapa ku; to tout for customers. 
Sarafu, a small coin. 
Sari/a or Sarf, exchange, rate of 
exchange. 

Sari/a gani ya niji sasaf What 

is the current rate of exchange ? 

Sarifu ku-, to use words well and 

correctly. 
Sdruf, grammar. 
Sarufu, a small gold plate with a 

devout inscription, worn on the 

forehead as an ornament. 
Sasa^ now. 

Sasa hivi, directly, at once. 
Sataranji^ chess. 
Sautit voice, sound, noise. 
Sawa, equal, right, just. 

Kitu kiHchokuka sawa naye, some- 
thing unworthy of him. 
Sawanisha ku-, to make alike, 

equal, even, &o. 
Sawasawa, like, alike, even, all the 

same, level, smooth, equal. 
Sawawa, peas (Yao.). 
Sawazisha ku-, to make equal or 

alike. 
-sayara, gentle, quiet, long-suffering. 
Sayidia ku-, to help. 
Sayili Zcu- = Saili ku-, 
Saza ku; to leave over, to make 

to remain. 
Sazia ku-, to leave for. 
Sebahu = Sahahu, cause, reason. 
SeinUa or Sebule, reception room, 

parlour. 
Seflutiy a poultice. 
Sehemu, part, share, dividend. 
Sekeneko, syphilis. 
Sddha^ a weapon. 



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380 



6EL 



Kupa teldhcty to arm. 
Sdehiiha Tcu- = Suluhuha, to make 
to be at peace, to mediate be- 
tween. 
Selimu hu' or SiUitn hu-, to capitu- 
late. 
8ema ku-y to say, to talk, to speak. 

Sema sana^ speak out. 
Semadari, a bedstead, Bpecially of 

the Indian pattern. 
Sembuset much less. 
Semea hu-, to say about 
Kusemea puani^ to talk through 
the nose. 
Semeji = Shemegi. 
Sena, a kind of rice. 
Sengenya hu-, to make secret signs of 
contempt about some one who is 
Senturi, a musical box. [present. 
Sera, a rampart. 

Serkali or Serikalh the court, the 
government. 
Mtu wa serikali, a man in go- 
Ternment employ. 
Sermala, a carpenter. 
Seruji, an Arab saddle* 
Sesemi, blackwood. 
Seta kU', to crush, 
Setaseta ku-, to crush up, to break 

into fragments. 
Seii, the seven in cards* 
Setirika, &o. See Stirika,&Ok 
Settini, sixty. 
/SeWtn, an iron (?), 
Seitiri ku-, or Setiri, or Sitiri, to 
cover, to conceal, to hide, to atoue 
for. 
Setize, much less, much more. Also 

Semhuse. 
Seyedia, lordly, belonging to the 



Seyedina (Ar.), our lord, your ma- 
jedty. 



8HA 

8ezo, an adze^ 

Shaahani, the eighth month of the 

Arab year. 
Shaha, copper, brass. 
Shahaha, aim. 

Kutwaa shdbaha, to take aim. 
Shabahoy like. 
Nyama Bhahaka mbwoy an animal 
like a dog. 
Shdthu, alum. 
Shahuka, a snare, 
Shadda, a tassel. See Kanzu, 
Shah, a chess king. 
Shdha, the heart of the cocoa-nut 

tree. 
Shcihada, the Mohammedan confes- 
sion of faith. Also Utiiahada, 
Shahamu, fat. 
Shahawa (obscene), semen. 
Shahidi, plur. mashahidi, a witness, 

a martyr. 
Shaibu (Ar.), an old person. 

Shaibtk lajuzi, exceedingly old. 
Shairi, a line of poetry. 

plur. mashairi, verses, a poem, 
Shaka, a bush, 

Shaka, plur. maaluika, a doubt. 
Shake, 

Kuingia na shake ya ^uZta, to sob. 
Shalt, a shawl. 
Sham, Syria, Damascus. 

Fetha ya Sham, German dollars. 
Shamha, plur. matihamha, a planta- 
tion, a farm, a piece of land -in 
the country. 
Shambulia ku-, to attack. 
Shamua ku-^ to sneeze. Also 8hu- 

mua. 
Shanga, a town near Melinda, long 
fa. [since ruined. 

Mwana shanga, a northerly wind« 
not so strong or persistent fts 
the regular kaskazi. 



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SHA 



SHI 



381 



Shangaa IcU' or Sangaa ^u-, to be 

astonished, to stand and stare, to 

stop short. 
Skangaza hu-, to astound, to as- 
tonish. 
Shangazi,]p\vLT,ma8hangazi, an annt. 
Shangilia ku-, to make rejoicings 

for, to go to meet with music and 

shouting, to be glad about. 
Shangvjiy triumph, shouting and 

joy, an ornament of gold worn by 

women between the shoulders. 
Shani^a startling, unexpected event. 
ShanuUy plur. mashanwi, a comb, a 

large coarse wooden comb. 
Sharhu, a moustache. 
Skari, evil, the opposite of JBTcW. 
Sharia = Sheria, 
Shariki ku-f to share, to be partners 

in. 
Sharikia ku-, to share with, to be in 

partnership with. 
Sharikiana ku-, to be partners, to 

share together. 
Sharti, or ShartUi, or ShwrutU or 
Shuti, a contract, of obligation, 
of necessity, must. Also, the 
downhaul of a dhow-sail, a 
truss. 

Ku/anya sharti, to bind oneself. 
Shatoruma, shawl for the waist. 
Shauko^ love, exceeding fondness, 

strong desire, will. 
Shauri, plur. maehauri^ advice, 
counsel, plan. 

Ku/anya shauri, to consult to- 
gether. 

Kupa shauri, to advise. 
Shaioi = Tawu 
Shawishi ku-, to persuade, to coax 

over. 
Shayiri, barley. 
Sheliena, cargo. 



Sheitani, Satan, the devil, a devil, 
excessively clever. 

Shela, a black veil. 

Shelabela, as it stands, in a lot, with 
all defects. 

Shdele ku-, to run a seam. 

ShelU, plur. mashelle, a shell. 

Shema (Ar.), bees-wax. 

Shemali (Ar.)^ the left, the north 
(because to the left of a person 
looking east) ; the Persian Gulf, 
Arabs (because to the north of 
Muscat) ; mist (because it comes 
on in the Persian Gulf with a 
northerly wind). 

Shembea, a kind of curved knife. 

Shemegi,. a brother or sister-in- 
law. 

Shena (Ar.), orc^illa weed. 

Sheria^ law. 

SherCz, glue. 

Shetani, plur. mashetani = Sheitani, 

Shetri, the poop of a dhow. 

Shiha ku-, to have had enough to 
cat, to be full, to be satisfied 

Shihin or Shibri, a span. 

8hibisha ku-, to fill with food, to 
satisfy with food. 

Shidda, difficulty, distress. 

Shika ku; to lay hold of, to hold 
fast, to keep, to determine. 
Kushika njia, to take one's way, 

to set out. 
>Shtka lako, mind your own busi- 
ness. 
Shika ras He, steer for that point 

Shikamana ku-, to cleave together. 

Shikana kw, to clasp, to grapple, to 
stick together. 

Shikio, a rudder, a thing to lay hold 
of. QeeSikio. 

SJiikiza ku-, to prop up. 

Shilamu, the stem leading to the 
2o 



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382 



sm 



SHU 



• montlipieoe in i^ native pipe. 

See Kiko. 
Shimo, plur. mashimOyA pit, an ex- 

oavatioB, a large hole. 
Shina, plur. mashina, a stump, a 

trunk, a main root. 
Shindahu-fto overcome, to conquer, 
to stay, to continue at. 

Maji yoihindoj \i is half full of 
water. 

Amekwenda ehindct, be is gone 
out for the day. 

Akaehinda kcLzi, and. he went on 
at his work. 
Shindana ku t to dilute, strive 

with, race. 
Shindania Jku-, to bet, to oppose, to 

object to. 
ShindanOi plur. mashindanOf a race. 

See Sindano. 
Shindika ku-, or Sindika^ to shut, to 
put to, to press in a mill. 

Kushindika mafuta ya nazi, to 
grind cocoa-nuts into oil. 
Shindikia /cu-, to show any one out, 

to escort a person on his way. 

See SindikizcL 
Shindilia ku- to press, to load a gun. 
ShindOf a shook. 
Shingari, a consort, a dhow sailing 

in company with another. 
Shingari kth, to sail in company (of 

dhows). 
ShingOf plur. mashingoy the neck. 
Shinikizo or Sinikizo, a press. 
Shimzif Shiraz, from Shiran, Per- 
sian work is generally called 

ehirdzi, 
Shishwa ku', to be weaned, 
Shituvm ku-y to insult. See Shii^ 

tumu, 
Shoga, a friend ; used only by wo- 

4nen in speaking of or. tp one an- 



other. In Zanzibar they rafrely 

employ any other word. At 

Lamoo shoga means a catamite. 
Shogij panniers, a large matting bag 

with the opening across the 

middle, so as to f(»m two bags 

when laid across a donkey's hack, 
Shot = Shogi, 
Shoka, plur. maBhoka^ an axe* 

Shoika la hapa, an adze. 

Shoka la Usb, an af e (Her.). 

Shoka la pwa, an adze (Mer.). 
ShoUtj an ear of com, a head of 
Skona ku', to sew. [grass. 

Shonea kw, to mend for, to sew for, 

with, &o. 
Shonuka kth* to become unsewn. 
Shote. 

Ktoenda shote^ to go with a rush. 
Shoto. 

Wa kushotOf left 

Ana shoto, he is left-handed. 
Shidki ku', to prosecute, to charge, 

to accuse. 
ShtiM ku; to startle, to tickle. See 

Stuaha, 
Shtuka ku-, to be startled, to start. 
Shim ku-f to launch. Pass, kushu- 

livjd, 
Shuba^ the elders of a town. 
Shubaka, plur. mashubaka^ a recess 

in a wall. , 
Shvdu, what is left when the oU has 

been ground out of 8em»em seed. 
ShughuU, business, affairs, occupa- 
tion, engagement 
Shughfdika ku-, to be ocoupied, to 

be worried. 
Shughulisha kth, to occupy, to dis^ 

tract attention, to internet 
Shuhuday testimony. 
Shuhudia ku-, to bear witness about^ 

for, or against. 



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SHU 



-BIP 



383 



SJiuhudu TiU', to bear witness. 

Shuhvii, 

Shuhuti ya kutolea chanh ft small 
piece of wood used by shoe- 
makers in cutting strips of 
coloured leather. 

Shujaa, plnr. mashujcM, a hero, a 
brave man. 

Shuka, a sheet 

Shuka ku-, to descend, go down, 
oome down, bo let down, to land 
from a ship. 

Shuke, the flower of Indian com. 

Shukrani, gratitude. 

&iuku ku-, to suspect. 

ShukurUf thanks. 

Skukuru ku-, to thank. This word 
is very rarely used in Zanzibar, 
except in relation to God; and 
kushukuru Muungu means almost 
always, to take comfort, to leave 
off mourning, or to become re- 
signed. 

ShtUiwa ku-, to be launched. 

Shumua ku-, to sneeze. 

Shumvif salt [Pemba]. See Chumvi. 

Shunga kit-, to drive away, to scare. 

Shungi, a crest, long hair (?). 
Shungi mbUiy a way of dressing 
the hair in two masses. 

ShupatUy plur. mashupattt, a narrow 
strip of matting. The broader are 
sewn together to make flqpr mats, 
the narrower are interlaced to 
make the native couch or bed- 
stead. 

Shupaza, spades (in cards). 

Shurc^ saltpetre. 

Shuruti = Sharti, of necessity. 

Shwrutiza ku-, to compel, to force. 
AliahunUizwa ndani, he was 
pushed in. 

Shusha ku-, to let down, to make to 



descend, to land goods from a 
ship. 
Kushusha pu'mziy to breathe out, 
an expiration. 
Shuti or Shuuti = Sharti, of neceS- 
Shutumiwa ku-, to be reviled, [sity. 
Shutumu ku'f to revile. 
Shwali or Shwari, a calm. 
Sit not. 
8i vemay not welk 
JSi uztty sell not. 
Si, is or are not. 
Mimi si eultani, I am not a sultan ; 

or. Am I not a sultan ? 
Si yeye, it is not he or him. 
Si't the opposite of ndt-, expressing. 
This is not it Is not this it ? 
Simi, Simsi, 

Siwe, Sinyi, 

Stye, Sio, sivyo, sitjo, 

Sio, 8iyo, silo, Sizo, simo, 
Sicko, sipo, siko. 
Si', sign of the first person negative. 
Sikuhali, I do not consent 
SikukubaU, 1 did not consent 
Sitakuhali, I shall not consent. 
In the present tense the final 
letter of verbs in -a becomes -». 
Sioni, 1 do not see. 
'H' inserted between the personal 
prefix and the verb, is the sign 
of the negative imperative or 
subjunctive, the final letter of 
verbs in -a becoming an -e. 
Nisione, that I may not see, let 
me not see, or without my 
seeing. 
-W-, sign of the negative in ex- 
pressing relation. 
Asio, he who is or was not, or 
who will not be. Also Anye. 
'tipo-, sig^ of the tense expressing 
not being, 

2c2 



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384 



SIA 



SIK 



AHpoona^ he not seeing, if he 
does not see, though he does 
not see, without his seeing, 
when he sees not. 

Bia hur, to give a sentence, to pro- 
nounce as with authorit J, to de- 
clare. 

Siafu^ a large reddish brown ant, 
that travels in great numbers 
and bites fiercely. 

Siagi^ cream, butter. 

Sihu hu'j to |;et, to succeed. See 
Subu, 

Si/a, praise, character, character- 
istic 

Sifara, a kind of rice. 

8ifu ku-j to praise. Pass, kustjiica. 
Kujinfuy to magnify oneself, to 

boast. 
Ku»ifu*mno, to j^verpraise, to 
flatter. 

Sifule (a term of reproach), a med- 
dlesome fool. 

Si/uruj a cypher, a figure of nought. 

Sigizia hu-j to tack (in needlework). 

Sihi hu't to entreat. 

Sijafuy the cuff, the hem. See 
Kanzu, 

Sijambo, I am well. Th e invariable 
answer to hu Jambo ? how are 
you? 
Si jambo punde, I am a little 
better. 

Sikamo or SHcamoo, for Ncuihtka 
mguiij the salutation .of a slave 
to a master. 

Stki, vinegar. 

Sikia ku-, to hear, to obey, to under- 
stand. 

Sikilia ku-, to listen to, to attend to. 

Sikiliana ku-y to be heard, to be 
audible. 

SikUiza ku-, to listen, to listen to. 



StkUizana ku-^ to hear one another. 

Sikio or Shikio, plur. numkioy the 
ear. 

Sikitika ku-, to be sorry. 

Sikitikia ku-^ to be sorry for, to pity. 

Sikitiko, plur. mastkUikot sorrow, 
grief. 

Sikitisha ku-, to make sorry. 

Sikiza ku-, to make to hear, under- 
stand, &c. 

Sikizana ku-, to be mutually intel- 
ligible, to make one another hear. 

Siku, a day of twenty-four honrSy 
from sunset to sunset, days. 
Siku kuii, a great day, a feast. 
The two great feasts are the 
three days at the end of the 
Bama&an, when every one 
makes presents, and three days 
after the tenth of ThU hajj or 
Mfunguo wa tatu, when every 
one ought to slaughter some 
animal, and feast the poor. 
Siku a mwaka (see Mwongo^ 
Kigunzi), the Nairuz, about the 
23rd of August, the beginning 
of the Swahili and nautical 
year. The old custom is for 
every one, but especially tlie 
women, to bathe in itte sea 
in the night or morning : then 
they cook a great mess of grain 
and pulse, which is eaten about 
noon by all ^ho like to come. 
The fires are all extinguished 
and lighted again by rubbing 
two pieces of wood together. 
Formerly no inquiry was made 
as to any murder or violence 
committed on this day, and old 
quarrels used regularly to be 
fought out upon it. 
I SHeu toUf always. 



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«IL. 



SIT. 



385 



Silifii ku-y to Improve, to reform. 
SUtkisha fett-, to make to improve, 

to reform. 
Silimu hu-, to become a Moham- 
medan. 
Simama ku-, to stand up, to come 

to a stand, to stop, to be erect, 

to stand in, to cost 
Simamia hu-, to stand by, to over^ 

look workmen, to cost to. 
Simamisha ku-i to make to stand. 
Simanga Zcu-, to crow over, boast 

against. 
Simanzii grief, heaviness. 
Simha, a lion, lions. 
Siniba uranga, a well-known man- 
grove swamp at the mouth of 

the Luflji. 
SimhcUi, a kind of wood brought 

from near Cape Delgado. 
Sime, a short straight sword used 

on the mainland. 
Simika ku-, to be erect, to be set 

up, to stand (often used in an 

obscene sense). 
Simikia few-. 

Kusimikia mlango, to set up and 
build in a door. 
Simikisha ku-^ to set up. 
Simillay Simille, SimUenit probably 
for BismiUdh, the common cry 
in Zanzibar, meaning, make 
way, out of the way. 

Similla punda, make way for a 
donkey. 

SimiUa ubau, make way for a 
plank. 
SimOf I am not in it, am not con^ 

cemed, have nothing to do with 

it 
Simo. 

8imo Mi H njema, this event is 
not good. 



Imeingia simo mpya, something 
new has turned up. 
Simu, the electric telegraph. 
Sindano, a needle (or shindano). 
SindanOf a kind of rice. 
Sindiy a long-tailed weasel. 
Sindikia kvr, to crush. 
Sindikiza ku-, to accompany part of 

the way. . 
Sindua ku-, to open, to set open. 
Singay hair of an animal. 

Nyele za singa^ straight hair, 
European hair. 
Singa ku-, to scent, to put scent 
Singizia ku-y to slander, to spread 

false reports about 
Sini, China. 
Siniy no matter. 
Sinia, plur. masiniat a circular tray 

used to carry and set out foo<l 

upon, generally of copper tinned. 
Sinikiza ku-, to press. 
Sinzia ku-^ to doze, to nod, to flicker. 
-eipo; sign of the tense signifying 

the case of the thing mentioned 

not being. 
Siriy secrecy. 

Mamho ya mW, secret affairs, 
secrets. 

Kwa siri, secretly. 
Sisif we, us. Sometimes pronounced 
swiswi^ suiaui, or siswi, 

SiH Bote, all of us. 

Sisi wote, both of us. 
Sisimia ku-, to sigh (?). 
Sisimiziy ants (?). 
Siaitiza ku- (M.), to charge strictly, 

to charge to keep secret 
Sita, six. 

Ya 8tto, sixth. 
Siia ku; to halt, to go lame (A.), to 

hide. 
Sitaha, the deck. 



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386 



SIT 



STA 



SitcuharOy sixteen. 
Sitawi hu; to flourish. 

Ngoma ipi imeUtamj which dance 
is going best? 
SitawUha ku-, to make tp flourish. 
SUi, whistle (of a steamer or 
Sitti, my lady, lady. [engine). 

^SiWtno, our lady. Applied by the 
Arabs to St. Mary. 
Sivimcja, different. 
Sivyo, it is hot thns. See Si-, 
Siwa^ an ivory horn only used on 

great occasioDs. 
Siwezif I am not well. See Weza ku-, 
Siyo, that is not it, no. See 8i-. 
Siyu or Siu, Siwi, the chief town 

of the district near Xamoo, the 

chief seat of old Swahili learning. 
Soda^ lunacy. 
Sodo, a woman's napkin. 
Sofey wool. 

Soge, Sogif Sot, s= Shogi, 
Sogea ku^, to approach affectionately, 

to come near to. 
Sogeza ku-^ to lift to the lips and 

kiss, to bring near to. 
Sogezea %u-, to put ready for, to 

bring for use. 
Sokot plur. masokoy a market, a 
bazaar. 

Kvpenda eokoniy to go marketing. 
Sokota kvry to twist, to plait, to spin. 
Soma ku-i to read, to perform de- 
votions. 
Soma, plur. masoma, a kind of dance. 
Somhela ku-, to work oneself along 

on one's hands and seat without 

using the legs. 
Somesha ku-y to teach to read, to 

lead devotions. 
Somo^ plur. masomot something read, 

used as a title of friendship, a 

namesake. 



Sonda ku-y tp suck oat. 

SondOf swelled (?) glands. 

Songa ku-, to strangle, to squeeze, 

to stir together. 
Songanasongana ku-, to press against 

one another like sheep in a flock. 
Songea ku-, to push through, to 

shoulder your wi^ through a 
Sonjoa ku', to wring. [crowd. 

Sonya ku- = Kufyonya, 
SoruoUty trousers. 
Soaoneka ku-j to be hurt or ache, so 

as to writhe with pain. 
SosoTiesha ku-^ to make to writhe 

with paip. 
Sate, all ; agreeing with mi, we or 
us. See -ote. 

Tu sote, we are together. 

Ttoende tote, let us go together. 
Soza ku-y to beach a boat or veasel. 
Ssafi or S^jfi, pure, clean. 
Staajdbu ku-y to ponder much, to be 

greatly astonished. 
Staamani ku-y to have confidence, 

to rest trustfully, 
Stahahu ku-, to be pleased, to prefer. 
Stahamili or Stahimili^ patiently. 
Stahi ku'y to honour, to have respect 

for. 
Stahiba ktt- (?), to prefer. See 

Stahahu, 
Stahiki kU', to resemble, to be of 

one sort with. 
StahUi ku'y to deserve, to be woi Uiy 
of, to be proper, to be right and 
fitting. 

Astahiliy serves him right. 
StahimUi ku-, to bear, to endure, 

tolerate. 
Stakahathi, earnest, fastening penny. 
StamhuUy Constantinople. 
iblarehe ku-, to sit still, to be at x«8t, 
to remain quiet. • 



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STE 



8UM 



887 



Starehe! Don't disturb yonraelf I 
don*t get up I 
SterehUha ku-, to give rest to, to 

r^resh. Also Starehisha. 
SUrika ku'^ to be covered, to be oon* 

cealed. 
Stuiha kuf^ to startle, to sprain, to 

put out of joint 
Suhana, small pieces of meat roasted 

on two parallel sticks. 
Subana, a thimble. 
Suhiri, patience. 
Svbiriy aloes. 
Subiri ku-, to wait 
Sulm ku', to cast in a mould. 
Subu kti- or 8ibu Jbu-, to hi^pen to. 
8ubu4f morning. 
SiibtUkheirif good morning. 
Suhuri^ patience. 
Subutu ku' = ThubfUu ku-. 
Suduku ku-t to ascertain, to know 

the truth. 
8uff, wooL 

Suffix a devotee, a hermit 
Suffuf, a great variety or number. 
Sufi^ woollen. 
Suftiria, copper. 

Sufuriat plur. sufuria or mawfuria, 
a metal pot 

Sufuria ya ehuma^ an iron pot 
/?t(^,amark, a callous place. Also, 

obstinate, insensate. 
Sugua kU', to rub, to scrub, to 

brush, to scour. 
Suheli, south. 

Sui, an irrepressible, unconquer- 
able man. 
Sujudia Jim-, to prostrate oneself to, 

to adore. 
Sujudu ku-^ to prostrate (Mieself, to 

bow down. 
8uka ku-, to plait, to dean* 
Sukarif sugar. 



Sukari gurUy half-made ilngar. 

Sukasuka ku^ to shake, to agitate. 

8uke, plur. ma$uke (or shuke), an 
ear of corn, a head of mtama, &c 

Sukua ku-, to slacken, to loose. 

Sukmma ku-, to push, to uzge. 

Svkumiy a steersman, quarter- 
master. 

Sukumiea ku-, to put upon another 
person, to say it is his business, 
to throw off from oneself, to push 
away in anger, to throw (a thing) 
at a person who wants it Also, 
to avert (by sacrifice, &c.). 

Sukuiua ku-, to rinse out the mouth, 
to wash one's mouth. 

Sulibi ku-, to crucify. 

Sulibiaha ku-j to crucify. 

Stdihd ku-f to become, to be fitting 
for. 

Sulika /rti-, to turn about, become 
giddy. 

Sidimu ku; to salute. 

SuUani, plur. masultaniy a sultan, 
a chief man. Sultani at Zanzi- 
bar does not mean a king; it is 
used of the head men of a vil- 
lage. 

SuUdn Bum, the Sultan of Turkey. 

Sulubika ku-, to be strong. 

Sulubu, strength, firmness. 

Svluhisha ku-, to bring to accord, 
to make peace between. 

Stduhu, concord. 

SvluLu, a curlew. 

Sumba ku-, to sway away, to twist 
and turn oneself. 

Sunibua ku*, to worry, to annoy, to 
give trouble. 

Sumbuana ku-, to worry one an- 
other. 

Sumbuka ku-, to be put to trouble, 
to be harassed, to be annoyed. 



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388 



SDM 



Sumhulia hu-, to speak sharply to. 
Sumbu^a ku-, to vex, liarass, 

trouble, worry, annoy. 
SumUf poison. 
Sumughy gum-arabio. 
Sungura, a rabbit (?), a hare (?). 
Sunni, advisable, recommended, a 
tradition, what is advisable or 
recommended, but not compnl- 
Suncbari, deal wood. [sory. 

Sunza ku', to search for anything 

with a lighted brand at night. 
Supaa ku'f to be very hard or dry. 
Supana = Supaa, 
Suraf a likeness, a resemblance, a 

chapter of the Koran. 
Suria, plur. masuriay a concubine, 

a ftimale slave. 
Suriyama, bom of a concubine. 
SururUy an insect that lives in 

cocoa-nut trees. 
Surwali, trousers. See Soruali, 
Su8, liquorice. 
BusOj a kind of hanging shelf, a 

hammock. 

Stuupaa = Supaa. 

Suta hu'f to reproach, to charge a 

man with slander, to slander, to 

seek out a man and ask whether 

he has said such and such things. 

Su^udiy or Suudi njema, salvation, 

felicity. 
Suza hu-f to stir up. Also, to 

rinse. 
Suzia hu', to turn with (?). 
Swafi = Safi. 
Svoali, a question. 

T. 

T is pronounced as in English. 
There are two Vs in Arabic, one 
much thicker than the English ^ 



but only very careful speakers dis- 
tinguish them in Bwahili* 

T at the beginning of a word has 
sometimes an explosive sound, as in 
t'aha, dirt. It is probable that this 
represents a suppressed n. 

Thero is a slight differonce ia 
sound between the f s of tatu, three, 
and tanoy five, the former being the 
smoother, but natives do not seem 
conscious of the difference. 

T in northern Swahili frequently 
becomes ch in the dialect of Zanzi- 
bar. 

Kutekaj to laugh (M.) kuchelea 

(Zanz.). But fctttefea, to plunder, 

or to draw water, does not 

change. 

Kutinda, to slaughter (M.) ^ti- 

chinja (Zanz.). 
Thero is no sound similar to that 
of the English f^ in the original 
language of Zanzibar. It occurs in 
some dialects of Swahili in place of 
V or «. There are however in 
Arabic four th*B, 1. Tha, pro- 
nounced like the English th in 
thing. 2. Thalf pronounced like 
the English th in this. 3 and 4. 
Thad and Tlia* or Dthau, which 
are scarcely distinguished by the 
Arabs themselves, and have a very 
thick variety of the thai sound. 
Practically the two English Wb are 
quite sufficient, and the ear soon 
catches the right method of employ- 
ing them. 

The Indians and many AMcans 
pronounce all these as x. Some 
Swahili confuse the various th'a with 
2, and employ the thai sound for 
words properly written with a 2;, as 
toathiti for wazirij a vizir. 



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-^A- 



TAG 



389 



-fa-, the sign of the future tense. 
When the relative or the par- 
ticles denoting time and place 
are inserted in the future, the 
prefix regularly becomes -tdka-. 
It is possible howeyer to retain 
-to- to express a more definite 
sense. 
Atahuja, he will come. 
Atakayekuja, who will come. 
Atdkapokuja, when he shall 

come. 
Atapokuja, when he oome, 
or, if he shall come. 
In the first person singular the 
ni-, which is the sign of the 
person, is often dropped. 
Takuja = Nitakitja, I shall 
come. 
Ta- at the beginning of Arabic 
verbs is the mark of the fourth 
or fifth conjugations or derived 
forms. 
Taa, a lamp, especially the small 
open earthen lamps made in Zan- 
zibar. 
Taa, a large kind of flat fish. 
Taay beneath one's feet. 
Ta^ahika ku-, to be troubled. 
TaahUha ku-, to trouble, to annoy. 
TaabUy trouble. 

Taadabu ku-, to learn manners. 
Taajahuiha ku-, to make to wonder, 

to astonish. 
Taajahu ku^, to wonder, to be as- 
tonished. See Staajahu, 
Taajazi ku-, to tire. 
Ta'ali ku-, to study. 
Taandu, a centipede. 
Taataa ku-, to throw oneself about. 
Tahaka, lining. 
Tabakelo, a snufi'-box. 
Taibanja, a pistol (Ar.). 



Tahdssam ku-, to -smile. 

Tahia, constitution, temper, temper- 
ament, climate. 

Tabibia ku-, to doctor, 

Tafttfett, a physician. 

Tabiki ku-, to line, to close to or 
upon, to cling to as a fast friend. 

TaMkiza, to make to cling. 

Tahiri ku-, to foretell, to prophesy. 

Tahurudu ku-, to refresh. 

Tadariki ku-, to accept the respon- 
sibility of, to guarantee the result 
of: 

Tadi, violence, hurry. 
Kwenda kwa tadi, to rush, to go 
tumultuously. 

Tadi kU', to fight with. 

Tafakari ku', to consider, ponder, 
think. 

Tafdthal or Tafathali, please, I beg 
of you. 

Tafiti ku', to seek out matters 
secretly, to be over-inquisitive. 

Tafsiri ku-, to explain, to interpret 

Tafeiri, interpretation. 

Tafsiria ku-, to explain to, to inter- 
pret to. 

Tafu (M.> = Chafu, cheek. 

Tafu, gastrocnemic muscles. 
Tafu ya mkono, the biceps muscle. 

Ta/una ku-, to chew, to nibble. 

Tafuta ku-, to look for, seek, search 
for. 

Tafutatafuta ku-, to search all 
about. 

Tafutia ku- or Taftia, to seek out 
for some one, to look for. 

Tagaa ku-, to straddle, to Walk 
with one's legs far apart. 

Tage, plur. matage, bow legs, crook- 
edness. 

Taghafali ku-, to be off one's guard, 
to forget to take notice. 



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390 



TAG 



TAII 



Taghaiari %»-, to be changed. 
Ta^ghi ku-, to rebel. 
Tagua, branches, main branches. 
Tdhafifuy gently, in good time, 
light, thin. 

Nguo takafifUf thin calico. 
Tahamdka ku-t to look np to see 

whatsis going on. 
TaSiardki hu-, to be doubled, to 

be thrown into confusion. 
Tdhcurakiaha ku^, to put into a state 

of anxiety, to exoite, stimulate. 
Taharizi, See Kanzu, 
Taharuki kth, to be troubled, to be 

anxious, to be thrown into con- 
fusion. Also, TdharaJcu 
Tahasea ku-, to go on board a ship 

with a view to sailing. 
Tahathari ku-, to beware, to be on 

one's guard. 
Tahatharisha ku-, to warn. 
Tahayari ku-, to become ashamed. 
Tahayarisha ku-, to shame, to make 

ashamed. 
Tahidi ku-. 

Kt{}itahidh to exert oneself, to 
try hard. 
Tdhiri ku-, to circumcise. 
Tdhsila, farewell, leavo-taking. 
Taif a large bird of prey, a vulture. 
Tai/af plur. matai/ct, a tribe, a 

nation. 
Tajaf hire. 
Taja ku-, to name. 
Tajif a crown. 
Tajirif plur. tnatqjiri, a merchant, 

a rich man, a capitalist, a prin- 
'tdka-. See -to-. [cipaL 

Takat dirt 
TakatakOf rubbish, sundries, small 

articles. 
TaJia kU', to want, to wish for, to 
ask for. 



KiUcika ahauri, to seek advice. 
TdkahaU ku-^ to accept; ^ised of 

Qod's hearing prayer. 
Takabalhi ku-, to carry on freight 
TakahcUhUha kth, to pay freight 

for. 
Takdddam ku-t to be in advance of, 

to get before. 
Takalika !«*-, to be very faint or 

tired. 
Takarimu, gift, largess. 
Takasa kit-, to clean, to make clean 

and clear. 
Takasika ku-^ to become cleansed. 
TaJcata kwy to become dean and 
dear. 

Uwingu umetdkata, the sky ia 
clear. 
'takcUifu, holy, cleansed. 
Takhart kvb-y to stay. 
Tdki = Chioha. 
TaktOf plur. mataktOy a large 

cushion. 
Takoy plur. matako, the buttock. 
TakHrii a crime. 
Takura ku-t to scratch, to dig with 

claws or fingers. 
Talakaj divorce. 
TaldssiM or Talannm, plur. matala- 

HmUf a talisman, a charm, a 

figure divided into squares and 

marked with magic words and 

symbols. 
Tali ku- or Ta^ali feu-, to study. 
Talik = Tarik. 
Taliza ku-^ to smooth ofi^ to smooth 

up, plaster, &c. 
Tama^ out and out, final. 
Tama ku- (M.) = Mama kip-y to re- 
move. 
Tama ku-, to sit, croudi (Yao.). 
Tama. 
Kuiliika tdma^ to lean' the head 



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TAM 



TAN 



391 



on the hand, reckoned unlucky 
in Zanzibar. 

TavfMa, longing, avarice, greedi- 
ness. 
Kukata tamaa, to despiUr. 

Tamdlaki ku-t to be master of. 
Kvjitamdldki mweayewe^ to be 
one's own master. 

Tamani *»-, to long for, to lust 
after. 

Tamanika ku-, to be liked, to be an 
object of liking. 

Tamba ku-, to swagger. 

Tambaa ku-, to creep, to crawl. 

TamM, yermicelli. 

Tanibo, a tall man. 

Tamboa^ testicles. 

Tambua fcu-, to recognize. 

TamtnUia ku-, to xmderstond. 

Tambulikana fci«-, to be recogniz- 
able. 

Tambuluiha ku-j to make to recog- 
nize, to explain. 

Tambuuj betel leaf chewed with 
areca nut, lime and tobacco. 

Tambuza ku-, to put a new point or 
edge, to weld on fresh iron or 
steel. 

Tamisha ku- (M.) = Hamisha ku-, 

Ta^mka ku-, to pronounce. 

Tamu, sweetness, flavour, taste. 

-tamtt, sweet, pleasant It makes 
tamu with nouns like nyunibcu 

Tamuka ku- = Ta*fnka ku-, 

Tamvua, ends or comers of turban 
doth, &C. 

Tana ku-, to divide, to slit, to comb, 
to part 

Tanaiana kvr, to divide up into 
Uttle bits. 

Tana^ a bunchlet of bananas, &c. 
Bananas and plantains grow 
spirally in a large bunch, not con- 



tinuously, but in little groups: 

each group is a taiui, 
Tanabahi ku-, to make up one's 

mind, to know what to do. 
Tanafusi ku-, to draw breath. 
Tanda ku-^ to spread, to be spread 
out, to be overcast, io put ropes 
to a native bedstead. 

Kujitanda, to stretch oneself 
across. 
Tandama ku- (?), to suireund. 
Tandatoaa ku-y to recline, to loll at 

one's ease. 
Tandaza ku% to make flat. 
Tandika ku-^ to spread, to lay out, 

to saddle. 
Tandu, long slashes made on their 

faces by Makuasand others. 
Tandua ku-, to unsaddle, to take off 

harness. 
Tanga, plur. maianga or majilanga, 
a sail. The sails of mitepe and 
madau are made of matting. 

V^anga mbUi, the seasons of 
changeable winds. 

Matanga kati^ wind abeam. 

Kukaa matanga, to sit at home 
in sign of mourning, to mourn. 
Tangaa ku-, to come to be known. 
Tangamana ku-, to adjoin. 
Tangamuka ku-, to be cheerful. 
Tangamuaha ku-, to cheer up. 
Tanganya, &c. (M.) = Changanya, 

&Q., to mix, to shuffle cards. 
Tangatanga ku-, to go backwards 

and forwards, to wave. 
Tangawizi, ginger. 
Tangaza ku; to spread news, to cir- 
culate intelligence. 
Tange, the trees and rubbish cleared 

off a new plantation. 
Tangisha ku-, to make evident. 
Tango, plur. matango, a sort of 



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392 



T.AN 



TAB 



gourd eaten raw, resembling in 

taste a oaomnber. 
TangUf since, from. 

Tangu Kn»? Since when? How 
long ago ? 
Tangua ku-, to annul, to abolish, to 
separate, untwist, unplait, with- 
draw a promise, &o. 

Kutangua ndoa^ io annul a mar- 
riage, to diyoroe. 
Tanguka Ict^y to be annulled. 
Tangulcana ku-y to separate. 
Tangtdia Zcu-, to precede, to go be- 
fore, to go first. 

NimetangvUa kukuamhiay I told 
you beforehand. 
Tangnlifu. advanced. 
Tant, Othman. 
Tani, 

Kwa taniy backward, on his back. 
Tano or TanUy five. 

Ya tano, fifth. 
'tanoy five. 
Tantaiibelwa, a great bother, a 

worry. 
Tanua ku, to expand, to spread out, 

to fend off a boat. 
Tanuka ku-, to lie on one's back and 

spread oneself out, to sprawl. 
Tanuru or Tanuu, a clamp for burn- 
ing lime, an oven. 
Tanziy plur. ntatanzi, a noose. 
Tanzia, news of a death. 
Tao, plur. matao, an arch, an 

arched opening, a bay. 
Tapa ku; to shiver. 

Kujitapa, to magnify oneself, to 
make a great man of oneself. 
Tapatapa ku-, to jump about like a 

fish when taken out of the water, 

to shiver, to tremble. 
Tapanya ku-, to scatter, to throw 

about. 



Tapanyatapanya Jcu-, to dissipate, 

to waste. 
Tapika kury to vomit. 
Tapisha ku-, to make to vomit. 
Tapishoy plur. matapishoy an emetic 
TapOy plur. matapo, a detachment, 

a division, a part of an army 

larger than kikozi. 
Tarahe, side piece of a window, 

door of planks. 
TarafUy on the part of. 

Tarafu yake, on his pari 
Taraja ku-, to hope. 
Tarathia ku-, to persuade in a 

friendly way. 
Taratibu, carefully, gently, orderly. 
Taratibu, orderliness, an order or 

form. 
Taraza, an edging, a narrow silken 

border usually woven on to tur- 
ban and loin.cloths in Zanzibar. 
Tarazake, business on a small scale. 
Tarazaki %V, to trade in a small 

way. 
Tariky a date, year, &c., the clew- 
line or bunt-line of a dhow-saiL 

Kitabu cka tariky a chronicle. 
Tarimho = Mtaimbo, an iron bar. 
Tarizi ku-j to weave on an edging. 
Tartibu = Taratibu, 
Ta^a, a brass basin. 
Tasa, a game of touch. 
Taaay a barren animal. 
Tasawari ku-, to do with certainty, 
to be fully able. 

Eatasawari; it is certain that ho 
does not do it. 
Tasbihif Mohammedan beads. 
Tasfida, good manners. 
Tashtoishi, doubt 
Tasihili, quickness, quickly. 
Ta$limUf ready cash. \ 

Tassa = Tasa. 



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TAT 



TBK 



393 



Tata, See Matata. 

Ktoenda tatatata, to toddle. 
Tataga ku-, to go above or over, to 

cross a stream on a tree. 
Tatana ku-, to be in a tangle, to be 

puzzled. 
Tataniiiha ku-, to tangle, to puzzle. 
Tatanya ku-, to unravel, disen- 
tangle, solve a riddle. 
Tatazana ku^f to be tangled. 
Taihhiri, a merchant. 
Tatia ku-, to wind, to tangle, to 

complicate. 
Tatiza ku-, to wind. 
'tatu, three. 

Ya tatUf third. 
Tatua ku; to tear. 
Taiuka ku-, to be torn. 
Taumka ku- = Ta*mka hu-. 
Taunt, plague, cholera. 
Tausi, peacock. 
Tavu (A.), the cheek. 
Tawa, plur. matawa, a frying-pan. 
Tawa, plur. tawa, a louse. 
Tawa hu; to live secluded (Yao.), to 

tie. 
Tawa/a, a candle, candles. 
Tawakali ku-, to trust in God and 

take courage. 
Tawdkdwakatha^ many. 
Tawala ku-, to govern, to rule. 
Tawanya ku-, to scatter. 
Tawanyika ku-, to become scattered. 
Tawaahu a eunuch. 
Tawassuf, temperance. 
Tawaza ku', to make to rule. 
Taujaza ku-, to wash the feet, to 

perform the ablutions. 
Taioi, plur. matavju a branch, a 

bough, a bunch, an ear of millet. 
Taya^ jaw, jawbone. 
Taya ku-, to reproach;-; 
Tayari, ready. 



Tayi, obedient 

TayOf plur. matayo, a reproach, re- 
viling. 
Tazdma ku-, to look. 
Tazamia ku-, to look out for. 
Tazwi, forgery. 
Teende la mguu, Barbadoes leg, 

elephantiasis (?). 
Te/aa ku-, to reason, to search, to 

throw about. 
Tega ku-, to set a trap or snare, to 

snare. See Kitendaunli, 
Tegea ku-, to be lame. 
Tegemea ku-, to lean upon, to bo 

propped up. 
Tegemeza ku-, to support. 
Tego, a virulent kind of syphilis 

supposed to be the effect of a 

cbarm. 
Tegu, plur. mategu, a tape- worm. 
Tegua ku-, to take a pot off the fire, 

to remove a spell. 
Ttka ku- (M) = Cheka ku-. 
Teka ku-, to plunder, to take as 
/spoil, to draw water. 

Kuteka *mji, to plunder a town. 

Kuteka ng'oTtibe, to carry off an ox. 

Kuteka maji, to draw water from 
a well. 
Teke, plur. mateke, a kick. 

Kupiga teke, to kick. 
Tekelea ku-, to prove true, to come to. 
Tekeleza ku-, to perform a promise, 

restore a pledge. 
Tekenya ku-, to tickle in the ribs. 
Teketea ku-, to be consumed, to be 

burnt away. 
Teketeke, the soft, something soft. 
Teketeza ku-, to consume, to cause 

to be burnt down. 
Tekewa ku-^ to become bewildered. 
Tekeza ku-, to run ashore, to come 

to an end, to die. 



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394 



TEK 



TBT 



Tekua hu'i to prize ap, to tofls, to 

throw up out of a note. 
Tele, plenty, abundantly, abundant. 
Tele, gold lace or braid. 
Telea %»-, to come down, deeoend, 

land from. 
Teleka ku-^ to put a pot on the fire. 
Telemua hu-y to pull down, to cause 

to Blip down. 
Telemuha hu- or Telemka hur, to 

go down a steep place, to go 

quickly down in spite of one's 

self, to slither down. 
Telemuko, the bed of a riyer. 
Teleza hu-t to slip. 
Tema ku-, to slash as with a sword. 
Tema hu-. 

KtUema mate, to spit 
Tembe, a hen full grown but which 

has not yet laid. 
Tembea ku-^ to walk about, to take 
a walk. 

Moyo toangu umetembea, my 
thoughts are wandering. 
Tenibdea hu-, to walk about. 
Ternbeza ku-t to offer for sale by 

auction, to hawk about. 
TembOf palm wine, wine. 
Tembo, an elephant. 
T^mka = Ta^mka, 
Termiy filigree work. 
Tena, afterwards, again, further. 
Tenda ku-, to do, to apply oneself to, 
to act. 

KtUenda zema or vemay ip behave 
well. 
Tenda kani, a pole across a dhow to 

fasten the sheet to. 
Tendawaloy a kind of birdc 
Tende, a date, dates. 

Tenda hcdvoa or kalua, Arabs 
from the Persian Gulf, who 
steal slaves by tempting them 



into their houses with dates 
and sweetstuff. 
Tendea kth, to do to, to bdiave to, 

to treat. 
Tendegu, plur. matendegu, the legs 

of a bedstead. 
Tendeka ku-, to be done, to be 

doable. 
Tenga, a sun-fish. 
Tenga ku-f to separate, to remove. 

Kujitengaf to get out of the way. 
Tengea ku-, to be ready and iu 
order. 

Duka limetengea, the shop is all 
ready and open. 
Tengeka ku-, to be put on one side. 
Tengelea and Tengdeza = Tengeneza 

and Tengenea, 
Tengenea feu-, to be comfortable, to 

be as it should be. 
Tengeneza feu-, to finish off, to put 

to rights, to touch up. 
Tengezeka feu-, to be established, 

made right. 
Tengua feu-, to put aside. 
Tepukua feu-, to cut away young 

shoots. 
Tepufeuz^, plur. Mdtepukuziy shoota 

from the root of a tree. 
Terema feu-, to be at ease. 
Tesa feu-, to afflict. 

Kuteswa, to suffer, to be afflicted. 
Teso, plur. tnatesOf afflictions, adver- 
sities. 
Teta feu-, to oppose, to strive against, 

to be adverse to, to go to law 

with, to mention disparagingly. 
Tetea feu-, to cackle like a hen. 
Tetea feu- (M.) = Cheehea feu-, to 

walk lame. 
Tete ya kioanga, rubeola. 
Tetema feu-, to tremble, to quiver. 
Tetemea = Cheehemea, 



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TET 



THU 



S95 



Tet&meka Tcu-, to iaremble, to flOiake, 

to i^iver, to qtiake (as tho earth), 

to chatter (of the teeth). 
Teteri, a small kind of dove; 
Teteza ku-, to rattle. Also, to lead 

a Bick peiBon by the hand. 
Tetia ku-, to ohoose, select, pick 

out = Chagua ku-. 
Teuka ku-,, to dislocate, to sprain. 
'teuUy choice, chosen. 
Tezama and Tezamia = Tazama and 

Tazamia, 
Tezi, a fibrons tnmonr, gottre. 
ThahihtA, an offering, a sacrifice. 
ThdbUt plur. mathcibit, firm, brave, 
Thahdbu, gold. [steadfast. 

Thahirif evident, plain. 
Thdhiri kiiry to make plain, to 

express. 
ThaifUj weak, infirm, bad. 
Thalatha, three. AUo ThekUha, &c. 
Thalaihatashara^ thirteen. 
Thalathinif thirty* 
Thalimut a fraudulent person, a 

swindler. 
Thalimu ku-, to wrong, to defraud. 
Thalilif very low, very poor. 
Thamana (th in this), a surety. 
Thamani (th in thing), a price. 

Ta thamanii of price, valuabkii 
Thambi, sin. 
Thdmin<t surety. 
Thamifii kuy to become surety. 
Tfiamiri, conscience, thought, 
Thani ku-, to think, to suppose." 
Thania kvr^ to think of a person, to 

suppose him, to suspect. 
Tharau, scorn. 
Tharau ku-, to scorn. 
Thdruha, (Ar. a stroke), a storm, 
(in arithmetic) multiplication. 

Thdruba maja, at one stroke, 
suddenly. J 



TJmfhu, a kind of jay brought down 

from Unyanyembe. 
ThaujobUf a reward ; especially re- 
wards from God. 
Thdodhay &a See Thalaiha, &o, 
Thelimu fete-, .to oppress. 
TheUhf a donkey's canter. 
TheluOi, a third. 
Themaniniy eighty. 
Tkemaninty a linen fabric. 
Themantasharaf eig^iteen. 
Themanya^ eight. 
Thetnuniy an eighth. 
TTienasharOf twelve. 
Theneerit^iYfo. 

Thihaka, ridicule, derkion. 
Thihaki ku-, to ridicule, to make 

game of. 
Thihirisha ku-f to make clear, to 

declare. 
Thii ku-y to be in distress. 
Thiiki ku-, to be put to straits. 
Thili ku', to abase. 
Thiraa, a measure of about half a 
yard, from the point of the 
elbow to the tips of the fingers. 

Thiraa konde, from the point of 
the elbow to the knuckles of 
the clenched fist. 
Thoqfika ku-, to be made weak, to 

become weak. 
Thoofisha ku-, to weaken, to make 

weak. 
TKoumu, garHo. 
ThvibutUha ku-, to give courage to, 

to make certain, to convince, to 

prove. 
Thvibutu ku-, to dare, to have 
courage for, to be proved. 

^ithubutu, I dare not. 
Thuku ku-, to taste. 
Thukuru ku-, to invoke. 
ThvXU, distress, misery. 



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396 



THU 



Tit 



ThidumUf wrong. 

Thulumu kthi to do wrong, to per- 
secute. 
ThulurUi a kind of sandpiper. 
Thvluthyfi thud, AlBO ThdiUh. 
Thumu hu't to slander. 
Thureoy a chandelier. 
Thuru ^tf-, to barm. 

Haiihuru, no harm, it does not 
matter. 
Tia ku-y to pnt, to put into. 

Kutia nanga^ to anchor. 

Kutia chuoni, to put to school. 
Tiara, a boy's kite. 
Tiba, a term of endearment. 
Tibika fcu-, to be cured. 
TQju kfi-t to cure. 
Tibu, a kind of scent. 
Tibua ku-, to stir up and knock 

about \ 

Tifua ku't to cause to rise like dust 

or a mist. 
Tifuka ku'i to rise in a cloud. 
TU kth, to obey. 
Tmha &u-, to make to obey, to 

subdue. 
Tika ku-f or twtka, to put a burden 

on a man*s head for him. 
'Jikiy just like, exactly as. 
Tikia ku-, to reply. See Ittkia. 
Tikisa ku-, to shake. 
Tikiti, plur. maUkitiy a sort of water 

melon. 
Tikitika ku-, to be shaken. 
JHkitiki, utterly and entirely, to the 

last mite. Also, (M.) into little 

bits. 
Tikiza fcu-, to have patience with. 
Tilia ku't to put to, for, &c.' 
Ttlifika ku-t to waste, to grow less. 
Tilifisha ku-, to diminish, to make 

to dwindle away. 
TUifu hi-f to ruin, to wasteb 



TUilia ku-, to dam. 

Timazij a stone hungby a line,ii8ed 

as a plummet by masons. 
Timbi, bracelets. 
Timbuza ku-, to begin to show itself, 

like the sun in rising. 
TVfiita ^w-, to be complete. 
Timtlia ku-, to become complete. 
'timUifu, complete, perfect. 
Timiliza ku-, to make complete. 
Timiza ku; to complete, to make 

perfect 
Time, a woman's name. 
Timvi, an ill-omened child. 
Tinda ku- (M.) = Chinja hu-f to 

cut, to cut the throat, to slaughter. 
Tindika ku- (A.), to fall short 
Tindikia ku-, to cease to. 

Imenitindikia^ I am out of it, I 
have no more. 
Tindikiana kU', to be separated, to 

be severed, as friends or relations 

at a distance from one another. 
Tinge,2k game consisting in imitating 

all the motions of a leader. 
Tini, a fig, figs. 
Tint (M.) = Chini, down. 
Tipitipi, a brown bird, a mocking 

bird. 
Tipua ku-, to scoop out, to dig out, 

to dip out. 
Tirirtka ku-, to glide, to trickle. 
Ti$*a = Tisiia, nine. 
Tisaini, ninety. 
Tisalcuhara, nineteen. 
Tisha ku', to frighten, alarm, make 

afraid. 
Tissia, nine. 

Tita ku-, to tie up together. 
Tita, plur. matUa, a faggot, a bundle 

of firewood. 
Titi, the nipple. 
Tiiia ku-, to shake, to sink in. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



TIT 

Also (?) of the sea, when deep 
and rough, to boil. 
Titika ku', to carry a bundle of 

sticks, &c. 
Titima hu-y to roar and roll like 

thunder. 
TitiwangcL, chicken-pox. See KUi' 

wanga. 
Tivjo (?), paralysis. 
'tOy a suffix, denoting goodness or 
propriety, rarely used in Zan- 
zibar. 
Kutoeka^ to put ; 

KutoekatOf lo put properly. 
Manuka, smells ; 
Manukaio, scents. 
Toa ku; to put out, to take away, 
give, expel, to deliver, to except, 
to choose out. 
Kutoa meno, to grin, to show the 
teeth, to snarl. 
Toazi, plur. matoazi, cymbals. 
Toba, repentance. 
Toboa ku-t to break through, to 

break a hole in a wall. 
Tdbifief a simpleton, ignoramus. 
Tofaa, plur. matofaa, a fruit shaped 
like a codling with rosy-coloured 
streaks, = Tomfmdo. See Mto- 
mondo, 
Tofaliy plur, matofali, a brick. 
To/auti, difference, dispute. 
Nimeingia to/auti kwa kutoa wee 
umeniibia fetha yangu, I have 
a quarrel with you for stealing 
my money. 
Tofua ku^y to hurt or put out an 

eye. 
Tofuka ku't to have an eye hurt or 

put out. 
Toga ku-f to pierce the ears. 
Togvjat unfermented beer. 
Tohara, circumcision. 



Tt)M 



397 



Tohara ku-, to purify by ablutions, 
to perform the Mohammedan 
ablutions. 
Tot, a kind of wild goat 
Toja ku-, to slash, cut gashes, as a 

means of bleeding, &c. 
Tojo, a cut made for ornament, &c. 
Toka or Tokea, from, since. 
Toka ku'j to go or come out or away 
from, to be acquitted, to go 
free. 
Kutoka damuj to bleed. 
Kutoka hart, to sweat. 
Tokana kw, to go forth from one 
another, to divorce, to be set free. 
Tokea, from, since. See Toka, 
Tokea hapo, in old time, from old 

time. 
Tokea ku-, to come out to, or from, 

to appear. 
Tokeza ku-, to ooze out, to project. 
Tokomea kw, to get out of one's 
Tokoni, the pelvis. [sight. 

Tokono (A.), the hips. 
Tokora ku-y to pick one's teeth. 
Tokosa ku-y to boil, to cook by 

boiling. 
Tokoseka ku-, to be well boiled, to 

be done. 
Tokota ku-, to become boiled, to be 

cooked by boiling. 
Tolea ku-f to put out for, to offer to. 
Kutoleioa, to have put out for 
one, or to be put out, to be 
dismissed. 
Toma, orchitis, hydrocele. 
Tomasa ku-yto poke with the fingers, 
to feel, used of examining a 
living creature, as Bonye^a, of 
inanimate objects. 
Tomha ku-, to have sexual connec- 
tion with. 
Tonibo, a quail. 

2 D 



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89S 



TOM 



T<mea ku- (M.) = Oiomea Ifn-. 
Tmnea ku-, to point by plastering 
over and putting small stones in 
to make the WGtk firm. 
Tamesha feu-, to set on (a dog, Ac.). 
Tcmo, dross of iron, Aa 
Tamise = Tomo. 
T(ymondo, a hippopotamus. 
ToTnmdo, plur. matenumdo = To/oo. 
Tana ^t*-, to drop. 
Tona hU'» 
Kutom hinay to lay and bind on 
a plaster of henna nniU the 
part is dyed red. 
KuUma godoro, to sew through a 
mattress here and there to eon- 
fine the stuffing. 
Tondooj a small brown nut con- 
taining <m1. 
Tonesha fcu-, to strike agiiinst, to 
touch a sore place, to make a sore 
run. 
Toney plur. matoney a drop. 
Toneza ku-y to cause to drop. 
Tonga ku- (M.) = Chonga ku-, to 

cut. 
Tongea ku- = Chongea. 
Tongosimha, a small bird black 
with white neck; it makes a 
great noise in flying. 
Tongoza ku-, to seduce. 
Tope, mud, plur. matope, much mud. 
Topea ku-, to sink in mire, to be 

Btogged. 
Topetope, a custard apple. 
Topeza ku-, to be too heavy for one. 
Topoa ku-y to take out, to break a 

spell, to clear for cultivation. 
Tom, plur. matora, a small spear. 
Toratit the law of Moses, the Pen- 
tateuch. 
Toroka ku-, to run away from a 
master, from home, &o. 



TUA 

Toroeha fai-, to abdoct. to induce to 

run away. 
To$a Jew-, to cause to rink, to drown 

Kutosa macho, to spoil the eyes. 
Tota, plnr. maioaa, fimt just be- 

ginning to ripen, all but ripe. 
Tosha ku-y to snlfice, to be enongh 

for, to cause to come out. 
Toshea kur, to be astonwhed, to be 

staggered. 
TM^efeaa *«-, to snffloe. 
Toshewa ku-, to be astonished. 
Tota ku; to sink. 
Totea ku- (M) = Choehea leu-. 
Toteza macho ku-, to spoil the eyes. 
Totoma ku-, to be lost, to wander, 
roforafcf*-, to pick one's teeth. Als(V 

Tokora. 
Tooya = Chonya, 
Towea ku-, to eat as a lelish or 

kitoweo. 
Toweka ku-, to vanish. At Lamoo 

this word is used for to die, 
Towelea ku-, to eat by moothfuls. 
Towesha ku-, to ruin, to put out of 

the way. 
Toujeza fo»-, to pour gravy, &C., over 

the rioo. 
Tozi, j^va, matozi (M.), a tear. 
Trufu, trump (in cards). 
Tu, only, nothing bnt this, only 

just. The -u of tw is very short ; 

it always follows the wwd or 

phrase whidi it qualifies. 
Tu, we are or were. 
Tu or Tw; the sign of the first 

person plural, toe, 
-tu- or -tw-, the objective prefix de- 
noting the first person plural, w. 
Tua ku-, to put down, to put down 
loads, to rest, to halt, to enoampi 
to set ipf the sun). 

Jua likftua, at sunset 



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TUA 



TUM 



399 



Tua fc«-, to grind by pcwhing a 
stone backwards and forwards. 

Tuama ku-, to settle, to clear itself. 

Tuana ku-, to settle. 

T%^)ia ku-, to repent of. 

Tabu ku-, to repent. 

Tufanu, a storm, a tempest. 

Tufe, a ball. 

Tuhumu ku', to accuse of, to lay to 
his charge, to suspect. 

Tai (M.) = Vhui, a leopard. 

Tui, the oily juice squeezed out of 
the scraped cocoa-nut. 

Tuiliza ku-, to prolong. 

Tuja kU' (M.) = Chuja ku-t to strain. 

Tuka, posts of .a verandah or long 



Tukana ku-, to use bad language 
to, to abuse, to address with in- 
sulting or indecent expressions. 

TukanOj plur. matukanOj bad words, 
insulting or filthy language. 

TvMa ku^, &c. (M.) = Chukiaku-,&c. 

Tukia ku-f to happen. 

Tukio, plur. matukio, a thing which 
happens, an accident. 

Tukiza ku-, to project. 

Tukua ku'j^c. (M.) = ChuJcua 

-tukvfu, glorious, great. [ku-, &c. 

Tukuka kw, to become exalted, to 
grow great. 

Tukusa ku', to move, to shake. 

Tukuta ku-y to move about restlessly, 
to shake nervously. 

Takutiza ku- (obscene). 

Tukuza ku', to exalt, to make great. 

Tulia ku-, to become quiet, to settle 
down, to amend from a riotous 
life. 

Tulia, dont make a noise. 

Tulia ku-j to grind with. See Tua. 
Jiuje la kutulia, a stone to grind 
with. 



Tidika ku-, to be serene and tranquil. 
Tulilia ku-, to settle down for or in 
regard to. 

YamekutulUia ? have you under- 
stood me? 

YamenituliHa, I have. 
Tuliliana ku-, to come to an agree- 
ment. 
Tuliza ku-, to calm, to still. 
Tulizia ku-, to calm for. 

KutuUzia roho, to calm, to console. 
Tuma ku-, to employ, to send about 

some business. 
Tuma ku- (M.) = Chuma ku-, , to 
Tumaa ku-, to hope. [j)rof t- 

Tumai ku- = Tumaa. 

Boko yatumai, I hope. 
Tum^ini ku-, to be confident, to 

hope. 
Tumainiaha ku-, to make confident, 

to make to hope. 
Tumania ku-, to hope in, confide in. 
Tumha, a long rice-bag. 
Tumbako, tobacco. 

Kuvuta tumbako, to smoke. 

Tumbako ya kunuka or kunusa, 
Tumbasi, an abscess. [snuff. 

Tumbili, a small kind of light- 
coloured monkey. 
Tumho, plur. matumhOf gut, belly, 
viscera, womb. 

Tumho la kuenenda, diarrhoea. 
. Tumbo la kuhara damu, dysentery. 
Tumhua ku-, to disembowel, cut 

open, pick a hole in, open (un 



Tumhuiza ku-, to soothe, to sing to, 

to sing by turns. 
Tumbuka ku-, to burst, to be burst, 

&c. See Tumbua, 
Tumbukia ku-, to fall into. 
Ametumbukia, kisimani, he has 
got into a scrape.. 

2 D 2 



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400 



TUM 



TUT 



Tumbukiza 7*ti-, to throw into, to 

ofi^use to fall into, to get a person 

into a scrape. 
TuTribulia ku-, 
^ Kutumhulia mdcho, to stare at. 
Tumbuu, a staple. 
Tumbuza ku-, to disembowel, to 

penetrate, to get through. 
Tume, a messenger. 
Tumia hu-, to employ, to spend, to 

use. 
TumiJca hu-, to be employed, to 

serve. 
Tumikia ku-^ to be employed by, to 

serve, to obey. 
TumUf taste, tasting. 
Tumuy the month Bamathan. 
Ttma ku; &c. (M.) = Chuna ku, &c. 
Tuna ku-, to swell, to get cross. 
Tunda, plur. matunda, a fruit. 
Tundama ku', to gather, to settle at 

the bottom. 
Tundika ku-^ to han^ up, to be 

suspended. 
Tundu, plur. tundu or matundu, a 
hole, a cage, a nest. 

Tundu ya puttf a nostril. 
Tunduaa kw, to stand stockstill in 

wonder at, &o. 
Tunga, a round opei^ basket. 
Tunga ku-, to suppurate. 
Tunga ku-^ to put together in order, 

to string beads, to make verses. 
Tungama ku-, to dot, to congeal. 
Tungamana ku-, to be steady. 
Tungia ku-, to thread a needle. 
Tungua ku-, to let down, to pull 

down, to hook down. 
Tunguka ku-, to be pulled or let 

down. 
Tungika ku-^ to depend upon, to 

hang from. 
Tungu (M.) = Chungu, ants. 



Tunguja, a common weed, a speoies 
of solanum. 

Tungulia ku- (M.) = Chungulia hu'^ 
to peep. 

Tunika feu- (M.), to lose the skin, to 
be flayed. 

Tunu, a rarity, a choice gift, a 
present. 

Tunuka ku-, to love ezcesuvely, to 
long for. 

Tunukia ku; to make a present to. 

Tunza, plur. matunza, care. 

Tunza ku-, to take care of, to look 
after, to make gifts to. 

Tupa, a file. 

Tupa, plur. matupa (M.), a bbttle. 

Tupa ku-t to throw, to throw away. 
Kutupa nathari, or macho, to cast 

a glance, to cast the eyes. 
Kutupa mkono, to break off friend- 
ship. 

Tupia ku-, to throw at, to pelt with. 

Tupiza ku-, to pass its proper mea- 
sure or time. 

-tupu, bare, empty. It makes tupu 
with nouns like nyuniba. See 
Utupu. 

Tupua ku-, to root out, to pull up. 

Turvhani, tare, allowance for pack- 
age, &c., in weighing. 

Turuvfia. See Maturuma. 

Turupuka ku-, to slip out of one's 
hand. 

Tusbiih, ascriptions of praise, a 
rosary, the beads used by Mo- 
hammedans in praying. See 
Tashih, 

Tuiha ku-, to lower, to make mean 
or low. 

Tvshi, plur. matvsM, abuse, bad 
language. See Matusu. 

Tustoira, a picture. 

Tuta, plur. matuta, a heap pf earth. 



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TUT 



IT 



401 



a raised bed for planting sweet 
potatoes. 
Tutu I Leave it alone! Don't touch! 

Used to little children. 
Tutvka ku; or Tutu'mka or Tutu- 
sika, to rise in little swellings, to 
come out in a rash. 
TtUumd ku; to make a nolBe of 

bubbling, to boil up. 
TutumtM kth, 
Kujitutumtta, to gather oneself 
up for an eflfbrt. 
Tuza ku-9 or Tmiza ku-, to weep (of 
a wound). 
Kutnza damn (M.), to run down 
with blood, to bleed exces- 
sively. 
. Tuza kU' = Tunza ku-, 

KuJituzOf to make oneself mean 
or low. 
Tuzanifa ku-y to come to ah agree- 
ment (A.). 

'tw- = 'tU', 

Twa kuQl.) = Chwa ku-, 
TwcM ku; to take. 

Kutioaa nyara, to take as spoil. 
Tioalia ku-, to take from. 
TwaXiwa ku-, to be deprived of, to 

have had taken from one. Used 

also in the sense of, to be taken. 
Twana kur or Tuana ku-, to settle. 
2Wna ku- = Twazana. 
Twanga kvr^ to clean com from the 

husk by pounding it in a wooden 

mortar. 
TwaTigia ku-y to clean com for, 

ifith, etc. 
Twazana ku-y to resemble in face, 

to be like. 
Tvoeka kw, to hoist, to raisei to 

take up. 
TvHifha ku-y to go by night to see 

any one. 



Tweta ku-i to pant, to strive for 

breath. 
Tweza ku-, to despise, to hold in 

contempt. 
Twiga, a giraffe, a camelopard. 
Twika ku; to put a load on a man's 

head. Alao Tika. 



U. 

U is pronounced like oo in food. 

U before a vowel takes a conso- 
nantal sound, and may be written 
w. This change is not so marked 
before a u as before the other vowels. 
Sometimes both w's keep their vowel 
sound. U before o is frequently 
dropped : 

Moyo = Muoyo. 

The syllable mu- is seldom so 
pronounced in Zanzibar; it becomes 
mw- or *m, or a simple m. 

L and u are sometimes appa- 
rently interchanged, as, 

U/alme or Ufaumey a kingdom. 

Mlango or MvjangOy a door. 

Nouns in u- or w- generally lose 
their u- in the plural, most of them 
substituting n- or ny- for it, but 
dissyllable nouns keep the u- and 
prefix ny-. See N, 

The insertion of a -t*- before the 
final -a of a verb reverses its mean- 
ing. 

Kufunga, to fasten. 

Kufungua, to unfasten. 

There is a suppressed I between 
the u and the a (as always in 
Swabili between two consecutive 
vowels), which appears in the ap^ 
plied forms. 

Kufunguliay to unfasten for. 

The passive of the applied forms 



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402 



J 



UOH 



of verbs in -ua is iiBed also as the 
passive of the simple form. 

Kufunguliwaito be unfastened) or 
to have unfastened for one* 

Kuua^ to kill, is irregular, and 
makes its passive by adding -wa, 
huuawa, to be killed. 

r7(Ar.),and. 

17, thou art, it is, of nouns in u-, 
and of those which make their 
plural in tfii', 
U' or tr-, the sign of the seoond 

person singular. 
U' or vh, the personal prefix of the 
third person singular denoting a 
substantive in u-, or one which 
makes its plural in mi-. 
-U-, or -IT-, the objective prefix de- 
noting a substantive in u-, or one 
^ that makes its plural in mt'-. . 
U- as a substantive prefix is used 
to form abstract nouns, and also 
to^rm the names of oountries, 
• as, 

VnytkoL, the Nyika oountry ; 
tfgala, the Galla country ; 
DzungUf the oountry of Eu- 
ropeans. 
Ua hu-, to jrill. 

Passive, Tcuuawa, to be killed* 
ZJO) plur. maua, a flower. • 
r/a, plur. nyua, a yajd^ an enclosure, 
a fence. 
Ua wa mdbua, an enclosure f enoed 

with mtama stalks. 
Va tea maftutt, an enclosurefenoed 
with plaited cocoa-nut leaves. 
Uandaf a court, a yard. 
Uanda = Wanda, 
Uanja = Uanda. 
Uapoy plur. nyapo, an oath. 
Uavoa ku-, to be killed. 



Uayo, plur. nyayo^ the sdle oC tbe 

foot, a footprint. 
Uhabwa, pap, a sc^t food fbr diil- 

dren. 
Uhafu or Uhatu^ plur. mbttim, a rib. 

Mbc^Mit in or at its sideb 
Ubaniy incense, galbaaum. 
UhaUlh nullity. 
UhaUf plur. mbau, a plank. 
Ubawa, plur. mbawa, a wing leatber. 
Ubazazi, 
Kufanya ubazaH, to make a bar- 
gain. 
UbdekOt a doth worn by w<HDen, a 
eustomary present to the boride's 
mother on the ocoasion of a 
wedding. 
Uhishiy a joke. 
Ubwyuy the inside of the calabash 

fruit 
Uchafu or Uehavu^ filthiness. 
Uclmgaa = Utagaa, 
Uchalay a raised stage to put com 

fto. uponl 
Uchawi, witchcraft, black magic. 
Kufanya uehaioi, to practise 
witchcraft. 
Uehif nakedneaa. 
UchipukcLf plur. ehipukaf a shoot, a 

blade of grass. 
UchoohorOf a passage, opening be- 
tween. 
Udhovu, tediousness. 
Uehu, a longing. 
UchuktUiy the leafstalk of the ooooa- 

nut leaH 
Uehukuzii carriage, cost Of carry- 
ing. 
Uchukwiy a kind of rice. 
Uchumi = Utumi, 
UchungUy bitterness, pain, poison. 
Uvkungu, bitter. See -cAtin^tk 
Dawa uchungu^ bitter medicine. 



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UDA 



UKA 



403 



VddkOf babbling, telling secrets. 
UdevUf plur. ndevu^ one hair of the 

beard. 
UdogOf smallness, youth. 
tfdongo^ claj» a kind of eartk used 

to mix with the lime and sand in 

making mortar. 
TJfa ku; to become cracked. 
Ufa, plur. nyu/a, a crack. 

Kutia ufoy to crack. 
U/agiOf plur. fagiOj a brush, a broom, 

a bundle of the leaves of a palm 

used to sweep with. 
U/ahamUj memory. 
Ufajiri = Alfajiri. 
Ufalmeax C7/att«ie.kingdom,royalty. 
Ufiditoa, a ransom. 
Vfisadi, vice. 
UJUki, vice. 
UJito, plur. fitOy a thin stick, sticks 

such as those which are used as 

laths to tie the mdkuti thatch to. 
Ufizi, plur.^^t, the gums. 
Ufu, death, the state of being dead. 
Ufufulio or U/u/uo, resurrection, 

revivaL 
Ufukara, destitution. ' 

Ufuhwe, absolute destitution. 
Ufumhi, valley, bottom. 
Ufunga, stone bench, = Kibaraxa, 
Ufungu, relatives. 
U/unguOy plur. funguOy a key. 
Ufuo, sandy beach. 
Ufutay semsem. 
TJfudmUy offidousnesa. 
Uga, an open space in a town where 

a house has been pulled down, or 

where a dance could be held* 
UgdLii porridge. 

Uganga, white magio^ medicine* 
Ughaibuy the little packet of betel 

leafy areca nut, lime, and tobacco 

made up for chewing. 



TJgoy enclosure, clo&e. 

Ugomvi, a quarrel, quarrelsomeness^ 

Ugonjtoa, sickness, a sickness. 

Ugrqmi, a general collection of debts; 

XJgxjta ku'f to fall sick,, to gproaa. 

Ugumu, hardness^ difficulty. 

Uguza ku-i to nurse, to take care of 

Vgvoef string. [a sick person. 

Uharabu, mischief. 

Uharara, warmth. 

Uharibivtti destruction, destruetive- 
ness. 

UMaji, want, thing wanting. 

TJhuruy freedom. 

UimhOf plur. nyimbo, a song, a ballad. 

Uirari (in arithmetic), proportion, 
division of profits. See Worari, 

Uizi, theft, thieving, 

Ujahili, boldness. 

UjMfut fulnesD. 

Ujana, youth. 

Ujari, tiller-Popes. 

UJenzi, building. 

Uji, gruel. 

Ujima, help of neighbours, assist- 
ance in work. 

Ujinga, rawness, dulness, ignorance. 

UJio, comings 

Ujira, hire, reward. 

Ujumbe, chiefship, headship. 

Uj%vi, knowingness, officiousness, 
pretended knowledge. 

Ujusi, defilement, whatever is re- 
moved by ablutions. 

Ukaango, plur. haangoy an earthen 
pot for cooking with oil or £at 

Uha/u, 
Uhafu tea rn^/t, a bubble on 
water. 

Ukali, fierceness, sharpness. 
Kufanya ukdHy to scold. 

XTkambaaf plur. kambaa (M.), cord 
line. 



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401 



UKA 



UkamilifUf perfectness, perfection. 

Ukanda, a strap. 

Ukao, stay, stopping. 

Ukarimu, generosity, liberality* 

UkawOf delay. 

JJhayay a long pieoe of blue calico, 
often ornamented with spangles, 
worn by slaves and poor women 
in Zanzibar over their heads: 
it has two long ends, reaching 
nearly to the ground. 

Uhelele, plur. kelele, a cry, a noise. 
Akapigiwa ukelele^ and a cry was 
made at him. 

Ukemiy a call (Mer.). 
Nipigie ukemi, give me a call. 

Ukengele, a sort of knife made in 
Zanzibar. 

Uketo, depth. 

Ukingo, the brink, a screen, an en- 
closure made with cloths. 

Ukiri, plur. kiri, a strip of fine 
matting about an inch broad, out 
of which mikeka are made. 

Ukiwa, desolation, solitude where 
people once were. 

Uko or Huko, there. 

Ukoa, plur. k*oa, a plate of metal, 
one of the rings on the scabbard 
of a sword, &c. 

Ukogct, the tartar and dirt on the 
teeth. 

UkoJkozi, phthisis. 

TJkokay grass cut for fodder. 

Vkoko, the rice on the top of the 
pot, which is often dry and 
scorched through the custom of 
pouring away the water when the 
rice is done and heaping live 
embers on the lid of the pot* 

TJkoko (A.), a cough. 

UkologefUf decay. 

UkotTM, leprosy. 



UKU 

Vkombaj a scraper, a curved knife 
for hollowing out mortars, &c, 

Ukomboleujaf a ransom. 

Ukomibozi or Ukornboo, a ransom. 

Ukonde (wa tende)^ a (date) stone. 

Ukongwe, oldness, extreme old age. 

UkonyezOy plur. konyezo, a sign made 
by lifting the eyebrow. 

UkoOf nastiness, uncleanness (?> 

Ukoo, ancestry, pedigree, family 
origin and connections. 

Ukop€y plur. kopey a hair from the 
eyelash. 

Ukosif the nape of the neok« 

Ukubali, acceptance. 

Ukubwat greatness, bigness. 

JJkuchOj plur. kucha, a nail, a claw, 
a hoof. 

Ukufi, plur. kufi, a handful, what 
will lie upon the hand. 

Ukunibi, an apartment at the en- 
trance, a hall, a porch. The 
ukumbi is within a stone house 
and outside a mud house. 

Ukumbuka, recollection. 

TJkumbushOy memorial, a reminder. 

Vkumbuuy plur. kumbuu, a girdle 
made of a narrow cloth, a turban 
doth twisted tightly into a sort 
of rope such as the turbans of 
the Hindis are made of. 

TJkwndufut pleasingness, oommo' 
diousness, liberality. 

Ukunguy mould, mouldiness. 
Kufanya ukungu, to get mouldy. 

Ukungu, the first light of dawn. 

Ukuni, plur. kunif a piece of fire, 
wood. 

Ukuraea, plur. kurasa^ a loaf of a 
book, a sheet of paper. 

Ukuta, plur. kuta, a stone wall. . 

Ukuti, plur. ktUif a leaflet of the 
oocoa-nut tree. 



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UKXJ 



tJMK 



m 



UkuUf greatness, size. 

Ukwajut a tamarind. 

Ukwaeefu, necessity ,haying nothing. 

Vhvxmy wealth, riches. 

UkwatOy plur. kwato, a hoof. 

Ulahf a tree or trees cut down so 

as to fall across a river and make 

a bridge over it. 
Ulaji, gluttony. 

Ulambiyarnbif a very young dafu. 
Ulanieiy a foul-mouthed person. 
Ulaya or Wilaya^ home; applied 

especially to the home of Euro- 
peans, Europe. 
Ulayiti, European, inferior calico. 

Kamba ulayiti^ hempen rope. 
XJU^ that, yonder, i 
XJUdi^ a dhow boy, a cabin boy. 
Ulegevu, relaxation, the state of 

being slack. 
Ulia &U-, to kill for, with, &c. 

Tumtdie mbali, let us kill him 
out of the way. 
Ultli, a couch or bedstead (^Eianz- 

toant*). 
Ulimbo, birdlime, gum, resin. 
Ulivfibwendef dandyism. 
Ulimiy plur. ndimi, the tongue, a 

tenon, the heel of a mast. 
UlimtoengUj the world, the universe, 
a man's own world or circle of 
duties and pleasures. 

Kuwdko ulimwengunii to be alive. 
Ulingo, a raised platform to scare 
Ulioy which is. [birds from. 

Ulitima, the last three cards of the 

pack. 
Uliza hu-t to ask, to inquire of a 
person. 

Kumuliza halif to ask how he 
does. 

Stwezi kuuliztoa utoongo,! cannot 
tell a lie. 



Ulizia Tcu-f to make inquiries on 

behalf of. 
Ulongo, falsehood. See Uwongo, 
Uma, plur. nyurna, a spit, a large 
fork, an awl. 

Umatoa hudkeanyama^ a gridiron . 
Uma %u-, to bite, to sting, to hurt, 

to give pain to, to ache. 
Umahelif ingenuity. 
TJmalidadiy dandyism. 
Umande, dew, morning air, mist, 

the west wind. . 
UmaHkimy poverty. 
Umatif a multitude, peopla 
Umati Itay Christians. 
Umati Mttsa, Jews. 
Umati Muhammad, Mohammedans. 
Umha kth, to create, to shape. 
Umba ku-f to bale out a boat Fur 

Kumba* 
Umbaumha kw, to sway about like 

a drunken man. 
Umbo, plur. maumbo, form, outward 
likeness, appearance, character, 
species. 

Najiona umbo la kutoa hizivn, I 
feel getting deaf. 
Umbu, plur. maumbu, a sister. 
Umbua ku-, to allege a defect, to 

depreciate. 
Umbwa, or better Mbiea, a dog. 
•ume (or -lume), male, strong. It 
makes ndume with nouns like 
nyumba. 

Hfkono wa huume, the right hand. 
Umeme, lightning. 
Umia kth, to give pain to. 
Umika kw, to cup. 
UmdOy the oesophagus. 
Umito, heaviness, feeling heavy. 
Umiza ku-, to hurt 
Umka ku-, to swell, to rise when 

leavened. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



406 



UMK 



Uwiku (?) &t*-, to call. 
Umo or Humo^ there inside. 
Vmoja, onenesi. 
Umri,9kge, 
Umri wake ajpataj6$ How old 
is be? 
Umua ku; to take honey from tho 

hive. 
Una, you have, thou hast 
Una nini f What is the matter 
with you? 
TJnazozitakay whiqh yon are asking 

for. 
Vvda livk'^ to build ships or boats. 
ZJndu, th^ comb of a cook. 
Unenet stoutness^ thickness. 
Unenyeheo^ humility, abasement, 

reverence. 
Ungaj Aour, powder. 

Unga wa ndere, a magic poison. 
Unga ba-^ to unite, to splice, to join. 
Ungamat a place near Melinda, 

swallowed up by the sea. 
Ungama ku-y to acknowledge, to 

confess of one's own aocord. 
Ungamana ku-, to bring together, 

connect. 
Ungamoy a yellow dye nsed for 

dyeing matting. 
Ungana few-, to unite, to join together. 
Unge'y the sign of the second person 
sing, conditional. 
Ungedwmti, you would continue. 
Ungekutoa, you would be. 
Ungi, much, plenty. 
Ungo, the hymen (?> 
Kuvunja ungo, to be deflowered, 
to begin to menstruate. 
Ungo, plur. maungo, a round flat 

basket used in sifting. 
Ungua kur^ to be scorched or scalded. 
Ungt^a, Zanzibar. 
VngtUia ku-, to scorch or scakL 



UPA 

Unguza ku-, to scorch ot scald, to 

bum. 
Ungwanoy the state of being a free 

and civilized man, civilization. 
"ungwana^ civilized, as opp68ed to 
'Bhenzi; firee, as opposed to 
'tumwa. 

Kiungwanay of a civilized kind. 
Unueky or UnweUy or Unyde, plur. 

nyeUy a hair. 
Unyago, See Kinyago. 

Kuchezea unyago, to teach wo- 
manhood. 
Unyaaiy reed, grass. 
Unyayo, plur. nya^o, the sole of the 

foot, a footprint. 
Unyele. See Untied 
Unyende. 

Kupiga unyende, to cry with a 
feeble thin voice. 
Unyika, the Nyika country. 
Unyoaj plur. nyoay a feather. 
Unyofu, stiaightness, uprightness. 
Unyogavu, idleness. 
Unyonge, vileness, meanness. 
Unyungu. 

Kupiga unyunguy to strut about, 
to show oneself off. 
Unyushiy plur. nyuehi, a hair fiom 

the eyebrow. 
Uoy plur. mauOy a sheath. 
Uoga or Woga, fear. 
Uovuy rottenness, badness, corrup- 
tion, malice, evlL 
Uoziy marriage. 
Upa^y baldness. 

Upaa wa kiiwa, crown of the 
head, baldness. 
Upajay plur. paja, the thigh. 
Upajiy liberality. 
Upamhay plur. pambay a bill, a onall 

hatohefc. 
. Upana, width, breadthi 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



UPA 

Upande, ]^lnt, pande, a side, part. 
Upands tea Mvita, near or about 

Mombas. 
Upande wa chini, the under elde, 

the lee side. 
Upande wa juu, the upper side, 

the weather side. 
Upande wa goehiniy the side where 
the tack of the sail is fastened, 
the weather side. 
Upanga, a cock's comb. 
Upanga, plur. pcmga, a sword. 
Upanga wafeUgi^^ long straight 
two-edged sword carried by the 
Arabs. ' 

Upanga wa imaili, a short sword 

with a kind of cross liilt. 
Kuweka upanga, to set up a 
sword on its edge. 
Upao^ plur. jMU), one of the small 
sticks used as laths to tie the 
thatch to. 
Upapi, the outer beading of a door 

frame. 
Upatajij value. 
Upato, a round plate 6i copper 

beaten as a mueical instrument. 
Upawa, plva.pawa, a flat ladle made 
out of a cocoa-nut shell, used 
for serving out curry, gravy, &c. 
An upatoa differs from a kata in 
being v^ niuch flatter and 
shallower: more th«i two- 
thirds of the shell are cut away 
to make an upaioa ; scarcely a 
quarter is cat off in making a 
hUa. 
Upekecho, the piece of wood used 

to make flre by rubbing. 
Upeketevu, destruction, harm, quar- 
relling. 
UpeUf plur. pele, a large pimple.. 
PeZd, the iteh. 



UBA 



407 



UpemhOf curved end, hook, a stick 

to hook down firnit with. 
Upendqi'ii the habit of liking. 
Vpendaioyoy as you please. 
UpendeleOf favour. 
Upenzif love, affection, liking. 
Upeo, plur. peo <M.), a sweeping 

brush. 
Upeo, the extremest point visible, 

the extreme limit, something 

which cannot be surpassed* 
Upepeo, plur. pepeo, a fan. 
Upepo, plur. pepo, a wind, cold. 

See Pepo. The plural is used to 

denote much wind. 
Upesit qui(*ly, lightly. 
Upia = Upya, newness. 
Upindi, plur. pindi, a bow. 

Upindi wa rrvDuay the rainbow. 
Upindo, a fold, a hem. 
Upe, a water-dipper for a boat or 

dhow. 
Upofu^ blindness. 
Upogo, a squint. 
UpogoupogOt zigzag. 
UpoU, gentleness, meekness. 
Upondo, plur. pondOf a pole used to 

propel canoes and small vessels. 
Upongoet plur. pongoe, the leaf stem 

of a palm tree. 
Upoozd, paralysis. 
Upote, string, bowstring. 
Upotevu, waste, destruotiveness, 

wastefulness. 
Upuwbafu, folly. 
Upunga, plur. punga, a flower or 

embryo nut of the cocoa-nut tree. 
Upungufu, defect, defectiveness. 
Upupu, ooW-itch. 

Upuzi, nonsense, chatter, silly talk. 
Upweice, singleness, independence. 
Upya, newness. 
Urathi, contentment. \ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



408 



UEB 



UTB 



XJrefu^ length. 

UrembOf ornament, applied espe- 
cially to the black lines painted 
on their faces hj the women of 
Zanzibar by way of ornament. 

Urithiy inheritance. 

Urongo = Utoongo, 

UrothOf invoice. 

UrUf diamonds (in cards). 

Usaflf shavings and chips. 

Umha^ matter, pus. 

U$emif talk, conversation. 

Uihadif plur. nyushadi^ verses. 

Ushahidif or Ushuhudct, testimony. 

UehambUio, haste, suddenly. 

Ushanga, plur. shanga, a bead. 

Uahariha, partnership, sharing. 

UshaufUf deceit 

U$heratit dissipation. Also Aaherati, 

Uaht, a string-course. 

Ushujaat heroism, great courage. 

Ushukuray thanks.' 

Ushungut a vegetable poison, used 
to poison arrows. 

UshupafUf perversity, crookedness. 

Utihwru, tax, duty, customs. 

Ueia kU'f to leave directions or 
orders, by will, &o. See Wasid. 

Unkizi, hearing, attention, under- 
standing. 

UsikUfTdght The plur. mTev is used 
to denote days of 24 hours. Four 
whole nights must be rendered 
siku nne uHhu kucha. Four days 
and nights, siku nne mchana na 
usUeu. 

Ustmanga^ mockery. 

Usimeme, firmness. 

Usinga, plur. singa, a (straight, not 
woolly) hair. See 8inga, 

Usingisit plur. singizi^ sleep. See 
Zingizi, 

Ustrif delay. 



Usitffo, on the high i 

UsOf plur. nyusOf face, countpnance. 

Ussubuif for Assubui, in the morning, 

the morning. 
Usubif a sandfly, a midge. 
Usufif silk cotton from the msiiji 

tree. 
Usukani, plur. sukani, a rudder. 
Usfdtam, sultanship. 
Usumha, see Makumbi, 
Utoy plur. nyuta or moto, a bow, 
Uta. [bow and arrows. 

Mafuta ya tda, semsem oil. 
Utaa, a redsed stage to put com, 

&c. on. 
Uidbibut medical science, being a 

doctor. 
Utagaa, a branch of a tree. 
Utajiy a veil. 
Utajiri, wealth. 
UtakachOf what yon wish. 
Utakatifu^ holiness, purity. 
Utdko (Mer.), keel of a dhow. 
UtambcMi plur. tamhaa, a bandage, 

a rag. 
UtarM, plur. tambiy a lamp-wick, a 

piece of stuff for a turban. 
Utambo {wa sufuria, &c.), a swing- 
ing handle like that of a pail. 
UtamvuOf end or comer of a tnrban, 

of a cloth, &c. 
Utandu (A.) = Ukoko. 
Utanduf hymen. 
Utani^ a kindredrace, the belonging 

to a kindred tribe, familiarity. 
UtanzUy plur. tat^zu, a branch. 
JJtashiy desire. 
Crtott, tonguetiednesB. 
TJtawi, 

Kupiga utawi, to drink grog to- 
gether. 
UU. 
Ute wa yayi^ the white of an egg. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



UTE 

UteUzi, slipperiness. 

Utembe, the chewed refuse of betel 
leaf, ^. 

Uienzi, a poem, especially a reli- 
gious poem. 

Uteo, plur. teo (M.), a siftiug bas- 
ket. 

Utepe, plur. tepe, a tape, a baud, a 
fillet, a stripe. 

Utepetefu, Icnguor. 

Utesif strife. 

V'thahUif bravery, firmness. 

UthaifUf weakness, infirmity, 

Uthaniy weight. 

Uthi ku', to harass, trouble. 

Uthia, bother, noise, uproar. 

Uthia Zeu-, to harass. 

Uthibaji, cheat, deceit, stratagem. 

Uthika hu-y to be harassed. 

Uthilifu, calamity, great trouble. 

Uthuru ktt-f to excuse, 

m, 

Uti tea maungo, the backbone. 

Utiko, the roof-ridge of a thatched 
house. 

Utiririy a provoking trick. 

Utofu, dull, without amusement. 

Utofn, thinness, weakness. 

UtokOf mucus from the vagina. 

Uto, 
Uto wa nyama, fat cooked^ out of 
meat, dripping. 

Utonwoy thick white sap. 

Utondwi, small dhows trading about 
Zanzibar, coasters. 

Utosi, the top of the head. 

Utoto, childhood. 

Utu/Uf fatigue. 

Utuku/u, greatness, exaltation, 
Klory- 

Uttde, wretchedness, weakness, un- 
fitness. 

UtuUvu, quietness, patience. 



UWA 



4C9 



UtumhavUy thickness, swelling, 

rising. 
Ulumbuizo, a soothing thing, verses 

sung during a dance. 
Utumey sending people about. 
Utumi, use, usage. 
Utumo, business, place of business. 
Utumtoaj slavery, employment, en- 
gagement. 

Kutia utumuoanif to enslave. 
Utungu (M.) = Uchungu, 

Utunguy is used in the dialect of 
Zanzibar only for the pains t)f 
childbirth, Utungu wa uzazi. 
Utupa, a species of euphorbia used 

as a fish poison. 
UtupUf naked (vulgar). 

Mtu utupUf a naked man. 

Mtu mtupuy a mere man. 
Uuajiy murderousness. 
Uudi, aloes wood. 
TJuza ku. See Uza ku-, 
Uviy a door [Tumbatu]. 
Uvi'vUf idleness, sloth. 
Uvuguvugu, lukewarmness. 

Maji yana uvuguvugu, the water 
is lukewarm. 
JJvuli, shade. 

Uvumbaf incense, galbanum. 
Uvundo, a smell of corruption. 
Uvurujikay tendency to crumble, a 

being spoilt and decayed. 
Uvurungu, hollowness. 

Jiwe la uvurungu, a hollow stone. 
JJvyazi, birth. 
Uwandaf a plain. 
Utcanga, arrowroot. 
Uwangay a sweet dish made of 

wheat, flour, sugeur, and ghee. 
TJwanja, a courtyard, an enclosure. 
JJwashi, masonry. 
Uwatif a vesicular eruption on the 

skin. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



410 



UWA 



TiiL 



Uwaziri, the Tixinbipb 
Utoelit sickneeSf disease. 

Uwdi wa viungOf rheumfttisra. 
Uwezo, power, ability. 
Utoinda, 
Kupiga umnda^ to pass the ends 
of the loin-clotii between the 
legs and tack them in, as is 
done loosely by the Banyans, 
and tightly by men at work. 
Umngu, plur. mbinguy heayen, sky. 
The plural is Uie form more oom- 
tnonly used. 
UwivUf jealousy. 
Vwongo, falsehood. 
Manenoye yameleuvsa uwongOj he 
has become a teller of lies. 
Uyajuapo, if you know them. 
Uyoga, A mushroom. 
Uyuzij ingenuity. 
Uyuzi ku-, to ascertain. 
Uza ku', to a^, to ask questions. 
Uza fcfi- or Za ku-^ to sell. 
The u in kvuza, or rather hutcb, 
to sell, is very short and insig- 
nificant : it is possibly only a 
partial retention of the ku-, 
which bears the aeoent and is 
retained entire in the nsual 
tenses. The u- in kuiiza, to 
ask, is much more important, 
as is shown dearly in the ap- 
plied forms. 
KwtUxcif to ask of a person ; 

pres. pcrf. ameuUza, 
KtUizOj to sell to a person ; 
pres. perf. awbeliza, 
Uzanya ku-, to be ordinarily sold, 

to be for sale. 
Utazi, birth. 
Uzee, old age. 
UzenAe, indifference, apathy, slow- 



Vzi, plur. nyuzi^ thread, string, a 
stnpe. 

Uzikiy poverty. 

Uzima, health, heartiness, complete- 
ness, life. 

Uzingizi. Bee Zingizi and Unngizi, 

UzinguOf disenchantment, as from 
the power ef the evil eye. 

Uzini or Uzinzi, adultery, fornica- 
tion. 

Uzioj plur. nyuziOf a hedge made in 
the sea to catch fish. 

Uzulia ku-t to depose. 

Uzulu fctt-, to depose, to remove from 
an office. 
Kujiuzuluj to resign, to give up a 
place or office, to abdicate. 

Uzurtf beauty, fineness, ornament 
Kufanya uzuri, to adorn oneself. 

Uzushi, raising from the bottom, as 
in fishing for pearls. 

Uzuzu, rawness, greenness (of a 
simpleton). 



, V. 

Fis pronounced as in EnglifdL 

F,/, and &, are sometimes a little 
difficult to distinguish accurately in 
the dialect of Zanzibar. This is 
probably owing to the want of a » 
in Arabic 

F and vy change in some dialects 
into Z-, in others into th-, 

Mwivif a thief, becomes mtrixi at 
Lamoo, and mwiihi at Patta. 
Vaa ku; to put on, to dress in. 

The part tenses are used in tiie 
sense of, to wear. 

Amevaaj he wears. 

Alivaot he wore. 
Valia ku-. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



VAO 

MtMpi wa kuvaUa nguo, n ^rdle 
to gird up one's clothes with. 
Foo, plor. vMraoo, dresa. 
Varanga, interrup^g and bo^r- 

ing talk. 
Fjdss, plur. mamud, a dsess, a gar- 
ment. 
Vema, well, jery wdl. 
Vema xxt Vf^emoy good. See -ema. 
F»- or Fy-, the plnial prefix of sub- 

atanttyes (and of adjedives and 

pianonns agreeing with them) 

which make their singukir in hi- 

or ch; 
F»- or Fy-, sign of ihe tiiiid person 

plural prefixed to verbs goyemed 

by nouns in vi- or vy^, 
Vi- or Fy- prefixed to adjeotlFes 

often gives them osa adverbial 

sense. 
'vi'9 the objective prefix represent- 
ing nouns in vi- or vy-* 
Via ku-, to stop short of perfection, 

to be stunted in its growth, to 
. remain only half cooked for want 

of fire, Ac., &c 
Viaa kU" = Vyaa kit-. 
Viatu (plural of Kicttu), shoes, san- 
dals. 

Viatu vya Kizungu, European 
shoes. 

Viatu vya ngoziy leather sandals. 

Viatu vya mtif wooden clogs. 
Viazi (plur. of Kiazi), sweet pota- 
toes. 

Fiozt vya Kizunguy potatoes. 

Viati vikuu, yams. 
Vtberiii (plur. of iL»6en7t), matches, 

luoilBrs. 
VidatU, eoUars of gold, &o. 
Viembe tur VyemhCf arrows. 
Fi/oa, necessaries, useful things. 
Vigwet braid, reins. 



TIT 



411 



Vtjineno, little words, prattle. 

Vika ku-j to clothe, to dress. 

Vile, those yonder. 

ViUviU, just those things, like 
things, in like manner. 

Vilia ku-, to stop and stagnate, as 
the fakiod does in a todse. 

VUiOy a stagnation, a stoppage. 
Mavilio ya doanu, bndses,«£fu^ion 
of blood. ' 

Vimba ku*, to swell, to thatch. 

VvmhUha ku-, to overfeed a person. 

Vimbiwa ku-, to be ov«»tuffed, to 
overeat oneself 

Fmwo, all of one size. 

Vinga vya moto, firebrands, sing. 
Kinga 4sha moto, 

Vingi, many. See -ingi. 

Vingine, others. Scmb -ngine, 

Vinjari ku-, to cruise about, to go 
looking out for something, to 
watch. 

Vinyavinya kw, to press and crush 
food for children and sick people. 

Vinyi. See Mwenyi. 

Vinyu = Mvmyo, 

Vioga ku- (M.), to tread. 

Vumho = Vyombo, 

Viote or Vyote, all. See -ofe. 

Vipande vya A;ttptmta, nautical in- 
struments, sextants, &o. 

Vipde (plur. of Kipele), small 
pimples, a rash. 
Vipele vya harara, prickly heat. 

Viringa kur, to become round. 
Imeviringa, it is round. 

Viringana ku-, to become spheripal. 

Visha ku-, to give clothes to. 

Vita, war. 

Vitanga vya mizani, scales, scale- 
pans. ■* 

Vitindi vya sTiaha, brass wire. 

Vitwa vitwa, topsy-turvy. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



412 



VIV 



VUN 



Vivia ku'f to smoulder* 

Vivi hivij common, juat there, just 

so, anyhow. 
*vivu, idle, doll, slow. 

Kisu ni kivivUf the knife is blont 

.(A.). 

VivyOj thus, in the way mentioned. 

Vivyohivyo, in like manner. 

Viwimhi (plur. of Kiwimbi), wave- 
lets, a ripple. 

Viza ku-t to stunt, to prevent its 
attaining perfection, to interrupt, 
to stop or hinder in work. 

Vizia ku'j to watch, to spoil one's 
work for one, to hinder one from 
working. 

Fuurt, fine, finely. See -zaW. 

Vua ku'j to take off clothes. 

Vua ku'y to savOi to deliver, to take 

8(^088. 

Vua ku-f to fish, to catch fish. 
Vuata ku- or Vwata kur, to press with 

the teeth, to hold in the mouth. 
Vuaza ku-, to wound by striking or 

running into unawares, to cut 
Vugaza ku-y to put to (a door). 
Vugo, a horn played upon by beat- 
Vt0a kU', to leak, to let water, [ing. 
Vujta ku-, to ooze out 
Vuka ku-, to cross, to go over, to 

pass a river, to be saved. 
Vfike, steam, vapour, sweat. 
Vukuka ku-, to take aorops, to ferry 

over. 
Vukiza ku-, to cause to fume, to 

give off vapour. 
Vukuta ku-f to blow bellows. 
VuJcutOy sweat 
Vule. 

Dudu vule, an insect living in 
wood, a carpenter bee (?). 
Vfjdi, shade. 

Mhono wa kwouLi, the right hand. 



FuZid hur, to catch fish for, or 

with. 
Vuma ku*, to blow as the wind, to 

buzz like a bee. 
Vuma ku-, to lose (in card-playing). 
Vuwhi, plur. mavumbi, dust, fine, 

muddiness in water. 
Vuwhika ku-, to put in under some- 
thing, to stick into the embers, to 

cover with a heap of leaves, &c. 
Vumhikia ku-, to put seeds or plants 

in the ground before rain, to get 

them into the ground. 
Vumbilia ku-. 

KuvunibiUa vito, to get into a 
quarrel. 
Vumhu, plur. mavum&ti, tlumpe in 

fiour, &C. 
Vuwbuaku-, to find after a search, 

to discover. 
Vumi, a noise as of blowing or 

bellowing, often made with a 

drum. 
Vumilia ku-, to endure, to tolerate, 

to bear. 
Vumisha ku-, to win (in card-play- 

iog). 
Vuna ku-, to reap. 
Vuna ku-, 

Kujivuna, to swell up, to be 
puffed up. 
Vunda, &c. = Vunja^ &c. 
Vunda ku-, to rot. 
-vungu, hollow. 

Vunja ku-, to break, to ruin, to 
spoil, to change a piece of 
^noney. 

kuvunja Jungo, to have a final 
feast, as before Ramathan. 
Vunja jungo or chungu, a mantis 

(Mantis religiosa), so called from 

the superstition that a person 

touching it will break the next 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



VUN 



*-WA- 



413 



piece of crockery or glass lie 

handles. 
Vunjia hu-, to break for, with, &o. 
Vunjika ku-^ to become broken. 
Vuruga ku-y to stir. 
Vurujika Zw-, to break up into frag- 
ments, crumble. 
Vurumisha ku-, to throw a stone, &c. 
VtuJia kti-j to put across, to ferry 

over, to put into the right way. 
Vuta ku'f to draw, to pull. 

Kuvuta maji, to bale out water. 

Kuvuta makaaiaf to row. 

Kuvuta tumbakOf to smoke to- 
bacco. 
Vuviaku'j to blow. 
Vuvumka ku-j to grow up quickly. 
Vuzi, plur. mavuzif a hair of the 

pubes. Also, (A.) hair in gene- 
ral. 
Vy- = Ti'. 
Vya, of. 
Vyaa ku-, to bear children, or fruit. 

Pass, vyawa or vyaliwa. 
Vyake or Vyaktve, his, her, its. 
Vyako, thy. 
Vyakula (plur. of Chakula\ things 

to eat, victuals, meals, provisions. 
Vyaliwa few-, to be born. 
Vyanguy my, of me. See -^ingu, 
VyaOf their, of them. See -ao. 
VyetUf our, of us. See -etu. 
VyenUf your, of you. See -enu. 
-vyo or -vyo-, as. 

UpendavyOf as you please. 

UnipendavyOy as you love me, for 
my sake. 

AUvyoagiza, as he directed. See 
ginau 
VyOy -vyo, -vyo'y which. See -o. 

Vyo vyote, whatsoever. 
Vyombo (plur. of Chonibo)^ vessels, 

household utensils, baggage. 



W. 

W is pronounced as in English. 

W is commonly in Swahili a con- 
sonantal tt, and itf many words w 
or u may be written indiflferently. 
There are other cases, as in the 
passive termination -wa, where the 
sound can only be expressed by an 
English w, 

W- = U"-, which see. 
TT-, the prefix proper to possessive 
pronouns governed by substan- 
tives either singular or plural 
which denote animate beings. 
TTa, of. See -a. 
Wa ninif why. 

Eamisi wa Tani, Tani's Hamisi, 
«.6. Hamisi, the sou of TanL 
Wa or Z7, the Arabic and. 
Wa t an Arabic exclamation. 
TFa-, the plural prefix of substan- 
tives in W-, 'm-, or mic- which 
denote animate beings. 
TFa-, the plural prefix of adjectives 
and pronouns agreeing with sub- 
stantives which denote animate 
beings. 
TFa-, the prefix marking the third 
person plural of ^erbs governed 
by nouns denoting animate be- 
ings. 
"Where the tense prefix begins 
with an -a- that of the personal 
prefix coalesces with it, so that 
there is no difference between 
the second person singular and 
the third plural. 
'Wa- the objective plural prefix 
referring to substantives which 
denote animate beings. 
2 E 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



414 



WA 



WAL 



Wa kit'j to be, to become (?) : the 
^rti- bears the accent and is re- 
tained in the usual cases. 
The present tense of the substan- 
tive verb is generally repre- 
Bented by ntor by the personal 
prefix standing alone. 
The present tense with the i;ela- 
tive is represented by the syl- 
lable -K-. Miye, he who is. 
The present perfect amekuway &o. 
has the sense of, to have be- 
come. Was is represented by 
the past perfect tense aXikuwa, 
&c. 
Kuwa nOf to have. 
Simehuwa mwongo ? should I 
not be a liar ? 
Waa Icu't to shine much, like the 

sun or the moon. * 

Waa, plur. mawaa, a spot, a blotch, 

a stain. 
Wdbha, cholera. 

Wahoondei, the people living in the 
low country between the sea and 
the Shambala mountains. 
Wadi, son of. 
Wadi Mohammedf Mohammed's 
son. 
Wadi fctt-, to complete a term. 
Watu tea ** London ** wamewadif 
the (H.M.S.) " London's " com- 
mission his expired. 
Wadia hu-y to be fully come, to be 

quite time for anything. 
Wadinasi for Walad ennas, bom 
of people, that is, of decent 
family. 
Waduiy enmity, hostility. 
Wafihana hu-, to conspire together. 
Wafihi ku-, to suit, to be suitable 

to. 
Waga ku- (Mer.), to kill. 



Wagunya, the Swahili living north 

of Siwi. 
Wdhadiy plur. nyahadi (?), for 

Ahadif a promise. 
Wdhid, one. 
Wai ku', to be in time. 
Wainuay verily. 
Wdjib, rightness, it ought. 
Wajihi ku', to visit, to see face to 

face. 
Wajihiana ku-, to meet face to face, 

to see one another. 
Waka ku; to blaze, to bum up, to 

bum. 
Wakatij time, season. 

Wakati huu, now. 
Wake or WaJcwe, his, her, or its. 
Wakf, [See -alee. 

Kufanya wakf, to dedicate, to set 
apart for holy uses. 
Wakia, the weight of a silver dollar, 

about an ounce. 
Wdkifu ku-, to cost 
Wakifia ku-, to cost to. 
Wakili, an agent, a representative. 
Wako, thy, 
Wakti = WaJcati. 

Wakti gani nije f at what time 
am I to come ? 
Waia, nor, and not. 

Wala — wala — , neither — ^nor — ^. 
Where or would be used in 

English after a negative uxda is 

used in Swahili. 
Walai or WallaySf the most com- 
mon Swahili oath. 
Walakini, but, and however. 
Wala^ not even. 
Walcy those yonder. 
Waliy cooked grain, especially rice. 

Wall wa mmkuuj what is left 
from some meal overnight to be 
eaten in the morning. 



Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



WAIr 



WAT 



415 



Wdlif a governor. 

Livoali for Al Wali, the goYemor, 
is more oommonly used in Zan- 
zibar. 
Walio, See Nyalio* 
WaliOt they who are. 
Walimtoengu, the people oP this 

world. 
WaUi, a saint. 

Wama ku-y to lie on the face. 
Wamba ku-j to lace in the ropes 

upon the frame of a Mtcmdaf to 

fill up. 
WamhieOf attachment. 
Wanaj they have. 

tiawana, they have not. 
Wanda ftu-, to get very fat and 

strong. 
Wanda, plur. nyanda^ a finger, a 

finger's-breadth. 
Wanga hu- (Mer.), to count, to 

reckon. 
Wanga, one who uses witchcraft 

against another. 
Wanga, arrowroot. Also Uanga, 
Wanga or Wangtoa, a cliff. 
Wangine, others, other people. 

Wangine — toangine — , some — 
others — . 
Wangu, my. See-angu. 
Wangua ku-, to scoop up. 
Wangwa, a desert, a bare waste 

place^ 
Wanguxina or Waungwana, gentry, 

free and civilized men. 
Wanja. 

War^a wa manga, antimony. 
Wano, plur. matoano, the shaft of 

an arrow car harpoon. 
Woo, they. 
Wao, their. See -ao. 
Wapif which people? 
Wapi f or apif where ? 



Commonly joined with the per- 
sonal sign of the noun. 
Tu vsapi or Yuko vjapi ? where is 

[he]? 
Zi wapi or Ziho wapi ? where are 
[they]? 
WapUia ku-, to be laden with scent, 

highly perfumed. 
Wapo, a gift. 
Waradi, or Waredi, or Waridi, a 

rose. 
Waraka, plur. nyaraka, a letter. 
TTaria, a clever dhow-builder, a 

clever man at any business. 
Warr, a yard (measure). 
Wasa, plur. nyasa, small sticks to 
fill up between larger ones in a 
wall or roof. 
Wasa ku', to contradict. 
Washa ku', to light, to set fire to. 

Kutoasha moto, to light up a fire. 
Washarati, great dissipation, licen- 
tiousness. 
Washenzi, wild people, uncivilized 

men. ' 
Wasi, rebellion. Also Uatt. 
Wasia, sentence, will, declared 

opinion. Also Wosia. 
Wasia hi-, to bequeath, to make a 
^ will. 
WaeUi kw, to arrive, to come close 

to, to reach. 
WaMli, receipt, credit side of ac- 
count, i,e. the left-band column. 
WasiUa ku-, to reach a person, es- 
pecially of letters. • 
Wasiluika ku-, to cause to reach. 
Watio, who are not. 
WaMo = Wasia and Wosia, 
Wastani, middling, in the middle. 
Wastoas, doubt 
Waihahisha ku-, to solve. 
Wathiki, narrow, 

2 B 2 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



416 



WAT 



•WIL 



Watia Tcur^ to eit upon eggs. 

W(Uu, fenugreek. 

Watu (plur. of Mtu\ people. 

-a watuy other people's. 
Wavu^ plur. nyavu, a net to oatcli 

gazelles, &c. 
Waioilif two, two persons. 

Wote uoawilit both. 
Wayaj an earthen dish to bake 

cakes on. 
Wayawaya hu-t to sway like a bough 

loaded with fruit, to swagger, to 

be bent down and burdened. 
Wayo, plur. nyayo, sole of the foot, 

footprint. Also Uayo. 

Waza ku', to think, consider, reflect. 

WazaOj progeny , oflfepring, posterity. 

'wazif open, clear, manifest. It 

makes toazi with nouns like 

nyumha, 

Kitwa Mwaziy bareheaded. 

Panalia wazi, it sounds hollow. 

Waziwazi, manifest. 
Wazimu. 

Ana tjoazimuy he is mad. 
Waziri, plur. mawaziri^ a vizier, a 

secretary of state, a chief officer. 
WazOf plur. matuazo, thoughts, 
-tre, his, hers, its, for wctke, 
-vje, thee, for wewe. 
Wea hu; to become the property of. 
Weka hu-f to place, to lay, to put 
away, to keep, to delay. 

Nyumha Jiainiweki^ I have no rest 
in the house, I cannot remain 
• in the house. 
Wekea hu^, to put away for. 

Kutoekea amanaf to entrust to. 

Kuvoekea toakf^ to dedicate. 
Weko, 

Kuiia fceJtOf to weld. 
Wekua ktt-^ to break up, to remove. 
Weleko, a cloth worn by women. 



Weti, sickness. 

Well toa macho, ophthalmia. 
Welii, saintly, a saint. 
Wenuif goodness. 
Wemhe, plur. nyembe (?), a razor. 
Wenga ku-, to cause to break out 

into sores. 
Wengi, many. See -ingi. 
Wengoy the spleen. 
Wenu^ your. tJee -enu, 
Wenzangu, my companions = W(h 

enzi toangu. 
WerevUj cunning, shrewdness. 
Weu, a place cleared for planting. 
Weupe, whiteness, clearness, light, 
Weupej white. See -eujpe. 
Wevi or Wezi, thieves. See Mmvi 
Wewe, thou, thee. 
Weweseka ku-j to talk and murmui 

in one's sleep. Also Weweteka. 
Weyej you I it is you. 
Weza ku-f to be able, to be a matoh 
for, to have power over, to be 
equal to. 

Siwezi, I cannot, or, I am sick. 

Nalikuwa siwezi^ I was ilL 

Sikuweza, I was not able. 

Amehawezif he has fallen sick, 
-weza. See mweza. 
Wezekana ku-, to be possible, 
Wezesha &a-, to enable, 
-m, bad (old Swahili and Nyam- 
Wia ku-t to be to. [wezi). 

Niwie raihi, don't be offended 
with me. 

2. to have in one's debt. 
Kuvoiwa, to be indebted. 
Wibo, Ibo. 

Wifi, husband's sister. 
Wika ku-, to crow like a cock. 
Wilaya = TJlaya^ home, Burope 
-will, two. It makes mbUi Mith 

nouns like nyumha^ 



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WIM 



YAK 



417 



Tr»fii6t*, plur. mawimhi, a wave* 

Maunmbij surf. 
, Withbi, a very small kind of grain. 
Winda ku- or Wiiiga A;t»-, to chase, 

to bunt. 
Wingi = Ungii plenty, a great 

quantity, much. 
WingUt plur. mawinguj a cloud. 
WinOf ink. 
WithwOf chaff, the husks of rice, the 

flour sifted off along with the 

husks. 
WitirUj odd, not even. 
Witwa (= Kvntwaf), the being 

called. 
Wiva ku- = Iva fcii-# 
-wivu, jealous. " . 

-tinvtt = -hivuy ripe. 
Wiwa ku-, to owe, to be indebted 

to. 
Wiza. 

Mayayi .matoiza, eggs with 
chickens formed in them, hard 
set. 
ITo, -wo, -wO'y which, who, whom. 

Wo wote, whatsoever, whosoever. 
-ICO, thy, = Wdko. 
Wogofya, plur* nyogofya, a threat. 
Wokowif deliverance, salvation. 
Wongo, falsehood* Also TJwongo, 
Wonyesho, showing, display. 
Worarii rateable division, sharing. 

Ar. Wora, to cast pebbles. 
TTond, injunction, sentence, charge, 

wise saying. Also Wasia, 
WoUf all, both. 

Twende wote, let us both go. 

Wote toawUi, both. 
Wovisi, cool. 
Wotoeka ku-, to soak. 



Y. 

Fis pronounced as in English. 

F is in Swahili a consonantal t, 
and it is often Indifferent whether it 
be written * or y. The use of y 
is however important to distinguish 
such words as kimia, a cast-net, 
and kimyut silence. 

The insertion of a y sound before 
the final -a of a verb has in many 
cases the effect of giving it a causa- 
tive meaning. See P. 

Kupona, to get welL 
Kuponyaj to cure. 

Kuogopa, to fear. 
Kuogofyaf to frightoa 

r = 7. 

F-, the prefix proper to possessive 
pronouns governed by singular 
substantives of the class which 
does not change to form the 
plu^l, by plural substantives in 
mi', or by plural substantives in 

Ya, of. See -a. [ma-, 

Ya kitovu, in the navel. 
Ya kioambct, that. 
Yaninif Why? 

Fa-, sign of the third person plural 
prefixed to verbs governed by a 
plural substantive in ma-, 

-ya-f objective prefix denoting 
plural nouns in mo-. 

Yaa ku-f to sow seeds. 

YdbiSy or YahUi, dry, solid. 

Yai = Yayi, 

Yaika ku-, to melt. 

Yake or Ydktcet his, hers, its. See 

Ydkinit certainly, certainty, it is 

certain. 
Ya^inia kvr, to determine, to set 
one's mind upon. 



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418 



YAK 



Z^ 



Yakinislia hu-y to make certain. 
Yakoy thy, your. See -dko. 
Takowapi, where are they ? 
Yakuti, emerald (?> 
YaUt those yonder. 
YaZiomo, which are within. 
Yamho = Jambo, 
Yaminij an oath. 
Yamkini, possibly, possibility. 

Kwa yamkinif possibly. 
Yamhini ku- (?), to be possible. 

Saiyamkiniy it is not possible. 
Yaviur^ deer. 
Yange, See -tige-. 

YangedvmUy they wonld remain. 
Yangut my, of me. See -angu. 
Yani = Fa nint ? for what ? why ? 
Foo, their, of them. See -ao. 
Yost, a yellow ^wder brought from 

India, and used as a cosmetic. 
Yatima, an orphan. 
Yavuyavuj lights, lungs. 
Yayat a nurse, an ayah. 
Yayi, plur. mayayi, an egg. 
Fa^i ya |mm&ii, testicles. 
F6/ = /e/ Hullol Weill What 

now? 
Fe, -ye, or -y«-, sign of the relative, 
referring to animate beings, 
who, which, whom. 
Ye yote, whosoever. 
Yeektoayee, common-place people. 
-yey his, hers, or its, = Yake* 
Yee or Fei/e, he or she, him or her. 
Yeiy a child's good-bye, "ta-ta." 
Yemkini = Yamkini. 
YenUf your, of you. See -cni*. 
Yenyiy having. See -enyi. 
YetUj our, of us. See -etu, 
Yeyuka ku-, to melt, to deliquesce* 
Yeymha ku-f to cause to melt, to 

melt 
Yinyi = Yenyi, 



-yOy thy, = Yaka. 
Yo, -yo, -yo-, sign of the relativey 
which. 
Yo yoUt whatsoever. ^ 
Yoe = Yowe, 
Yonga hu-, to sway. 
Yote, alL See -ote. 

Kwa yotCy altogether, wholly. 
Foire, a cry for help. 

Kupiga yotoe, to cry for help. 
Ftf , he or she is. 

Ftf-, sign of the third person sin- 
gular, referring to an animate 
being. It is used chiefly beloie 
monosyllabic verbs and in the 
Mombas dialect 
Yuaja, he comes. 
FttZro, yumo, &ai he is there, 
within, &c. 
Yule, yonder person, that person. 
Yuma kU', to sway in the wind. 
Yuna, he has. 

Yungiyungi, the blue water-lily. 
Yuza hi-f to declare, to make xdear. 

Z. 

Z is pronounced as in eony, the 
German «. Z in some dialects takes 
the place of v or vy in that of Zan- 
zibar. 

Z is used by people who eannot 
pronounce Ih, fox the Arabic ihal, 
thod, and dtha. See T. 

Z- or zi; the sign of the third parson 
pineal prefixed to verbs which 
are governed by plural substan- 
tives of the class which does not 
change to form the plural, or of 
that which makes its singular 
in U-. 

Z-, the prefix proper to pronouns 



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ZA 



ZIP 



419 



goveraed hj ptanl nouns of the 
class which does not change to 
fram the phiral, or of that which 
makes its singular in «. 

Zay of. See -a. 

Za ku-. See Uza &«-, to selL 

ZcM hu-, to bear, to breed, to beget, 
to bear fruit. 

Zdbadiy oiyei 

Zdbibu, plur. mazahibu (?), grapes, 
raisins. 

Zdbidi ku-y to take civet from the 
ngavj€u 

Zabuni ku-y to buy. 

Zdbturi, the psalter, a psalm. 

Zafarani or Zafrani, saflfron, a wo- 
man's name. 

Zagaa kvr, to shine, to glisten. 

Zaidi or Zayidi, more. 

Zaka, tithes. 

Zdke or Zakwe^ his, hers, its. See 
•ake. 

Zdko, thy, your. See 'oko. 

Zakula (A.) = VyakuUt, victuals 

ZcHia ku', to bear to. 

Zdlisha kti-f to beget, cause to bear. 

Zalitoa ^«-, to be bom. 

Zama ku-, to sink, to dive. 

Zamanij times, long ago. 
Zamani za kdte^ old times, long 

ago, anciently. 
ZamarU za Shanga, when Shanga 

flourished. 
Zamani Mzi, nowadays. 
ZamarU zetu^ our times. 

Zambarauy a kind of fruit, in ap- 
pearance not unlike a large dam- 
son. 

ZamUiha kn-, to make to sink. 

Zamtij a turn, turns. 
Kwa «amu, by turns. 

Zangefuriy cinnabar. 

ZangUf my, of me. See -angm. 



Zanu adultery. 

Zaoj plur. mazao, fruit, produce. 

Zao^ their. See -ao, 

ZaraTnho, a spirit distilled from palm 

wine. 
Zari, a precious kind of stuff, gold 

thread, gold brocade. 
ZatUi kn-, to set in order, arrange, 

prepare fc». 
Zatoa ku-, to be bom. 
Zavjadi, a present, a ke^)sake, a 

rarity. 
Zawaridiy a Java sparrow. 
ZayicUj more. 
Zazi (?), afterbirth. 
-ze, his, her, or its, = Zdke^ 
-zee, old, aged. 
Zebakhy mercury. 
Zege, a dome. 

Zelahioj a kind of sweetmeat con- 
taining syrup. 
Zengea ku-, to seek for. 
ZenUf your. See -enu. 
Zenyi, See -enyi, 
Zetu, our, of us. See -etn* 
Zeze, a sort of lute with three 

string^s. 
Zi- = Z'. 
'Zi'y the objectiYe prefix denoting a 

plural substantive either of that 

class which does not change to 

form the plural or of that which 

makes its singular in u-. 
Ziha ku't to fill up a hole in a wall^ 

&c., to plug up, to stop. 
Zibana ku-, to be stopped up, to stop 

itself up. 
Ziboy plur. mazibo, a plug, a stopper. 
Zibua ku-y to unstop, to bore 

tlirougK 
Zidi ku-, to increase, to do more 
than before. 

Kuzidi kujua, to know more. 



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420 



ZtD 



ZUA 



ZidUha ku-y to make greater, to 
add to. 

Zifurif a cipher, a figure of nought 

Zika fttt-, to bury, to inter. 

ZikerezwazOj turnery, turned goods. 
See Kereza, 

Ziki, 
Kanzu ya zikh worked with 
white cotton round the neck 
instead of silk. See Kanzu, 

Zikika few-, to be impoverished. 

ZikwU plur. n7cm(N.), a thousand. 

Zile^ those yonder. 

'Zima, sound, whole, healthy, com- 
plete. 

Zima Jcu'y to extinguish, to put out. 
Euzima roho, to faint. 

Zimia ku-y to put out. 

Zimika ku-, to go out, to be extin- 
guished. 

Zimiliza ku-, to rub out. 

Zimu. See iToztmu, *Mzimuy Ku- 
nimUf Zimwi. 

Zimua ku-, to cool hot water by 
adding cold to it. 

Zimwi, plur. mazim\ioi<, an ogre, 
a ghoul, an evil being which 
devours men, &o. 
Nazi iria zimtoi, i.e. the cocoa-nut 
has grown without anything 
inside the shell. 

Zina ku-, to commit adultery. See 
Zint 

Zindtka ku-, to hold an opening 
ceremony in, to open for use. 

Zindiko, an opening ceremony. 

Zinduka ku-, to wake up suddenly 
from a doze with a nod and a 
start. 

Zindukana ku-, to wake up sud- 
denly. 

Zinga ku-, to commit adultery (?). 

Zinga kw, to roll up. 



Zingizi, sleep, great sleep. Also 
Unngizi, 

Zingizi la ku'mhomeaha mzaziy a 

sleep. which is supposed to put 

an end to all further child^ 

bearing. 

Zingtdia ku-, to relieve from the 

evil eye. 
Zini ku', to commit adultery or for* 

nication. 
Zira ku'f to hate (M.). 
Ziriki (M.) = Biztki, 
'zitOy heavy, difiScult, severe, sad, 
clumsy, thick. 

Asali nzitOf thick syrup. 
Zituo, 

Hana zituo, he never rests. 
Ziwa, plur. maziwa, a lake, a pond,. 

the breasts. 
Zizi, plur. mazizi, a cow-yard, a 

cattle-fold, a stable, palisading. 
Zizi hizi, just these, common. 
Zizima ku-, to become very calm« 

very still, or very cold. 
Zizimia ku-, to sink to the bottom. 
ZOf 'zo, -Z0-, sign of the relative^ 
which. 

Zo toUy whatsoever. 
-20, thy, = Skiko, 
Zoa ku-, to gather into little heaps, 

to sweep together. 
Zoea ku; to become jaocustomed,'^to 

become used to. 
Zoeza ku-, to accustom to, {x> make 
used to. 

Kujlzoeza, to practise^ 
Zomari, a kind of darionet, a pipe. 
Zomea ku-, to groan at. 
Zongazonga ku; to wind* 
Zote, alL See -oU, 
Zua ku-, to pierce, to bore through, 
to innovate, to invent. 

Nimemzua, I have sucked him. 



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ZUI 



zuz 



421 



dry, I have got all the informa- 
tion I can from him. 
Zuia hu'j to hold in, to restrain, to 
hinder. 

Kuzuia pumzt, to stifle. 
ZuUia hu'y to hold for, to keep off, 

to hold in its place. 
Zuka ItU'i to emerge, to rise. 
ZvkUy perjury. 
ZuLia^ a carpet. 
Zviia Jcti-t to invent to, to make a 

false excuse to, to say falsely that 

one has such and such a message. 
Zulisha &U-, to make crazy, to 

flurry. 
Ztdu ku-f to be crazy. 
Zumarid, an ^nerald. 
Zumhtli, consolation. 
Zunibua ku-, to find. 

Kuzumbua paa (A-X to take off 
thatch. 
Zurnbukana kuy to he to be found. 



Zumgu*mza ku-j to amuse, converse 
with. 
Kujizumgu*mzaf to converse, to 
amuse oneself. 

Zunguka fcu-, to go round, to sur- 
round, to wind round, to revolve, 
to wander. 

Zungukazunguka ku-^ to stroll about. 

Zungwha ku^ to make to go tound, 
to turn. 

Zuri ku-f to lie, to swear falsely. 

'Zurif fine, beautiful, handsome. 

Zuru ku-f to visit. 
Kwenda kuzurUy to go to visit. 
Kuzuru kahurif to visit a grave. 

Zurungi = Huthurungi, the brown 
material of which kanzua are 
made. 

Zuzria kti', to puzzle a stranger, or 
a greenhorn. 

Zuzuka kti-f to be puzzled or be- 
wildered, not to know what to do. 



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APPENDICES. 



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( 425 ) 



Al»PENDlX L 



Specimen of Kinyaime, as written out by Johari, a native of the 
Bwahili coast a little south of Zanzibar. The Swahili is in the Merima 
dialect. 



Swahili. 


EiNTTJMS. 


'English. 


N^<ymhe 


Mbeng'o 


An ox. 


Mbuzi 


Zimbu 


A goat. 


Punda 


Ndapu 


A donkey. 


Nyamiya 


Yangami 


A camel. 


Nyuniba 


Mbanyu ' 


A house. 


Mkeka 


Kamke 


A sleeping mat. 


Kitanda 


Ndakita 


A bedstead. 


Mlango 


NganUa 


A door. 


Mijengo 


Ngomije 


Buildings (?). 


JJdongo 


Ngoudo 


Red earth. 


Ngazi 


Zinga 


A ladder. 


Daraja 


Jadara 


A staircase. 


Maneno 


Nomane 


Words. 


BaH 


Siba 


That will do. 


Mwanamuhe 


Kemtoanamu 


A woman. 


Uzingizi 


Ziuzingi 


Sleep. 


Samaki 


KUama 


Fish. 


KtoeU 


Likwe 


Truth. 


Nazima 


Manazi 


1 lend. . 


Sikupi 


Pisiku 


I will not give you. 


Ntakupa 


Pantaku 


I will give you. 


Ntahunyima 


Mantakunyi 


I shall withhold from you. 


Macho 


Choma 


Eyes. 


Mguru 


Bumgu 


A leg. 


Rungu 


Nguru 


A dub. 


Jfdkuomlba 


Mhandkuo 


I pray jpu. 



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2t5 


APPENDIX I. 


SWAHTTJ. 


KlNTUMB. 


English. 


Njara inaniuma 


Banja mainaniu 


I ache with hunger. 


Vidole 


Lemdo 


Fingers. 


Shingo 


NgoBhi 


The neck. 


Sihweli 


LUikwe , 


It is not trae. 


Fundi 


Ndifu 


A master workman. 


Sivyo 


Vyosi 


Not thus. 


KaraiaH 


Sikarata 


Paper. 


KaJamu 


Mukala 


A pen. 


Wino 


N(ym 


Ink. 


Pakura 


Bapaku 


Dish up. 


Twmdezetu 


Tutwendeze 


Let us be off. 


Senendi 


Ndisene 


I am not going. 


Chahula 


Lachaku 


Food. 


Utakwenda 


NdoAUakwe 


You will go. 


Mchanga 


Ngamcha 


Sand. 


Samawati (Ar.) 


Tisamawa 


Heaven. 


Aruthi{AT.) 


Thiaru 


Earth. 


Mutu 


Tumu 


Man. 


Mungwana 


Ncrniungtoa 


A free man. 


Mtumtca 


Mijcamtu 


A slave. 


Sitaki 


EisUa 


I dislike it. 


Meza 


Zame 


A table. 


Bvjeta 


Tabwe 


A box. 


Sanduku 


Kusandu 


A chest. 


Kitahu 


Bukita 


A book. 


Msahafu 


Fumaha 


A Koran. 



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( 427 ) 



Appendix II. 



Specimens of Swahili conreBpond^ce in prose and Terse, containing: 
— 1. Two Swahili letters, the one on giving, the other on receiving a 
small present. The forms of address, &c., are those used in all letters, 
whatever their subject may be. 2. Two specimens of verses sent as 
letters, the first to excuse breaking an appointment, the second sent 
from Pemba by a Mombas man to his friends at home, who upbraided 
him for not returning. This form of writing is a very favourite one. 



Ula jen&b il moh^ rafiki yangu, bwana wangu, bwana mkubwa, 
D. S.^ salamu sana, ama baada ya salamu, nalikuwa siwezi siku 
nyingi, lakini sasa sijambo kidogo, ama baadahu, nimekuletea kitoweo 
kidogo tafdthali upokee, nao k'uku saba'a, wa salamu, wa katabahu 
rafiki yako H. bin A. 

To the honourable the beloved, my friend, my master, the great sir, 
D. S., many compliments, but after compliments, I was unwell for many 
days, but now I cma a little recovered, and after this, I have sent you a 
little kitoweo [i,e. something to be eaten with the rice or grain, which 
forms the bulk of all meals], and I beg your acceptance, they are seven 
fowls and compliments, and he who wrote this is H. son cf A^ 



Ilia jen&b) il moh^, 11 akram, in nasih, D. S., il Mwingrezi, insha* 
Allah salaam aleik wa r^hmet Allah wa barakdtahu; wa baada, 
nakuarifu hali zangu njema wa ^^ma nawe kathdlik ya afla, wa 
zayidi amana yako ulioniletea Imefika kwangu, ahsanta, Mwenyiezi 
Muungu atakujazi kheiri ukae ukitukumbuka, nasi nyoyo zetu zinaku- 



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428 APPENDIX 11. 

kombtika sana, tunapenda uje 'nti ya Ungnja, wewe na bibi, naye aje 
tumwangalie, naye aje atazame 'ntiya Unguja, nasi kalla siku tnkilala 
tnMa'mka tunakuombea Muungu uje 'nti ya Ungnja, tuonane kwa 
afiana nguvn, nasi twapenda macho yetu yaknone wewe assuboi na 
jioni, na nsipokuja wewe, usitnsahan kwa nyaraka allah allah. 
Nisalimie bibi mke wako salamu sana. Nasi tunakutamani, Icama 
tungaliknwa ndege tungaliruka tukija tnkaonane nawe mara moja 
tukiisha tukarudi. Nynmbani kwangu mke wangu salamu sana. M. 
bin A. akusalimu sana, wa katababu M. wadi S. 26 mwezi wa mfanguo 
kenda. 

To the honourable, the beloved, the noble, the sincere D. 8., the 
Englishman, please God, peace be with you and the mercy of God and 
His blessing ; and afterwards, I inform you that my health is good, and 
may you be the same as to health, and further, your pledge which you 
sent me has reached me, I thank you. Almighty God will satisfy you 
with good ihiat you may continue to remember us, and as for us, our 
hearts think much of you ; we wish you to come to the land of Zanzibar, 
you and the mistress, and let her come that we may behold her, and 
let her come that she may look upon the land of Zanzibar ; and we 
every day when we sleep and when we wake pray for you to God that 
you come to the land of Zanzibar, that we may meet in health and 
strength, and we, We wish that our eyes should see you morning and 
evening, and if you come not yourself, forget us not by letters, we 
adjure you. Salute for me the mistress your wife with many compli- 
ments. And we are longing for you, and if we had been birds we 
would have come flying to see you once and then return. At home my 
wife sends many compliments. M. son of A. salutes you much, and 
he who wrote this is M. the son of S. 26 of the month Jemad al 
akhr. 



II. 

Eala es sha'irL The Verse says. 

Biisala enda kwa hima Gk>, message, quickly 

Kwa Edward Istira To Edward Steere, 

Umpe yangu salama Give him health, 

Pamwe na kumkhubira, Together with telling him, 

Siwezi yangu jisima I am ill in my body, 

Ningekwenda tesira I would have gone readily 

Kumtazama padira ' To see the Padre, 
Pamwe na Edward Stira. Together with Edward Steere. 



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APPENDIX II. 429 

Pamwe na Edward Stira. Together with Edward Steere. 

Ilimu ya Injili The doctrine of the Gospel— 

Yuaijua habara He knows how its news 

Pia yote kufasili. To explain,— all of it. 

Ni mohebbi akhyara He is a choice friend, 

Ewetu sisi aftbali. Especially in our house ; 

Edi ni mtu wa kweli. He is a man of truth. 

Habbi, nipe tesira. O Lord, give me prosperity. 



Hatukiati kisiwa kwa uvambume na upembcf 

Tukaifuasa hawa kulewalewa na ombe 
Ni mpunga na maziwa na kuUa siku ni ngombe 

Twalalia kwa jivumbe, lipangine kwa rihani. 

We shall not leave the island for tale-bearing and plotting. 
And follow the fancy to be tossed on the sea. 

Here are rice, and milk, and every day an ox ; 

We sleep among perfumes, and strings of sweet basil. 



Swahili letters are always written with a string of Arabic compli- 
ments at the beginning, and Arabic words are freely introduced 
throughout. In letter- writing huarifu is used for to inform, and 
huwadlia (not kufikia) for to reach, as in the phrase your letter has 
reached me — waraka wako vmeniwasilia. Swahili verses are written in 
au obsolete dialect full of Arabic words and foreign words generally, 
called KingozL It has not yet been studied by any European. Among 
its more remarkable peculiarities is the use of a present perfect made 
by a change in the termination of the Verb, similar to those in use in 
the Yao and in other languages of the Interior. Thus a poet may 
write mbwene for nimeona, and nikomile for nimekoma. Some speci- 
mens of this dialect will bo found in the poetry at the end of the 
** Swahili Tales." 



2 p 



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( 431 ) 



Appendix III. 



Pabt of a Swahili tale with the prefixes marked and explained. It 
is printed first as in the main it would be written by a native ; next 
the compound forms are marked by hyphens and explained ; and last 
pomes an English translation. 



Yule kijana akafuta upanga wake, akanena, mimi niiaingia humo I. 

The tale, of which this is a part, is called the Badithi ya Waridi, II. 
na Ureda, na Jindi, na Sinibar, The portion of it here printed begins 
with a verb in the ka tense, because it is carrying on a narration 
already commenced. The first words of the story are — Aliondokea mtu 
tajiri. After this first verb in the li tense the rest are formed with ka^ 
unless they are constructed with a relative or particle of time or place, 
which cannot be joined with ka but only with li, 

YvJUiy that; demonstrative (p. 115) referring to a singular sub- 
stantive of the first class, kijana being regarded as the name of a 
person. Ki^ana^ a young man or woman, here a man. A-ka-futa, 
and he drew ; a-, sign of third person sing., appropriate to a noun 
of the first class or to any word denoting a living being; -ka-, 
sign of the narrative past tense; -/ufo, draw. U-panga^ a sword; 
a sing, substantive of the sixth class. W-ake, his; possessive 
pronoun, third person sing.; ii^, prefix proper to a pronoun agree- 
ing with a sing, substantive of the sixth class. A-kcMiena, and 
he said ; a- and -ka-t as before ; "fiena, speak or say out. Mimi, L Ni- 
ta-ingia, I will go in ; ni-, sign of the first person sing. ; -to-, sign of the 
future teiAse ; -ingia, go into, enter. Humo, in here ; a demonstrative 



The youth drew his sword, and said, *' I will go into this pit, whether III. 

2 p 2 



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432 APPENDIX III, 

* 
I. dhimoni, nikafe ao nikapone. Akaingia, akamwona mtoto amefUngwa, 
naye mwanamome. Akamwambia, nifuogue nikupe khabari ya 
homo shimoni. AkamfuDgua, akaona yichwa vingi yya wato. Aka- 



II. proper to the -nt case, when it denotes being, &c., within. ShinuMu, 
into the pit; sAtmo-, a singular nonn of the fifth class; -nif sign of 
the locative case. Ni-ka-fe, and let me die ; m'-, sign of first person 
sing. ; -ha- and (p. 141) ; -/a, subjunctive form of fa, die. Ao, or. Nu 
ka-poncj and let me live ; ni- and -ha-, as before ; -pone, subjunctive 
form of pona, be saved. A-kaAngia, and he went in ; third sing., 
narrative past of iagia, go in. A-ka-mw-ona, and saw him ; a-lta-^ and 
he did ; -mi/7-, objective prefix proper to a substantive of the first class 
(mtoto) ; -ona, see. M-toto, child ; sing, substantive of the first class. 
A-me-fungvja, bound ; a-, sign of third person sing., governed by a 
substantive of the first class {imioto)\ -me-, sign of the present perfect, 
which is here used as a sort of past participle : -fungwa^ i>assiye of 
funga, bind. Na-ye, and he (p. 103). Mno-anorm-ume, a male ; mw-^ 
sing, prefix of a noun of the first class ; m- (for mu-), pre^ agreeing 
with a substantive of the first class; -ume, male; the whole word, 
mwanamume, is used for a man, or any human being of the male sex. 
A-ka-mw-ambia^ and he said to him ; a-ha-, third sing, narrative past ; 
-mw; subjective prefix denoting a person (hijana) ; -drnbia, say to. ^t- 
fungue, unbind me ; ni-, objective prefix, first person ; -fungue, impera- 
tive sing, of fungua, unbind. I^'i-ku-pe, that I may give you ; ni-, 
subjective prefix first person ; -ku-, objective prefix, second person ; -pc, 
subjunctive of pa, give to. Khabari, news ; sing, substantive of the 
third class. Y-a, of; y-, sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of 
the third class (khabari). Humo, here in ; a demonstrative agreeing 
with the -ni case when denoting within. Shimo-ni, in the pit ; -ni, sign 
of the locative case. A-ka-m-fungua, and he loosed him ; a-, ka-, third 
sing, narrative past ; -m-, objective prefix referring to a substantive of 
the first class (mtoto) ; -fungua, unbind. A-ka-ona, and he saw, third 
sing., narrative past Vi-chvja, heads or skulls ; vi-, sign of a plural 
substantive of the fourth class ; vichwa is in more elegant IS wahili vitwa, 
V'ingi, many ; v- or vi-, adjectival plural prefix, marking agreement 
with a plural substantive of the fourth class (vichwa) ; -ingi or -ngi, 
many. Vy-a, of; vy-, marking the agreement with a plurcd uoou of 



III. I die or live." And he went in and saw a boy, and he was bound. And 
[the boy] said, " Unbind me, that I may tell you about what there is in 
this pit." And he unbound him, and saw many human skulls. And he 



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APPENDIX III. 4S3 

mwulizft, habari gani hii? Akamwambia, mna nyoka humo, kazi I. 
yake kula watu, na mimi angalinila, lakini amenifanya mtoto wake, 
miaka mingi nimetoka kwetu. Akamwuliza, sasa yuko wapi nyoka? 



the fourth class {vichwa), Wa-tu, people ; wd-, plural prefix first class. II- 
A-ka-mw-fdiza, and he asked him ; a-, ka-^ third siiig. narrative past ; 
-mw; objective |)refix referring to a person (mtoto) ; -hUzc^ ask or ask 
of. Habari or hhdbari, news, sing, substantive third class. Gani^ 
what sort ? Hii, this ; demonstrative denoting a sing, substantive of 
the third class (habari). A-ka-mw-amhia, and he said to him; this 
word is of constant occurrence, it means that one person told or said to 
another ; there is no mark of sex or means of distinguishiDg which 
person of several mentioned before was the speaker, these points must 
be gathered from the context. Jlf-na, there is inside ; m-ria is part of 
the verb kuwa na, to be with or to have, used as it often is to denote 
mere being (p. 153) ; it answers to the English there is ; there may be 
represented by fcw-, j?a-, or m- ; the last is used where the place suggested 
is within something, it refers here to shimoni, in the pit. Ny-oka, a 
snake, a sing, substantive in the form of the third class, denoting an 
animate being. Humo, there within, referring to shimoni, Kazi, work 
or employment, sing, substantive, third class. Y-ake, his ; y-, prefix 
agreeing with a sing, substantive of the third class ; -ake, possessive 
pronoun, third person sing. Ku-la^ to eat ; ku-, sign of the infinitive ; 
'IcL, eat. Wa-iUy people; tm-, plural prefix first class. No, and. 
Mimi, I or me. A-ngaJi-ni-la, he would have eaten me ; a-., third sing., 
agreeing with the name of an animal (nyoka) ; -ngali-, sign of the 
past conditional tense; -nt-, objective prefix referring to the first 
person ; -la, eat ; the tense prefix -ngali- cannot bear any accent, the 
word is therefore pronounced dngalinila, Lakini, but. A-me-ni-fanya, 
he has made me ; a-, referring to nyoka ; -me-, sign of present perfect ; 
ni', objective prefix, first person; -fanya, make. M-toto, child; w-, 
sing, prefix, first' class. W-ake, his; w-, prefix agreeing with sing, 
substantive of the first class (mtoto). Mi-aka, years ; plural substan- 
tive of the second class (sing, mwaka) ; mi-, plural prefix. Mingi, 
many ; m- or mi-, prefix, denoting agreement with a plural substantive 
of the second class (miaka). Ni-me-toka, I have left ; ni-, first person 
subjective; -me-, present perfect; -toko, go out of. Kw-etUf home; 



asked, " What is this ? " And he said, " There is a snake in it, that eats IIL 
men, and would have eaten me, but that it took me for its own son. It 
is many years since 1 left home." And he asked, ** Where is the snake 



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434 APPENDIX 111. 

r> Akamwambia, twende, nikakuonye mahala amelala. Akamwambia, 
twende. Walipofika, yale kijana akamkata kichwa kimoja, akatoacha 
pili, akamkata, hatta vikatimu saba. Wakarudi, wakaenda zao. 
• 

II. ^t(7-, prefix agreeing with a substantive (perhaps nyvmiba) in the case 
in -ni ; -eiu (our). J.-Akx-mto-uZiza, and he asked him ; a-, third sing. 
Qtiiand)'^ -ka-f narrative past; -mtr-, third sing, objective (miotd); 
-uliza, ask. Sasaf now. Yu-ho, he is; yu-, sign of third person 
sing., referring to a substantive of the second class (nyoka); -koy 
denoting existence in space (p. 154). Wapi, where ? Ny-oka, snake ; 
sing, substantive. A-ka-mw-amhiat and he said to him. (See (ibove.) 
Tw-endet let us go ; tw-, sign of the first person plural ; -endey 
subjunctive of enda, go. Ni-ka-ku-onye, and let me show you ; ni-, 
sign of first person sing.; -A»-, and (p. 211); -ku-, objective second 
person sing. ; -onyef subjunctive of onya, show. MdhaiOj the place, 
the place where. A-me-lalay he is asleep; a-, third sing, animate 
(nyoka) ; -me-, present perfect ; -lala, lie down to sleep, to go to sleep. 
A-ka-mw-ambia, (See above.) Tw-ende, let us go ; tw-^ first perscm 
plur.; -ende, subjunctive of cwtia, go. Worli-po-fika, when they 
arrived ; tea-, sign of third person plural agreeing with substantives 
denoting persons (kijana and mtoto) ; -li- or -ali-, sign of the past 
perfect, or of past time generally when joined with a particle of 
relation ; -po-, sign of time when ; -fikay arrive. Yule, that ; demon- 
strative denoting a person (kijana). Ki-jana, youth ; sing, substantive 
fourth class, but denoting a person, and therefore joined as here 
with pronouns and verbs in forms proper to the first class. A-ha- 
m-kata, he cut him ; a-, third sing, of a person (kijana) ; -A'o-, narra- 
tive past ; -m-, objective prefix, referring to the name of an animal 
(nyoka) (see p. 112); -kata, cut or cut off. Ki-chioaj head, sing, sub- 
- stantive fourth class. Ki-moja, one ; ki-j prefix denoting agreement 
with a sing, substantive of the fourth class (kichioa or kitwa) ; -fncjcL, 
one. A'ka-toa, and he put forth ; a-, third sing., referring to] a sub- 
stantive denoting an animal (nyoka) ; -ka-^ narrative past ; -toa, put 
forth. Cha pUi, a second (p. 92) ; eh-, referring to a sing, substantive 
of the fourth class (kichtoa), A-korm-kata, and he cut him. (See above.) 
EatUi, untiL Vi-katimu, they were complete ; ot'-, third plural refer- 



I II. now ? " He said, ** Let us go and let me show you where it is sleeping." 
He said, " Let us go." When they got there the youth cut off one of its 
heads ; it put forth a second, and he cut it off, until he had cat off 
seven. And they returned, and went on their way. 



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APPJilNBIX III. 435 

Akamwambia sasa twende zetu kweta, lakini tokifika kwetu L 
wenende wewe kwanza kwa baba yangu, ukamwamble kana mtoto 
wako nikikuletea utanipa niui ? Akikwambia, nitakupa mali yanga 



ring to nouns of the fourth class, here to vichvxiy heads, plural othichwa ; II. 
-ha-] neurative past ; -timUf be complete. Sciba^ seven. Wa-ka-nidi, 
and they returned ; wa-, third plural referring to persona (kijana 
and mtoto) ; -ka-y narrative past ; -rudi, return. Wa-ko'enda z-ao, and 
they went away ; wa-y third plural (kijana and mtoto); -ka-, narrative 
past ; -^nda, go ; z-ao, their (ways) ; z-, a prefix denoting agreement 
with a plural noun of the third or sixth, or in the dialect of Lamoo 
of the fourth dass; -ao, their. Possibly zoo agrees with njiat ways. 
{See p. 112.) 

A-ka-mvHimhia, and he said to him. Scua^ now. Tw-ende z-etu, 
let us go away ; tw-, sign of first person plural ; -ende, subjunctive of 
enda, go ; z-, sign of agreement with a plural noun of the third or the 
sixth class ; -etiiy our. (See above.) Kw-etu, home ; hw-^ sig^ of agree- 
ment with the case in -m- ; -etu, our. Lakini, but. Tu-ki-fika, when 
we arrive ; tu-, sign of the first person plural ; -ki-, sign of the partici- 
pial tense (p. 136) ; -fikaf arrive. Kw-etu, home. W-enende, go ; to-, 
sign of the second person singular ; -enende, subjunctive of enenda, go, 
or go on. Wewe, thou. Kwanza, first ; originally the Infinitive of the 
verb anza, begin ; kwanza, to begin, beginning, and therefore first. 
Kwa, to a person, or to his house. Baba, father. T-angu, my ; y-, 
sign of an agreement with a singular noun of the third class, used here 
colloquially with one denoting a person (paba) ; -angu, my (p. 109). 17- 
ka-mw-amhie, and say to him ; u-, sign of the second person singular ; 
'ka-, and ; -mw?-, objective sign referring to a noun denoting a person 
(haba) ; -ambie, subjunctive of ambia>, tell. Kana, if. M-tolo, child. 
W-ako, thy ; w-, sign of agreement with a singular substantive of the 
first class (mtoto), Ni-ki-kurletea, if I bring to you ; nt-, sign of the 
first person singular ; -ki-, sign of the participial tense (p. 136) ; 
-ku', objective prefix referring to the second person singular ; 'letea, 
bring to. U'ta-ni-pa, you will give me ; ur, sign of second person sing. ; 
'ta-, sign of the future tense ; -ni-, objective prefix referring to the 
first person singular; -pa, give to. Nini, what? A-ki-ktc-ambut, if 
he tells you; a-, sign of the third person singular referring to a 



And [the boy] said, ** Now let us go to my home ; but when we are III. 
getting near to it do you go first to my father and say to him, * If I bring 
your son to you, what will you give me ? ' If he says to you, * I will give 



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436 APPENDIX III. 

I. Qussa kwa nussu, Usikubali, mwambie nataka kofia yako nliyo tikivaa 
ujanani mwako. Atakupa kofia ya thahabo, osikubali, ela akupe 



II. person (hcihd) ; -H-, sign of the participial tense ; -fcw-, objective prefix 
referring to the second person singular ; -amhiaf say to. Ni-ta-hu-pa, 
I will give you ; nt-, sign of the first person sing. ; -fa-, sign of the 
future tense; -&i*-, objective prefix referring to the second person 
singular ; -pa, give to. Mali, possessions ; treated st^metimes as a noun 
of the third class, sometimes as a plural noun of the fifth olass. 
Y-angu, my ; y-, sign of an agreement with a singular noun of the 
third or with a plural noun of the fifth class. Nusm, half. Kwoy 
by. Nmm, half. U-si-kubaU, do not accept ; u-, sign of second person 
singular; -at-, fign of negative subjunctive (p. 147); 'hvhali, sub- 
junctive of kuhali, accept. Mw-aiMe, tell him; mw-, objective 
prefix referring to a person (paha); -amhie, imperative of anibia, 
tell; mw- is known to be the objective third person, and not the 
subjective second plural, by the form of the word ambia ; being an 
applied form it must have the object expressed. N-a-taka, I want ; n-, 
sign of the first person singular ; -a-, sign of the present tense ; -tahij 
want. Kofia, cap ; sing, substantiye of the third class. Y-ako, thy ; 
y-, sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class. 
TJ-li-yo, which you, or which you are, or were ; t*-, sign of the second 
person sing. : -li-, used for the substantive verb ; -yo, relative sign 
referring to a singular substantiye of the third class (kofia), U-ki- 
vaa, putting on ; «-, sign of the second person singular ; -ki-, sign of 
the participial tense ; -vaa, put on. U-jand-ni, in youth ; v-, sig^ of a 
sing, substantive of the sixth class ; -ni-, sign of the locative case. 
Mw-ako, thy; mw-, sign of agreement with a substantive in the 
locatiye case with the meaning of in, A-ta-ku-pa, he will give you ; 
0-, sign of third person sing, of a person ; -ta-, sign of the future ; -feu-, 
objective prefix referring to the second person sing.; -pa, give to. 
Kofia, cap ; sing, substantive of the third class. T-a, of; y-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class. Thahahu, 
gold ; substantive of the third class. U-si-kubdli, do not accept ; u-, 
sign of the second person sing. ; -si-, sign of the negative subjunctive ; 
-kvhali, subjunctive of kubali, accept. Ela, except. A-ku-pe, let him 
^ve you; a-, sign of the third person sing., referring to a person; 



III. you half of all I have,' do not accept that, but say, * I want the cap which 
you used to wear in your youth.* He will give you a cap of gold ; do 
not accept it, unless he give you a cap quite worn out, take that. And 



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APPENDIX III. 437 

kofia mbovn kabisa, hiyo pokea. Na mama yangn mwambie nataka I. 
taa uliyo uklwasha ujai^ani mwako. Atakupa taa nyingi za thahaba, 
usikubali, ela akupe taa mboyambovn ya ohiima, hiyo pokea. 



-Artt-, objective prefix, referring to the second person sing. ; -pc, sub- II. 
junctive of jw, give to. KofiOt sing, substantive third class. M-bovUy 
rotten ; m-, being n- converted into w- by standing before -6 (p. 85), 
sign of an agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class (kofia). 
Kabisa, utterly. Siyo, this one; demonstrative denoting a thing * 
mentioned before, and agreeing with a sing, substantive of the third 
class (kofia). Pokea, receive: imperative sing, of pokea, receive. 
Na, and. Mama, mother : sing, substantive in the form of the third 
class denoting a person. Y-angu, my ; y-, sign of an agreement with 
a sing, substsmtive of the third class, here used colloquially. Mw-amhie, 
tell her ; mw-, objective prefix referring to a person ; -ambie, imperative 
sing, of amhia, tell. Na-taka, I want ; n-, sign of first person sing. ; 
-a-, sign of present tense ; -taka, want Taa, sing, substantive third 
class. U-li-yo, which you, which you were or are ; -«, sign of the 
second person sing. : -/*-, used for the substantive verb (p. 151); -ya, 
relative particle referring to a sing, substantive of the third class 
(too). TJ-ki-washa, lighting; «-, sign of second person sing.; -W-, 
sign of the participial tense ; '■washa, light. U-jand-nt, in youth ; w, 
sign of a sing, substantive of the sixth class ; -nt, sign of the locative 
case. Mw'dko, thy ; mw-, sign of agreement with a substantive in the 
locative case with the meaning in. A-ta- kii-pa, she will give you ; 
a-, sign of third person sing., referring to a person ; -to-, sign of the 
future tense ; -kur, objective prefix referring to the second person sing. ; 
-pa, give to. Tcui, lamps ; plural substantive of the third class (shown 
to be plural by the context). Ny-ingi, many ; ny-, sign of agreement 
with a plural substantive of the third class (taa). Z-a, of ; z-, sign of 
agreement with a plural noun of the third class. Thaliahu, gold. 
U'»i-kuhalit do not accept ; second person sing, negative subjunctive of 
kvbali. Ma, except. A-ku-pe, let her give you; a-, sign of third 
person sing., referring to mama; -kti-, objective prefix referring to 
second person sing.; -pe, subjunctive of pa, give to. Taa, sing. 
subst€intive third class. M-hovu-m-hovu, all spoilt ; m- (for n- before 
-&), sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class (toa) ; 



Bay to my mother, * I want the lamp you used to bum in your youth.' m. 
6he will give you many lamps of gold ; do not accept them, unless she 
give you an old worn iron lamp, take that" 



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438 APPENDIX IIL 

Wakaenda zao hatta walipofika karibu ya mji, yule kijana aka- 
mwambia, mimi *takaa hapa, na wewe enende mjioi kwetu, ukafanye 
shuruti na baba yangu kamma hiyo niliokwambia. Akaen^nda. 
Alipofika akaona mjini watu hawaneni, wana msiba mkuu, akauliza, 



II. the adjective is doubled to show thoroughness. F-a, of; y-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class. Ch-uma, iron ; 
a siug. substantive of the fourth class ; it is used in the singular of iron 
as a metal, and in both slug, and plur. with the meaning of a piece or 
pieces of iron. JSi'yo, this one ; demonstrative referring to something 
mentioned before, and agreeing with a sing, substantive of the third 
class (too). PokeOf receive ; imperative sing, of pokea, 

Wa-ka-enda z-aOf and they went their way. (See above), Hattct, untiL 
Worli-po-Jikat when they arrived. (See above), Karibu ya^ near to- 
M'jh town ; m-, sign of a sing, substantive of the second class. Yule^ 
that (See above). Ki-jana, youth. (See above). A-ha^-mwamhiafBaidix) 
him. (See above). Mimi, L *Tar1uia, will stay ; to-, sign of the future, 
the prefix of the first person sing, being elided before it ; the sign of no 
other person can be so elided. Hapa, here. Na^ and. Wewe, thou. 
Enende, imperative sing, of enenda, go, go on. M-ji-ni, to the town ; 
m-, sign of a sing, substantive second class ; -ni, sign of the locatiYe 
case. Kw-etu, our ; kw-, sign of an agreement witji a substantive in the 
locative case. U-ka-fanye, and make ; u-, sign of second person sing. ; 
'ka-t and; -fanye, subjunctive oi fanya^ make. Shuruti, a covenant; 
sing, substantive third class. No, with. Baba, father. Y-angu, 
my. (See above, and p. 112). Kamma, as. Hiyo, that ; demonstrative 
referring to something mentioned before, and agreeing with a sing, 
substantive of the third class (ahuruti). Ni-li-o-kw-ambia, which I 
told you; ni; sign of the first person sing. \"li', sign of the past tense 
whidi must be used with a relative; -o- (for yo), relative particle 
referring to shuruti (p. 117); -kw-, objective prefix referring to the 
second person sing. A-koren^nda, and he went on. A-li-po-fika, when 
he arrived. A-ka-ona, he saw. M-ji-ni, in the town ; m-, sign of a 
sing, substantive of the second class; -ni, sign of the locative case. 
Wa-tu, people ; wa-, sign of a plural noun of the first class. S^atoci" 
neni, they speak not; hawa-, sign of the third person plural negative 



III. And they went on till they arrived near the town, when the boy said, 
" I will stay here, and you go on into the town, to our house, and make 
the agreement with my father as I told you.'' And he went on and 
arrived in the city, where he saw the people not talking [but] in great 



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APPENDIX III. 439 

msiba laxm. wa nini? Wakamwambia, mtoto wa Sultani amepote siku I. 
nyingi. Akauliza, njumba ya Sultani ni ipi, nipelekeni. Wakampe- 
leka watii. Alipofika akamwuli^ baba yake, una nioi ? Akamwa- 
mbia^ mtoto wangu amepotea. Akamwambia, nikikuletea utanipa 



agreeing with a phiral noun of the first class (watu) ; -neni^ negative II. 
present form of nenOj speak. Worna^ they have ; third person plur. 
present of kuuja na, to have, governed by toatu, M-nbci, grief; m-, 
sign of a sing, noun of the second class. M-kuut great ; m-, sign of 
agreement wilh a sing, substantive of the second class (msibd). 
A-ka-tUiza, and he asked. M-siba, grief. Huu, this ; demonstrative 
agreeing with a sing, substantive of the second class (maibd). W-a, 
of; to-, sign of agremeent with a sing, substantive of the second class 
(msiba), Nini, what? Wa-ka-mw-amhia, and they said to him. 
M-totOt the child. TT-a, of; w-, sign of agreement with a sing, sub- 
stantive of the first class (mtoto), Sultani, the sultan ; a sing, sub- 
stantive of the fifth class, but when viewed as denoting a person 
constructed with adjectives and pronouns as of the first. A-me-potea, 
is lost ; third sing, present perfect of kupotea, to become lost ; he has 
become lost, t.e., he is lost. SikUf days; plural substantive of the 
third class. Ny-ingi, many; ny-, sign of agreement with a plural 
substantive of the tliird class (siku), A-ka-tUiza, and he asked. 
Ny-umba, house; ny-, sign of substantive of the third class. F-o, of; 
2r-» sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class 
(nyumba), SuUanif sultan. Niy is (p. 152). I-pi, which? i-, sign 
of reference to a sing, substantive of the third class (nyumha). Ni- 
pelekeni, take me; ni-, objective prefix referring to the first person 
sing. ; pelekeni, plural imperative of pelekci, take. Wa-ka-m-peleka, 
and they took him. WatUf people. A-li-po-fika, when he arrived. 
A-ka-mw-uliza, he asked him ; observe here and elsewhere the use of 
the ka tense to carry on the narration, even where there would be no 
connective employed in English. Bahoj father. Y-ake, his. (See 
above), U-na nini, what is the matter with you ? u-na, second person 
sing, of the present tense of kil-wa no, to have; nini ? what? A-ka- 
mw-amhia, and he said to him. M-toto, child. W-angUf my. A-me- 



mourning, and he asked, " What is this mourning for ? " They told him. III. 
*^ The Sultan's son has been a long time lost." He asked, *^ Which is the 
Sultan's house? Take me there." And the people took him there. When 
he reached it he asked the boy's father, •* What troubles you ? " He said, 
«^ Hy son is lost." And he said to him, ** If I bring him to you what will 



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440 APPENDIX III. 

I. nini ? Akamwambia, nitaknpa mail yangn niissn kwa nnssn. Aka- 
mwambia, marahaba. Akaenda akamtwaa, akaja naye. Alipomwona 
babaye na mamaye, ikawa fmaha kubwa i^jinL Wakapenda sana 
yule kijana kama mtoto wao. 

Hatta alipotaka kwenda zake, yule kijana akamwambia, enende 
katnwage baba na mama, mwamble akupe kofiu na mama akupe taa. 



II. potea^ is lost. {See p. 132.) ^i-A^-fnir-am&ia, and he said to him. Ni-hi- 
hu-leteok, if \ bring to yon. {See above), U-Ui-ni-pa, you will give me. 
{See above), Ninif what? A-ka-^nto-ambiat and he said to him. ^t- 
ta-ku-pa^ I will give you. Mcdi, goods. {See above), Y-angu, my. {See 
above.) Nu8$Ut half. Ktvay by. NustUy half. A-ka-mw-ambia, and he 
said to him. Marababa, very good. A-ka-enda, and he went A-ka- 
m'twaa, and took hiuL A-ka-ja, and came. Na^ye^ with him. A-li- 
po-mvHmaj when he saw him. Baba-ye, his father ; -ye, enclitic form 
of the possessive pronoun proper to the third person; y-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class, used here witii 
one denoting a person (p. 111). Na^ and. Mama-ye, his mother ; -ye, 
{See above), ^ I-ka-wa, it was ; «-, sign of agreement with a sing, sub- 
stantive of the third class {furaha). Furaha, joy ; sing, substantive 
third class. Kvbioay great ; agreeing with Juraha ; as n-, which woold 
be the regular sign of ag^reement with a sing, substantive of the third 
class, cannot stand before A;, it is omitted altogether (p. 85). M-ji- 
niy in the town ; m-, sign of sing, substantive second class ; -nt, eign 
of the locative case. Wa-ka-penda, and they (the father and mother) 
loved. SarMf much. YuUf that. Ki-janay youth. Kama^ like. 
3f-foto, child. TT-oo, their. 

SaHa, at last. A-U-pO'taka, when he wanted. Kw-enda z-Okke, to go 
away. {See above wi& p. \12). FuZe, that Ki-jana^ jouih, A-Tca-mw- 
ambiay he said to him. Enende, go ; sing, imperative of enenda, go, 
Ka-muj-age, and take leave of him ; kch, and ; -mtr-, objective prefix 
referring to a person ; if mio had been the subjective second plur. the 
ka would have followed it ; m-ka-age = and do ye take leave ; -o^e, 



III. yo^ f^^® me ? *• He said, *' I will give you half of all I have." He said, 
** 1 am content." And he went and took the boy and brought him. 
When his father and mother saw him, there was great joy throughoat 
the town. And they loved that youth as though he had been their 
own son. 

When at last he wished to go away, the boy said to him, «* Go and 
take leave of my father and mother ; tell him tc give you the cap and 



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AF FEN BIX III. 4.41 

Akaenda, akawaambia. wakampa kofia nyingi, akiakataa akamwambia, I. 
nataka hiyo mbova, wakampa, na mamaye akampa taa. Akawauliza, 
kofia hii maana yake nini ? Wakamwambia, mtu akivaa, haonekani 
na mtu. Akavaa asionekane ifkaforahi sana. Akauliza, taa hii 
maana yake nini? Wakamwambia, nkiwasha hatta hapa watatoka 



imperative sing, of aga^ take leave of. Baba, fother. Na^ and. II. 
Mama, mother. Mto-arnbie, tell him ; mio-, objective prefix referring 
to a person ; -ambie, imperative sing, of amhia, tell. A-hu-pe, that he 
may give you. Kofia, cap. Na, and. Mama, mother. A-ku^, that 
she may give you. Ta>a, lamp. A-ha-enda, and he went. A-karwa- 
anibia, and he told them (the ftather and mother). Wa-korm-pa, and 
they gave him. Kofia, caps. Ny-ingi, many. A-ka-kataa, and he 
refused. A-ka-mw-ambiay and he said to him. N-a-taka, 1 want, 
fltyo, this one, (See above.) M-bovti, lotieu. (See above). Wa-ka-m-pa, 
and they gave him. Na, and. Mama-ye, his mother. (See aboife, 
under bahaye). A-ka-m-pa, she gave him. Taa, lamp. Aka-wa-uliza, 
and he asked them. Kofia, cap. Hii, this ; demonstrative referring 
to a sing, substantive of the third class (kofia), Maana, meaning, 
purpose; sing, substantive third class. Y-ake, its; y-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class (maana). Nini, 
what ? Wa-ka-mw-ambia, and they said to him. M-tu, person, any 
one (p. 16) ; m-, sign of sing, substantive of first class. A-ki-vaa, if 
he puts on. Ha-onekani, he is not to be seen ; ha-, negative prefix of 
the third person sing, referring to a person ; onekani, negative present 
form of onekana. Na, by. M-tu, any one (p. 16). A-ka-vaa, and he 
put on. A'Si-onekane, that he might not be seen : a-, prefix of third 
person sing, referring to a person (kyana); -si-, sign of negative 
subjunctive; -onekane, subjunctive form oi onekana. A-ka-furahi,9.nd 
he rejoiced. Sana, much. A-ka-tdiza, and he asked. Taa^ lamp. 
Hii, this. Maana, purpose. Y-ake, its. Nini, what? Wa-ka-mw- 
ambia, and they told him. U-ki-wanha, if you light. Hatta, as far as. 
Hapa, here. Wa-ta-toka, they will come out ; wa-, sign of third person 



my mother to give you the lamp." He went and told them, and they III. 
gave him many caps, but he refused and said, " I want that worn-out 
one ; " and they gave it to him, and the boy's mother gave him the 
lamp. Then he asked, " What is the object of this cap ? " And they told 
him, '* When a man puts it on, no one can see him." He put it on so as 
to become invisible, and was very glad. ** And he asked. What is the 
object of this lamp ? " And they told him, " If you light it as fur as this, 



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442 APPENDIX m. 

L wata wawili wakatiHe tbababu nynmbani mwako ttsika kaoha, na 
nkiwasha l^tta hapa watatoka wata wawili waknpige kwa TigCK 
Dgo nsikn kucha. Akanena, marahaba. Akaforahi sana, akaenda 

zake. 

. — — I 

II, plnr. referring to a plural subetantiTe of the first class (uwrfu). Wa4%^ 
people. Wa-wUi, two ; war, sign of agreement with a plor. anbatantive 
of the first class (watu). Wa-kti'ttlie, that thej may put for yon ; too-, 
sign of third person plnr. referring to a plnr. substantive of the first 
class (watu) ; -hu-f objective prefix referring to the second person sing. ; 
-Hliet subjunctive form of ttlici, put for. Thdhabu, gold. Ny-umbd^t 
in house; ny-, sign of substantive of the third class; -^i, sign of 
locative case. Mw-ako, thy ; mvo-, sign of agreement with a noun in 
the locative case denoting within, Unku, night. Ku-elui, dawning or 
Bun-rising ; used after uaiku, it means all night until the morning 
comes. No, and. U'ki-washay if you light. Hatta, as far as. Hapa, 
here. Wa-ta-toka, they will come out. Wa-tu, people. TFo-triZi, twa 
Wa-ku-pige, that they may beat you ; -pige, subjunctive form of piga. 
Kwa, with. Vi-gongo, cudgels; vi-, sign of a plural substantive of 
the fourth class ; ki-gongo is a diminutive (p. 19) of gongo, a stafC 
CTnfttt, night. Kucha, till morning. A-kornena, and he said. 
Marahaba^ thank you. A-ka-furahi, and he tejoioed. Scmo, muob. 
A-ka-enda z-ake, and he went away. 



III. two men will come out and bring you gold into your house all night 
long ; but if you light it as far as this, two men will come out and beat 
you with cudgels all night long." And he thanked them, and rejoiced 
very much, and went his way. 



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( 443 ) 



Appendix IV. 



USEFUL AND IDIOMATIC PHRASES. 

The first fifty-four were ooUeoted towards a book of conversations, 
which was begun with the help of our lamented friend, Mrs. G. E. 
Drayton; the rest, which are arranged in alphabetical order, were 
noted firom time to time, either as likely to be useful in conversation, 
or as illustrating some special rule or idiom. 

1. How many fowls have you there ? 

Unao k*uku ngapi f 

2. What do you want for them ? 

KiaH gani undkuza (At how much do you sell) ? 

3. Have you any eggs? 

Unayo mayayif 

4. I will not give more than a pice apiece for the eggs. 

NUahupa pesa mqja tu ktmunua yayi, sitafoa zayidi (I will 
give you one pice only to buy an ^gg, I will not g^ve more). 

5. I don't understand you, say it again. 

8ema mara ya pilii nhusikict, 

6. Let me hear it again. 

8ema mara ya pUiy nipiUe husikia (Say it a second time, 
that I may get to imderstand). 

7. Fetch me a basin for the eggs. 

Letee haJculi nitie mayayi, 

8. Bring the basin with the eggs in it. 

Letee hakuli lenyi mayayi. 

9. I don't want any to-day, come to-morrow. 

Leo aitoftt, 9^*00 kesho, 
10. Are lemons cheap now ? 

Malimao rahiei ioaa f 



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444 APPENDIX IV. 

11. 1 won't buy them, they are too dear. 
SHaki fcttnuMOO, ni ghalL 

12. What do you want ? 

Wataka nini f 

13. I don't know what you want. 

Sijui uUt^ikah. 

14. Where do you come from ? 

Watoka wapi i 

15. Don't wait ; I will send an answer immediately. 

Enenda zdko, usingoje^majibu ycUakuja sasa hivi (Go your 
way ; do not wait for an answer, it will come immediately). 

16. Is your master at home ? 

Bwana yupo f 

17. Master is not at home ; he is gone out. 

Bwana hdko (or hayukd) nyumhani; ametoka. 

18. Where are you going? 

Unakuoenda wapi f 

19. I have lost my way. 

Nimepotea, njia djui (I am lost ; the way I don't know> 

20. Will you guide me to the English mission ? 

Natdka unionyeahe mosketini Ingreza f 

21. Can you understand English ? 

Wewe unajim mantno ya Kiingreza f 

22. I cannot speak Swahili [of Zanzibar]. 

Sijui kutema Kiunguja. 

23. Did the water boil ? 

Maji yameche*mka f 

24. Does the water boil? 

Maji yanache^mka f 

25. These plates are not clean. 

Sahani hizi zina taka, 

26. Wipe them carefully. 

Futa vema kwa kiiarnbaa. 

27. Sweep this room well. 

Fagia vema katika ehumba hikL 

28. Dust the furniture. 

Pangusa vumhi katika vyomb(K 

29. You have cracked that cup. • 

Umekitia ufa kikcmibe kite. 

30. Throw it away. 

Katupa, 
81. Fetch me the vinegar, the pepper, and the salt 
NUetee siki, na pilijpili, na chumvi. 



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APPENDIX IV. 445 

o2. Don't majke so much noise. 
Uaifanye uthicu 

33. Put a fresh wick in my lamp. 

Tia hatiha taa yangu utambi. 

34. Fold ap the table-cloth smoothly. 

Kunja vema kitambaa cha meza, unkivunje (Fold well the 
cloth of the table ; spoil it not). 

35. When you have swept the room put on clean clothes. 

Kamma umeJcwisha Tcufagia^ wia nguo Bofi. 

36. Take this to Miss T. 

Chuhuay updeke hwa hibi T. 

37. You have put all these books upside down ; turn them. 

Umepindua vyuo hivi vyote, uviweke upande mgine, 

38. Leave that alone ! 

Acha ! 

39. Come here, I want to speak to you. 

Njoo hapa^ *nna maneno nitakwambia (I have words I will 
say to you). 

40. Get ready to go for a walk. 

Panya tayari upate kwenda kutembeau 

41. Are you ready? 

Umekuwa tayani 

42. Which way shall you like to go ? 

Nfia gam utakao kupitaf 

43. How far is it to your shamba ? 

Kadri gani mbali ya shamba lako haUa kufika (How much 
farness of your shamba till getting there) ? 

44. Not very far ; perhaps an hour's walk. 

Si mbali eanat labuda ikipata ma moja, 

45. Shall you walk, or ride your donkey, or sail ? 

Utakwenda kwa miguUf ao utapanda punda, ao utakwenda 
kwa mashua ? 

46. We will go round the town and home by the bridge. 

Tutazungvka katika mji, halafu turudie <2ara/ant (Then let 
us return by the bridge). 

47. Bring me some hot water after breakfast. 

Niletee maji ya moto, nikiuiha ktda, 

48. Half a bucket full. 

N%t88 ya ndoo, 

49. Turn the mattress over every morning. 

Geuza killa siku godoro, ehinijuu. 

50. Turn it top to bottom. 

Vpande huu umke upande wa pili, 

20 



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446 APPENDIX IV. 

51. I am yerj glad to see you. 

Tfmependa moyo wangu huktUazetma. 

52. What ship is that? 

Marikebu gani hii-f 

53. Has she oast anchor yet ? 

hneHanangaf 

54. No, she will oome nearer the shore. 

BadOf inaktija karibu ya ptoani. 

55. A good man does not desert his friends when they fall into 

difiScnlties. 
Mtu mwema hawttaehi rafiki zdke vfokipatika na shidda, 

56. Are yon idle? 

AHmtdvuf 

57. At what time shall I come? 

Wdkti gani nije; 

58. Did he stay long? 

AUkaa$anaf 

59. No, he went away directly. 

H4a, alikwenda take mara, 

60. Does he drink wine ? 

Hunywa divai f 

61. He does not. 

Hanytoi. 

62. Does this boat leak ? 

Mashua Mi yavuja f 

63. Do not draw water from the well, the owner forbids it. 

Usiteke maji kinmanij mwenyevoe agombeza, 

64. Don*t jerk this rope ; if you do it will break. 

KwnAa kii tmikutuef uktkutua itdkattka. 

65. Eat as mnch as yon like. 

Kfda kadri utakavyo. 

66. Find me a large hen. 

Kanitaftia koo la l^uku, 

67. Follow this road. 

Fuaia [or andcma"] njia kii, 

68. I want you to follow me. 

Naiaka unifuate [or uniandame}, 

69. Giye it only to me and not to them. 

Nipe mimi tu, tisivpape wale, 

70. Go and see if the people have eollected. 

Kaangalia vjotu wamektttana, 

71. Go and stop that talking. 

Enenda kahmesha maneno haytt. 



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APPENDIX IV. 44Y 

72. Stop tiiis outcry. 

Makdde haya yaJeome (Let these cries cease). 

73. (Jo away, whoever you are. 

Enda zako, hadri utdkaokuwa, 

74. Guard yourself, I am going to hit you, 

KingOf taTcupiga, 

75. Has he a large box ? 

Ana haaha f 

76. He has. 

Analo Jcasha. 
T7. Have you a pipe at home? 
Kiko kwako hiko f 

78. He built a bridge across the river. 

Alijenga bonth hatikati ya mto. 

79. He huUt a mosque by the river, and endowed it with a shamba 

near ours. 
Alijenga moskiti ng'ambo, akawekea tdakf shamha karihu 
shamba letu, 
80.* He described Mombas as it was in early times, as it is now, and 
as it will be a hundred years hence. 
Aliandika Mvita ilivyokuwa kwanza, ilivyo sasa, na itaka^ 
vyokuwa kwa miaka mia. 

81. He does not believe me though I saw it. 

Hanisadiki ningawa nimeiona, 

82. He had the toothache. 

Alikuwa najino likimwuma. 

83. He has been abroad many years. 

Alikuwa safarini miaka mingi, 

84. He has presence of mind. 

Moyo wake uwapo, 

85. His mind is absent. Hapo ati. 

^Q. He is a troublesome fellow to deal with. 
Ana taahu kuingiana naye, 

87. He is absorbed in his own thoughts ; even if you speak to him he 

takes no notice. 

Yu katikafikara zakwe; ujaponena naye hawepo 

88. He is here. 

Tupo hapck 

89. He is not here. 

Hapb hapcK 

90. He is yonder. 

Tuko kule. 

2 a2 



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448 ,APPENDIX 17. 

91. He is not there. 

HaJto kule. 

92. He is not yet dressed. 

Eafavaa, 

93. He left us about ten days ago. 

Alitvjacha kadri ya (or kama) atlcu Icumi. 

94. He ought to be beaten. 

Aihtaji kupigwa. 

95. He pretends to be satisfied, but do not trust him. 

Ajifanya kuwa rathi, ustmwamini, 

96. He rose up from his chair. 

Aliondoka kitini kwake, 

97. He runs as fast as he can. 

Andkwenda mhio kama awezavyo. 

98. He says he will walk on the water I 

AH atakwenda mtoni kwa miguu ! 

99. He that hateth suretyship is sure. 

Mtu adyekubali kuthamini ni kattka amani, 

100. He that is not against us is with us. 

Mtu asiyekuwa juu yetu, hassi yee pamoja noM. 

101. He that is not with us is against us. 

Asiyekuwa pamoja nasi, hassi huyu juu yetu. 

102. He tried to make himself agreeable, and he succeeded. 

Altjipendekeza ndipo akapendeza. 

103. He was changed from a man into a horse. 

Alibadiliwa mtu kuwa f ran. 

104. He was more energetic than his father. 

Huyu alikuwa akiweza zayidi ya baha yoke* 

105. His non-appearance is unaccountable. 

Kutowelcana kwake haitamhulikani, 

106. His self-conceit is no good to him. 

Majivuno yoke hayamfai neno. 

107. How are your household (t.e. your wife, daughters, &c.) ? 

U hali gani nyumbani kwako, 

108. How far is it across the island? 

Kupataje mhali wake hapa hatta pwani ya pili f 

109. A fast walker would take from sunrise to the middle of the afternoon. 

AkiQTtdoka mtu assuhui hatta dlasin, alio hodari ktoendix^ 
kufika, 

110. How long has he been ill ? 

Tangu lini hawezi f 

111. How long ago wad his illness^ 

Tangu lini alikutoa hawezi f 



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APPENDIX IV, " 440- 

112. How pleasant 1 

Imependeza. 

1 13. How glad you must have been to hear that you were to go home. 

Furaha ipi mwaliposikia mwende zenu kwenu» 

114. I am amusing myself with a book. 

Najizumgumza na chuo. 

115. I am here. Nipo hapa. 

116. I am never without pimples. 

Vipele havinitolca kabisa. 

117. I am sleepy. 

Ninao usingizi. 
lis. I cannot hold in this horse. 

Siwezi huzuia frost huyu, 
1 19. I cannot see so far as you can. 

Sioni mhalif hama waonavyo iceioe. 
320. I don't like his way of tying it. 

Sipendi ginsi afungavyo. 

121. I don*t see what you show me. 

Sioni tUionyalo, 

122. I don't see it, though he does. 

Siioni angawa aona. 

123. Take care, though you don't see it. 

KaangcUiaf ujapo hiikioni. 

124. I feel myself at home. 

Hujiona Tfiiko kwetu. 

125. Make yourself at home. 

Usifanye haya, hapa kama hwako (Feel no modesty, here is 
like your home). 

126. I gave him good advice, though he would not take it. 

Nimemwonya iUakini hakiwnyeka. 

127. I had almost left off expecting you. 

Nalikaribia kukata tamaa ya kukuona. 

128. I had lost my way, and I came out close to your shamba. 

Nalipotea njia nikatokea shambani kwako. 

129. I have asked him again and again, but he will not tell me. 

Nimemvmliza mara kwa mara lakini hanambii. 

130. I have gained a hundred dollars. 

Nalipata fayida reals mia* 

131. I have made you my mark, if you step over it, look out (a common 

defiance). 
Nimekupigia mfuo wangu kiuka wangdlie. 

132. I know where he is. 

Namjua mahali alipo. 



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450 APPENDIX IV. 

133. I pray God not to visit it upon me. 

Naomba Mwenyiezi Muuiigu <mnipatUiz0i. 

134. I saw the flash of the gon, but did not hear the report. 

Nimeona mvfanga, Idkini sikusikia mzinga ktdia. 

135. 1 shall go by seia as far as I oan. 

Nitahwenda kwa baJtariy hatta itdkaj^nifiJiuha, 

136. I shall go for a walk to stretch my lege. 

Kitaktoenda tembea kukunjua miguu, 

137. I thought myself a king. 

Nalikuioa nikiioaza nimekuwa Sttltani, 

138. I will shut the door that he may not go out 

Nitafunga ndango asipate kupiiiu 

139. If he strikes you, hit him again. 

Akikwpiga^ naive mpiga tena, 

140. If you had been here he would not |iave been beaten, 

Kama ungalikutoapo liapa^ kangaUpigv?a» 
14 J. It de^icnds upon his coming. 
Kuna aUikapokt^a. 

142. It is bad weather. 

Kumekaa vibaya, 

Eakwendeku 

Hatokeki. 

143. It is being hawked about by a salesmaik 

Kinatemhezwa kwa dalali. 

144. It is not there, though you say it is* 

Hdkipo, ungavsa wasema kipo. 

145. It is time for us to go. 

Imekuvja wakati wa eUi kwenda netm* 

146. It is quite time for us to go. 

Imewadia wakaii wetu vfa kwen/da zetm. 

147. It was a secret, but it oozed out. 

Yalikuwa Juibari ya stri, ikatokeza. 

148. Let him ga 

Mwacheni enende. 

149. Moslems are forbidden wine. 

WdsUmu wameeptuikwa divai. 

150. Much self-exaltation ruins a man% posltioa in the world. 

Majivuno yakiwa mengi ya*mfmt^ia vUu cheo, 

151. Nothing I do pleases him* 

Killa nafanyalo Tialimpendezi (eYerything which I do 
pleases him not)* 

152. Whatever I do he finds fault with me. 

KiUa nafanyalo hunitia kluUiyani* 



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4PPBNDIX IV. 451 

153. Put the water on the fire. 

Katdeka maji. 

154. Sit down. 

155. Don't get up. 

Starehe* 

156. The baobabs are now coming into leaf. 

Siku hizi mihuyu inacltanua majani^ 

157. The fields are flourishing. 

Koonde imesitatoi^ 

158. The music is first-rate. ' 

Ngoma inafana, 

159. The news has spread. 

Khahari zimeenea, 

160. Spread the news. 

Zieneza khahari, 

161. The people who went to Bardera are come back. 

Watu walioktoenda Baradem^ VDomektiQa zoo. 

162. The room wants-darkening. 

Chwriba chataha hutiwa giz^, 

163. The top of this mountain is inacoessible. 

Juu ya mUma huu haupandiki, 

164. They [the trees] are almost all dead. 

Kama kwamba Uiokufa y&U, 

165. They are badly stowed. 

Mapakizo yao mabftya, 

166. They cut the boat adrift. 

Wdkakata kamba ya maahua ikachukuliuDa na maji. 

167. They like giying and receiving presents* 

Hupendelea kupana vitu, 

168. They shut themselves up in the fort, 

Wakajizuia gerezani, 

169. They told me what he had done. 

Wdlinambia*alivyofanya. 

170. They were fighting, and I passed by and separated them. 

Waliktma wakipigana, hapUa nwm nikaujaamna, 

171. This chest mustbe taken care ot 

Kasha hiU la ktUunzioa, 

172. This has been worn. 

Nguo hit imevalivja, 

173. This tree is not so tall aa that 

Mti huu si mrefu kama vie. 



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452 APPENDIX IV. 

174. Upon your oath I 

175. Wwb me these clothes. 

Nioahee nguo hizi. 

176. The clothes have been washed. 

NguQ zimeoaheha. 

177. I have washed myself. 

Nimenamkct, 

178. Wash me I Noshe! 

179. We attacked them and they fell into confusion. 

Twaliwcuihamhulia, wakafazdika. 

180. We like his company. 

Kikcu) choke ehema (his sitting is good). 

181. What do you earn by the month ? - 

Upataje hiUa mwezif 

182. What is become of him ? 

Amekuwaje y 

183. What is this news about Ali ? 

Hoibari gani tuziaikiazo za Alii 

184. What are you talking about ? 

Maneno gani mnenayo f 
MvktalJia ganif 
Mnenani f 

185. What will you ferry me over for? 

Utanivfuha hwa hiasi gani f 

186. When I have seen Mohammed,! will give you an answer. 

Nikiisha mtoona Mohamadit nitakupa jawabu, 

187. Where is the knife I saw you with yesterday ? 

Kiko wapi kieu naZichokuona nachojana f 
188 Where is the pain t 

Mahali gani panapouma f 

189. Where is your pain? 

Wauma wapi t 

190. Who is in there? • 

Mna nani f 

191. 'Sou cannot teach him anyhow. 

Kadri vHmfunzavyo hajui. 

192. We do not know whether he will not learn, or whether he cannot. 

JSatujui ya ktoamba hataki kujifunza ao hana akili za 
kujifunza. 

193. You have made this thread too tight. 

Uzi huu umeutia kasai mno. 



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APPENDIX IV, 45 J 

194. You ought to love him very much. 

Wastahili kumpenda sana. 

195. Kuamha na kusengenya. To talk of a person behind his back, and 

secretly to make contemptuous signs about him when 
present. This phrase is often used as a test of a stranger's 
knowledge of Swahili ; what it describes is counted as a 
special sin. 

196. To ask a man his name. 

Oh J Bafiki yangu namhie jina lako (Oh ! ray friend, toll 
me your name). Wajua^ hwana wee, tumeonana mimi 
nawCfjina lako nimelisahau, tafdthal namhie jina lalo 
(You know, sir, you and I have met [before], but I have 
forgotten your name, please to tell me your name). 

When you have heard it, say — Insltallah, sitalisahau iena 
(Please God, I shall not forget it again). 

197. A polite question and answer at leave-taking. 

Unayo haja tena ? (Have you any further desire ?) 
Eaja yangu ya kuiahi wewe sana na furaha (My desire is 
that you may live long and happily). 



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( 455 ) 



Appendec V. 



ON MONET, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES IN ZANZIBAR. 

Thb following account is based on scattered notices in the late Bishop 
Steere's collections, and on some tables furnished to the Rev. P. L. 
Jones-Bateman by a well-informed servant of the Mission in 
Zanzibar. 

1. Money. 
The only copper coin in common use in Zanzibar is the Anglo- 
Indian quarter-anna, or, pice, in Swahili pesa^ plur. pesa or mapeaa ; 
but the rohopesa, or quarter-pice (of which, however, three are equal to 
one pice), is also current. 

The silver coins current are the Anglo-Indian rupee and, less com- 
monly, the Austrian dollar. The eight-anua (half-rupee), four-anna 
(quarter-rupee), and two-anna pieces are also met with. 

The relative values of these coins and their equivalent in English 
money fluctuate considerably. For practical purposes, it is sufficient 
to remember that an English sovereign may be generally exchanged 
for 12 rupees, English bank-notes, cheques, drafts, &c., being subject 
to a small discount; that an Austrian dollar is reckoned as equal to 2 
rupees and 8 pice, and that a rupee is worth usually from 60 to 64 
pice. It follows that, though accounts are usually kept in dollars 
and cents, and 5 dollars reckoned as equal to one pound English, it is 
more exact to consider — 

«. d, 
1 dollar = 37 
1 rupee =18 
1 pice = i 

In larger sums, the scale of legal tender is to reckon — 
47 dollars =: 100 rupees 
94 „ = 200 „ 

141 „ = 300 „ 

tfidaooiL 



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456 APPENDIX V. 

On the mainland, dollars and pice are taken freely on the coast and 
main lines of traffic, and rupees are met with ; but elsewhere, silver 
dollars only, and such objects of barter as calico, brass- wire, beads, &c. 

2. Hfeoiures of Length, 

There is no exact standard or relationship of measun^s of length. 
Those in common use are merely taken from parts of the human body, 
viz. : — 

Wanda, plur. nyanda^ a finger's breadth. 

Shibiri, a span, the distance between the tips of the outstretched 

thumb and little finger. 
Mdrtta, a slightly shorter span, from the tip of the thumb to that 

of the fore-finger. 
Thiraa or Mkono, a cubit, the distance from the finger-tips to the 
elbow joint. Of this again, there are two varieties : — 
Thira^i kamiliy or full cubit, as just described, and— ^ 
Thiraa honde, or fist cubit, from the elbow-joint to tho 
knuckles. 
Wart, or yard, is one half of the — 

Ptma, a man's height, or the distance he can stretch 'with his 
arms, a fathom. A doti is a measure of similar length. 
The uayot or length of the foot, Arab Tchatua^ is also nsed occa- 
sionally, and the English foot, /wit, regularly by Indian carpenters and 
in other trades. Approximately, the relations of these measures may 
be tabulated thus : — 

1 wanda = 1 inch. 

8 or 10 nyanda = 1 shibiri Jcamili =1 quarter-yard. 

2 shibiri = 1 thiraa or mkono — 1 cubit or half-yard. 
2 thiraa = 1 ijoari = 1 yard 

2 wari = 1 pima " =1 fathom. 

Distance is loosely estimated by the average length of an hour's walk- 
ing. Dunga, which lies almost exactly lialfway across the island of 
Zanzibar, at a distance of perhaps twelve miles, is described as a walk 
pf four hours, %aa *nne ; and Kokotoni, at the north end of the island, 
distant perhaps twenty mil6s from Zanzibar, as a walk of at least 
six hours, saxi «ita. On the mainland, a day's march is a common but 
vague measure of perhaps twenty miles. 

3. Measures of Weight, 

VoT gold, silver, silk, scent, and other costly articles, the nnit is the 
wakia, or weight of an Austrian silver dollar, almost exactly an ounce. 
For the names of fractional parts of any unit, see '* Handbook," p. 93; 



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; APPENDIX r. 457 

but the weight of a pice is often used as a convenient though inexact 
measure of small quantities. 

For heavy articles, the usual unit is a rdtd, or rattliy equal to 16 
vxikiaf and corresponding to one pound. 
16 wakia = 1 rdtel, 
3 rdtd = 1 mani, 
6 rdtd = 1 pUM. 

6 jpishi = 1 frasila, about 35 lbs. avoirdupois. 
10 frasila = 1 rnzo. 
Hence, 64 frasila or 6| mizo may be regarded as = 1 tou. 

.4. Measures of Capacity, 

No fixed liquid pleasure is used by the poorer classes. Shopkeepers 
sell their oil, treacle, &c., by tin-ladlefuls (kikomhe), or by the bottle 
(chupd), or by the tin, i.e. the tins in which American oil is imported 
to Zanzibar (tanaki^ tinij also debe). 

Corn (nafaka) or dry measure is, of course, of great importance in a 
country where grain is the staple of food and chief article of commerce. 

The smallest unit is the — 
Kihahay a measure of perhaps a pint. 
Kibaba cha tele, if the measure is heaped up — the usual pro- 
ceeding. 
Kibaha cha mfuto, if cut off flat. 
2 vibaha (pya tele) = 1 kuaga. 
2 visaga = 1 pishi, about half a gallon. 

The pishi connects the measures of capacity and weight, and for 
some of the common dry commodities, such as chiroko and kundi, the 
pishi may be regarded as equivalent either in capacity to 4 vtbaba, or 
in weight to 6 rattli. 

Grain is sold wholesale by the kanday or sack of grass-matting, or (if 
from India) by the gunia, a wide sack. The gunia often weighs about 
168 lbs. The kanda varies, both with the kind of grain and the place 
from which it is imported. For instance, while at Kwale, Mgao, and 
Mvita, towns on the Swahili coast, the kanda of rice at times contains 
10, 11, or 12 pishi, and the kanda of Indian com 1 pishi, at Pangani, 
Tanga, and Mtang'ata the kanda of rice will contain 15, 16, or 17 
pishi, and the kanda of Indian corn 13 or I3j pishi. 

Various other terms are in use for different commodities, e.g. poles 
are sold by the korja, or score ; stone for building by the homa, a heap 
which may weigh 4 cwt. to 5 cwt. ; lime by the tanuu (clamp) or kikapo ; 
calico by jthe jura, 35 yards ; and various other things by tho ^* mzigo " 
or load. 



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458 



. APPENDIX r. 


5. Points 


of the Compass, 


North 


Jaa. 


N. by E. 


FaragadiMatlaL 


N.N.E. 


Nash Matlai. 


N.E. by N. 


Nagr MatlaL 


N.E. 


Liiagr Matlai. 


N.B. by E. 


' Dayabu Matlai. 


E.N.E. 


Semak Matlai. 


E. by N. 


8eria MatlaL 


East 


Matlai. 


E. by S. 


Sosa Matlai. 


E.8.E. 


Tiri Matlai. 


S.E. by E. 


Lakadiri Matlai. 


S.E. 


Lakarabu Matlai. 


S.E. by S. 


Hamareni Matlai. 


S.S.E. 


Seheli Matlai. 


S. by E. 


Sonoobarl Matlai. 


South 


Kutubu. 


S. by W. 


Sonoobari Magaribi 


S.S.W. 


Seheli MagaiibL 


S.W. by S. 


Hamareni Magaribi. 


S.W. 


Lakarabu MagaribL 


S.W. byW. 


Lakadiri Magaribi. 


w.s.w. 


Tiri Magaribi. 


W. by S. 


Sosa Magaribi. 


West 


Magaribi. 


•W. by N. 


Seria MagaribL 


W.N.W. 


Semak MagaribL 


N.W.byW. 


Dayabu MagaribL 


N.W. 


Luagr MagaribL 


N.W. by N. 


Nagr Magaribi. 


N.N.W. 


Nash Magaribi. 


N. by W. 


Faragadi MagaribL 



PKINTiED VT WniTAM CfUyWKS AMD.SOVS* lUUIJU^ 
STAMFOSD STBEET AKD CHARIKO CBOBB, 



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